Browsing by Subject "FRANCE"

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  • Gutierrez, Alejandro P.; Bean, Tim P.; Hooper, Chantelle; Stenton, Craig A.; Sanders, Matthew B.; Paley, Richard K.; Rastas, Pasi; Bryrom, Michaela; Matika, Oswald; Houston, Ross D. (2018)
    Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) can cause mass mortality events in Pacific oyster aquaculture. While various factors impact on the severity of outbreaks, it is clear that genetic resistance of the host is an important determinant of mortality levels. This raises the possibility of selective breeding strategies to improve the genetic resistance of farmed oyster stocks, thereby contributing to disease control. Traditional selective breeding can be augmented by use of genetic markers, either via marker-assisted or genomic selection. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to OsHV in Pacific oyster, to identify genomic regions containing putative resistance genes, and to inform the use of genomics to enhance efforts to breed for resistance. To achieve this, a population of approximate to 1,000 juvenile oysters were experimentally challenged with a virulent form of OsHV, with samples taken from mortalities and survivors for genotyping and qPCR measurement of viral load. The samples were genotyped using a recently-developed SNP array, and the genotype data were used to reconstruct the pedigree. Using these pedigree and genotype data, the first high density linkage map was constructed for Pacific oyster, containing 20,353 SNPs mapped to the ten pairs of chromosomes. Genetic parameters for resistance to OsHV were estimated, indicating a significant but low heritability for the binary trait of survival and also for viral load measures (h2 0.12 - 0.25). A genome-wide association study highlighted a region of linkage group 6 containing a significant QTL affecting host resistance. These results are an important step toward identification of genes underlying resistance to OsHV in oyster, and a step toward applying genomic data to enhance selective breeding for disease resistance in oyster aquaculture.
  • Ling, Jiaxin; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Eriksson, Per; Plyusnina, Angelina; Loehmus, Mare; Jaerhult, Josef D.; van de Goot, Frank; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lundkvist, Ake; Sironen, Tarja (2019)
    Seoul virus (SEOV) is the etiologic agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It is carried by brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), a commensal rodent that closely cohabitates with humans in urban environments. SEOV has a worldwide distribution, and in Europe, it has been found in rats in UK, France, Sweden, and Belgium, and human cases of SEOV infection have been reported in Germany, UK, France, and Belgium. In the search of hantaviruses in brown rats from the Netherlands, we found both serological and genetic evidence for the presence of SEOV in the local wild rat population. To further decipher the relationship with other SEOV variants globally, the complete genome of SEOV in the Netherlands was recovered. SEOV sequences obtained from three positive rats (captured at close trapping locations at the same time) were found highly similar. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that two lineages of SEOV circulate in Europe. Strains from the Netherlands and UK, together with the Baxter strain from US, constitute one of these two, while the second includes strains from Europe and Asia. Our results support a hypothesis of diverse routes of SEOV spread into Europe. These findings, combined with other indications on the expansion of the spatial European range of SEOV, suggest an increased risk of this virus for the public health, highlighting the need for increased surveillance.
  • Marionneau, Virve; Egerer, Michael; Nikkinen, Janne (2021)
    Purpose of Review: This systematic literature review evaluates the potential of gambling monopolies to affect gambling harms. It compares the occurrence of gambling harms in jurisdictions with gambling monopolies to jurisdictions with license-based regimes. Recent Findings: The review identified 21 publications concerning three gambling-related harm indicators: problem gambling prevalence, total consumption, and the appearance of conflicts of interest. Due to the dearth of literature, concept papers and older publications were also included. Summary: Results show that there is a paucity of empirical research on the effectiveness of different regulatory regimes in affecting gambling harms. Available research demonstrates that monopolistic regimes appear to perform somewhat better in terms of problem gambling prevalence and total consumption but may also be more prone to conflicts of interest than license-based regimes. Monopolistic configurations also differ between themselves, and issues such as availability, accessibility, product range, scope of preventive work, monitoring, as well as the recognition of the public health approach may better predict the levels of harm in society than the existence of a monopoly.
  • Siikamäki, Heli Marja-Sisko; Kivelä, Pia; Lyytikainen, Outi; Kantele, Anu (2013)
  • Ochieng, Robert M.; Arts, Bas; Brockhaus, Maria; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. (2018)
    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between "shallow" institutionalization on the one end, and "deep" institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing "deep" institutionalization, Peru "shallow-intermediate" institutionalization, and Tanzania "intermediate-deep" institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
  • Lizotte, Christopher (2020)
    Laicite, France's idiosyncratic form of secularism, is a complex concept that is dense with historical genealogy, practical contradictions and - crucially - political geographies. In particular, contemporary Laicite is characterized by a state-sponsored model of universal citizenship that regards French Muslims' identity claims with mistrust. This tension, always latent, was brought to the fore by a series of attacks perpetrated self-styled jihadists in January 2015, centered on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo notorious for its provocations against Islam. The attacks and their aftermath also highlighted a key space where conflicts over Laicite often play out: the French public school, the ecole republicaine. This institution was conceived in its modern form as a mechanism to assimilate through laique pedagogy. Today it is a highly visible space where the optics of race and gender contribute to a narrative of Muslim communautarisme, a willful and defiant communalism that rejects the republican community of citizens. Following a handful of incidents in which students refused to participate in a moment of silence for the victims of the January 2015 attacks, the Ministry of Education undertook an initiative involving disciplinary and pedagogical supports for Laicite in the schools, called the Great Mobilisation for the Republic's Values. Like other past interventions in this area, it operationalizes an assimilating vision of Laicite to bring recalcitrant peripheries into compliance with republican norms. At the same time, though, it reveals the agency of the peripheries to negotiate the terms of Laicite according to local knowledge and needs. On the basis of interviews with educators serving in schools where elements of the Grand Mobilisation were carried out, I show how they push back against the overarching narratives that characterize the initiative and in so doing construct localized and nuanced understandings of the laique social pact.
