Browsing by Subject "FORAGE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Kuoppala, K.; Jaakkola, S.; Garry, B.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M. (2021)
    There is increasing interest in using locally produced protein supplements in dairy cow feeding. The objective of this experiment was to compare rapeseed meal (RSM), faba beans (FBs) and blue lupin seeds (BL) at isonitrogenous amounts as supplements of grass silage and cereal based diets. A control diet (CON) without protein supplement was included in the experiment. Four lactating Nordic Red cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with four 21 d periods. The milk production increased with protein supplementation but when expressed as energy corrected milk, the response disappeared due to substantially higher milk fat concentration with CON compared to protein supplemented diets. Milk protein output increased by 8.5, 4.4 and 2.7% when RSM, FB and BL were compared to CON. The main changes in rumen fermentation were the higher propionate and lower butyrate proportion of total rumen volatile fatty acids when the protein supplemented diets were compared to CON. Protein supplementation also clearly increased the ruminal ammonia N concentration. Protein supplementation improved diet organic matter and NDF digestibility but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per kg organic matter truly digested was not affected. Flow of microbial N was greater when FB compared to BL was fed. All protein supplements decreased the efficiency of nitrogen use in milk production. The marginal efficiency (amount of additional feed protein captured in milk protein) was 0.110, 0.062 and 0.045 for RSM, FB and BL, respectively. The current study supports the evidence that RSM is a good protein supplement for dairy cows, and this effect was at least partly mediated by the lower rumen degradability of RSM protein compared to FB and BL. The relatively small production responses to protein supplementation with simultaneous decrease in nitrogen use efficiency in milk production suggest that economic and environmental consequences of protein feeding need to be carefully considered. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • König, Walter; Konig, Emilia; Weiss, Kirsten; Tuomivirta, Tero T.; Fritze, Hannu; Elo, Kari; Vanhatalo, Aila; Jaakkola, Seija (2019)
    BACKGROUND Nitrite and hexamine are used as silage additives because of their adverse effects on Clostridia and Clostridia spores. The effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrite/hexamine mixtures on silage quality was investigated. A white lupin-wheat mixture was treated with sodium nitrite (NaHe0) (900 g t(-1) forage), or mixtures of sodium nitrite (900 g t(-1)) and hexamine. The application rate of hexamine was 300 g t(-1) (NaHe300) or 600 g t(-1) (NaHe600). Additional treatments were the untreated control (Con), and formic acid (FA) applied at a rate of 4 L t(-1) (1000 g kg(-1)). RESULTS Additives improved silage quality noticeably only by reducing silage ammonia content compared with the control. The addition of hexamine to a sodium nitrite solution did not improve silage quality compared with the solution containing sodium nitrite alone. The increasing addition of hexamine resulted in linearly rising pH values (P <0.001) and decreasing amounts of lactic acid (P <0.01). Sodium nitrite based additives were more effective than formic acid in preventing butyric acid formation. Additives did not restrict the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to the control. CONCLUSION The addition of hexamine did not improve silage quality compared with a solution of sodium nitrite. (c) 2018 Society of Chemical Industry