Browsing by Subject "FORCES"

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  • Wickstroem, Sara A.; Niessen, Carien M. (2018)
    Biological patterns emerge through specialization of genetically identical cells to take up distinct fates according to their position within the organism. How initial symmetry is broken to give rise to these patterns remains an intriguing open question. Several theories of patterning have been proposed, most prominently Turing's reaction-diffusion model of a slowly diffusing activator and a fast diffusing inhibitor generating periodic patterns. Although these reaction-diffusion systems can generate diverse patterns, it is becoming increasingly evident that cell shape and tension anisotropies, mediated via cell-cell and/or cell-matrix contacts, also facilitate symmetry breaking and subsequent self-organized tissue patterning. This review will highlight recent studies that implicate local changes in adhesion and/or tension as key drivers of cell rearrangements. We will also discuss recent studies on the role of cadherin and integrin adhesive receptors in mediating and responding to local tissue tension asymmetries to coordinate cell fate, position and behavior essential for tissue self-organization and maintenance.
  • Dobaczewski, Jacek; Engel, Jonathan; Kortelainen, Markus; Becker, Pierre (2018)
    We show that the measured intrinsic octupole moments of Rn-220, Ra-224, and Ra-226 constrain the intrinsic Schiff moments of Ra-225, Rn-221, Rn-223, Fr-223, Ra-225, and Pa-229. The result is a dramatically reduced uncertainty in intrinsic Schiff moments. Direct measurements of octupole moments in odd nuclei will reduce the uncertainty even more. The only significant source of nuclear-physics error in the laboratory Schiff moments will then be the intrinsic matrix elements of the time-reversal noninvariant interaction produced by CP-violating fundamental physics. Those matrix elements are also correlated with octupole moments, but with a larger systematic uncertainty.
  • Dekoninck, Sophie; Hannezo, Edouard; Sifrim, Alejandro; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A.; Aragona, Mariaceleste; Malfait, Milan; Gargouri, Souhir; de Neunheuser, Charlotte; Dubois, Christine; Voet, Thierry; Wickström, Sara A.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Blanpain, Cédric (2020)
    Summary During embryonic and postnatal development, organs and tissues grow steadily to achieve their final size at the end of puberty. However, little is known about the cellular dynamics that mediate postnatal growth. By combining in vivo clonal lineage tracing, proliferation kinetics, single-cell transcriptomics, and in vitro micro-pattern experiments, we resolved the cellular dynamics taking place during postnatal skin epidermis expansion. Our data revealed that harmonious growth is engineered by a single population of developmental progenitors presenting a fixed fate imbalance of self-renewing divisions with an ever-decreasing proliferation rate. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that epidermal developmental progenitors form a more uniform population compared with adult stem and progenitor cells. Finally, we found that the spatial pattern of cell division orientation is dictated locally by the underlying collagen fiber orientation. Our results uncover a simple design principle of organ growth where progenitors and differentiated cells expand in harmony with their surrounding tissues.
  • Hasselmann, Sebastian; Hahn, Lukas; Lorson, Thomas; Schaetzlein, Eva; Sebastien, Isabelle; Beudert, Matthias; Luehmann, Tessa; Neubauer, Julia C.; Sextl, Gerhard; Luxenhofer, Robert; Heinrich, Doris (2021)
    In this study, a novel approach to create arbitrarily shaped 3D hydrogel objects is presented, wherein freeform two-photon polymerization (2PP) is enabled by the combination of a photosensitive hydrogel and an intrinsic support matrix. This way, topologies without physical contact such as a highly porous 3D network of concatenated rings were realized, which are impossible to manufacture with most current 3D printing technologies. Micro-Raman and nanoindentation measurements show the possibility to control water uptake and hence tailor the Young's modulus of the structures via the light dosage, proving the versatility of the concept regarding many scaffold characteristics that makes it well suited for cell specific cell culture as demonstrated by cultivation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.