  • Deschasaux, Melanie; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Srour, Bernard; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Latino-Martel, Paule; Biessy, Carine; Casagrande, Corinne; Jenab, Mazda; Ward, Heather; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Kyro, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Affret, Aurelie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kuehn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Bamia, Christina; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Buen-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Hjartaker, Anette; Rylander, Charlotta; Skeie, Guri; Ramon Quiros, J.; Jakszyn, Paula; Salamanca-Fernandez, Elena; Maria Huerta, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Huseinovic, Ena; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J.; Touvier, Mathilde (2018)
    Background Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations. Methods and findings This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus (Q1) = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend <0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P <0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Conclusions In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.
  • Natsume, Masahiro; Nagagata, Asaho; Aittamaa, Marja; Okaniwa, Naoko; Somervuo, Panu; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Kreuze, Jan F.; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Bang, Hans; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2018)
    Streptomyces spp. are a highly diverse group of bacteria most of which are soil-inhabiting saprophytes. A few are plant pathogens that produce a family of phytotoxins called thaxtomins and cause significant economic losses, e.g., by reducing the marketability of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). In northern Europe, S. scabies, S. turgidiscabies and S. europaeiscabiei are the most common plant pathogenic species. In this study, a Streptomyces strain isolated from a netted scab lesion on a tuber of potato cv. Bintje in northern Sweden was identified as S. turgidiscabies but was found to differ in the genomic region carrying genes required for thaxtomin biosynthesis. Our results showed that the strain did not produce thaxtomin but rather phytotoxin fridamycin E, which is an anthraquinone novel to plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. Fridamycin E was shown to reduce or inhibit sprouting of potato microtubers in vitro. While fridamycin E is known to have antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, the inhibitory activity of fridamycin E on plant growth is a novel finding.
  • Haikkola, Lotta (2019)
    Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
  • Head, Jenny; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Hyde, Martin; Zaninotto, Paola; Alexanderson, Kristina; Stenholm, Sari; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo (2019)
    Background: There are striking socioeconomic differences in life expectancy, but less is known about inequalities in healthy life expectancy and disease-free life expectancy. We estimated socioeconomic differences in health expectancies in four studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. Methods: We estimated socioeconomic differences in health expectancies using data drawn from repeated waves of the four cohorts for two indicators: (i) self-rated health and (ii) chronic diseases (cardiovascular, cancer, respiratory and diabetes). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational position. Multistate life table models were used to estimate healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75. Results: In all cohorts, we found inequalities in healthy life expectancy according to socioeconomic position. In England, both women and men in the higher positions could expect 82-83% of their life between ages 50 and 75 to be in good health compared to 68% for those in lower positions. The figures were 75% compared to 47-50% for Finland; 85-87% compared to 77-79% for France and 80-83% compared to 72-75% for Sweden. Those in higher occupational positions could expect more years in good health (2.1-6.8 years) and without chronic diseases (0.5-2.3 years) from ages 50 to 75. Conclusion: There are inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ages 50 and 75 according to occupational position. These results suggest that reducing socioeconomic inequalities would make an important contribution to extending healthy life expectancy and disease-free life expectancy.
  • Koivisto, Elina; Santangeli, Andrea; Koivisto, Pertti; Korkolainen, Tapio; Vuorisalo, Timo; Hanski, Ilpo K.; Loivamaa, Iida; Koivisto, Sanna (2018)
    The most common rodent control method worldwide is anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs), which cause death by internal bleeding. ARs can transfer to non-target predators via secondary exposure, i.e. by consuming contaminated rodents. Here we quantify the prevalence of seven AR substances in the liver tissues of altogether 17 mammalian or avian predator or scavenger species in Finland. In addition, we identify the environmental and biological factors potentially linked to secondary AR poisoning. No previous AR screenings have been conducted in the country, despite the widespread use of ARs and their potential impacts on the high levels of the ecosystem food chain. ARs were detected (>= 0.3 mu g/kg) in 82% of the 131 samples. The most prevalent and the AR with highest concentrations was bromadiolone (65% of samples). In 77% of the positive samples more than one (2-5) different ARs were detected. Of the environmental variables, we only found a weakly positive relationship between the coumatetralyl concentration and the livestock farm density. Conversely, overall AR concentration and number, as well as the concentration of three separate ARs (cournatetralyl, difenacoum and bromadiolone) differed among the three species groups tested, with the group "other mammals" (largely represented by red fox and raccoon dog) having higher values than the groups presented by mustelids or by birds. ARs are authorized only as biocides in Finland and a national strategy on risk management (e.g. for minimising secondary poisoning of non-target species) of ARs was adopted in 2011. Based on these results it appears that the risk mitigation measures (RMMs) either have not been followed or have not been effective in preventing wide scale secondary exposure. Continued monitoring of AR residues in non-target species is needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of current RMMs and a need for new ones to reduce the risk of secondary poisoning. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.