  • Baczyk, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Konieczka, M.; Satula, W.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Sato, K. (2018)
    Effects of the isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) beyond mean-field Coulomb terms are systematically studied in nuclear masses near the N = Z line. The Coulomb exchange contributions are calculated exactly. We use extended Skyrme energy density functionals (EDFs) with proton-neutron-mixed densities, to which we add new terms breaking the isospin symmetry. Two parameters associated with the new terms are determined by fitting mirror and triplet displacement energies (MDEs and TDEs) of isospin multiplets. The new EDFs reproduce MDEs for the T = 1/2 doublets and T= 1 triplets, and TDEs for the T= 1 triplets. Relative strengths of the obtained isospin-symmetry-breaking terms are not consistent with the differences in the NN scattering lengths, a(nn), a(pp), and a(np). Based on low-energy experimental data, it seems thus impossible to delineate the strong-force ISB effects from beyond-mean-field Coulomb-energy corrections. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Santos-Perez, Isaac; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Goni, Felix M.; Reguera, David; Abrescia, Nicola G. A. (2017)
    Genome packaging and delivery are fundamental steps in the replication cycle of all viruses. Icosahedral viruses with linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) usually pacicage their genome into a preformed, rigid procapsid using the power generated by a virus-encoded packaging ATPase. The pressure and stored energy due to this confinement of DNA at a high density is assumed to drive the initial stages of genome ejection. Membrane-containing icosahedral viruses, such as bacteriophage PRD1, present an additional architectural complexity by enclosing their genome within an internal membrane vesicle. Upon adsorption to a host cell, the PRD1 membrane remodels into a proteo-lipidic tube that provides a conduit for passage of the ejected linear dsDNA through the cell envelope. Based on volume analyses of PRD1 membrane vesicles captured by cryo-electron tomography and modeling of the elastic properties of the vesicle, we propose that the internal membrane makes a crucial and active contribution during infection by maintaining the driving force for DNA ejection and countering the internal turgor pressure of the host These novel functions extend the role of the PRD1 viral membrane beyond tube formation or the mere physical confinement of the genome. The presence and assistance of an internal membrane might constitute a biological advantage that extends also to other viruses that package their linear dsDNA to high density within an internal vesicle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bennaceur, K.; Idini, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dobaczewski, P.; Kortelainen, M.; Raimondi, F. (2017)
    We propose to use two-body regularized finite-range pseudopotential to generate nuclear energy density functional (EDF) in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels, which makes it free from self-interaction and selfpairing, and also free from singularities when used beyond mean field. We derive a sequence of pseudopotentials regularized up to next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order, which fairly well describe infinite-nuclearmatter properties and finite open-shell paired and/or deformed nuclei. Since pure two-body pseudopotentials cannot generate sufficiently large effective mass, the obtained solutions constitute a preliminary step towards future implementations, which will include, e.g., EDF terms generated by three-body pseudopotentials.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for pair production of heavy scalar leptoquarks (LQs), each decaying into a top quark and a tau lepton, is presented. The search considers final states with an electron or a muon, one or two tau leptons that decayed to hadrons, and additional jets. The data were collected in 2016 in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb(-1). No evidence for pair production of LQs is found. Assuming a branching fraction of unity for the decay LQ -> t tau, upper limits on the production cross section are set as a function of LQ mass, excluding masses below 900 GeV at 95% confidence level. These results provide the most stringent limits to date on the production of scalar LQs that decay to a top quark and a tau lepton.
  • Dobaczewski, J.; Baczyk, P.; Becker, P.; Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Bonnard, J.; Gao, Y.; Idini, A.; Konieczka, M.; Kortelainen, M.; Prochniak, L.; Romero, A. M.; Satula, W.; Shi, Y.; Werner, T. R.; Yu, L. F. (2021)
    We describe the new version (v3.06h) of the code HFODD that solves the universal nonrelativistic nuclear DFT Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov problem by using the Cartesian deformed harmonic-oscillator basis. In the new version, we implemented the following new features: (i) zero-range three- and four-body central terms, (ii) zero-range three-body gradient terms, (iii) zero-range tensor terms, (iv) zero-range isospin-breaking terms, (v) finite-range higher-order regularized terms, (vi) finite-range separable terms, (vii) zero-range two-body pairing terms, (viii) multi-quasiparticle blocking, (ix) Pfaffian overlaps, (x) particle-number and parity symmetry restoration, (xi) axialization, (xii) Wigner functions, (xiii) choice of the harmonic-oscillator basis, (xiv) fixed omega partitions, (xv) consistency formula between energy and fields, and we corrected several errors in the previous versions.
  • Lucenius, Jessica; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Parikka, Kirsti; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Plant-based polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) are a very interesting option for the preparation of sustainable composite materials to replace fossil plastics, but the optimum bonding mechanism between the hard and soft components is still not well known. In this work, composite films made of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and various modified and unmodified polysaccharides (galactoglucomannan, GGM; hydrolyzed and oxidized guar gum, GGhydHox; and guar gum grafted with polyethylene glycol, GG-g-PEG) were characterized from the nano- to macroscopic level to better understand how the interactions between the composite components at nano/microscale affect macroscopic mechanical properties, like toughness and strength. All the polysaccharides studied adsorbed well on CNF, although with different adsorption rates, as measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Direct surface and friction force experiments using the colloidal probe technique revealed that the adsorbed polysaccharides provided repulsive forces–well described by a polyelectrolyte brush model – and a moderate reduction in friction between cellulose surfaces, which may prevent CNF aggregates during composite formation and, consequently, enhance the strength of dry films. High affinity for cellulose and moderate hydration were found to be important requirements for polysaccharides to improve the mechanical properties of CNF-based composites in wet conditions. The results of this work provide fundamental information on hemicellulose-cellulose interactions and can support the development of polysaccharide-based materials for different packaging and medical applications.