Browsing by Subject "FRAP"

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  • Kangas, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming 7.6 million lives a year. Five behavioural factors have been recognised to be responsible for 30 % of the disease burden. Among them is low fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable consumption has been inversely associated with cancer risk but the mechanisms behind this effect are still largely debated. Dietary antioxidants present in large quantities in plant foods have been hypothesised to contribute to this protection. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and overall cancer incidence. This was done applying a new antioxidant measurement that reflects the whole set of direct antioxidant reducers (vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and flavonoids) present in diet. The average TAC intake levels of the participants were assessed and the main dietary contributors to the TAC scores were examined. Subjects: Study subjects included 67 634 middle aged French women participating in an on-going prospective cohort study called E3N. Their dietary assessment was made between June 1993 and July 1995 using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire able to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the average daily intake of 208 different foods, recipes and beverages. Cancer cases were self-reported and validated against medical records. The follow up of the participants ended in May 2008. Methods: Four different total antioxidant capacity scores were created using two different TAC methods, the ferric reducing ability parameter (FRAP) and the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and including or excluding coffee from the dietary TAC calculation. Coffee exclusion was justified with the fact that it is the largest contributor to the dietary TAC intake, and because of its association with some negative lifestyle behaviours, it can act as a confounder even if adjustments are made. Statistical analyses for cancer risk according to dietary TAC intake were made using Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for energy intake without alcohol, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, BMI, physical activity level, educational background, region of residence and family history of cancer. Results: When coffee was included in the dietary TAC scores a significant but modest increase in cancer risk was observed towards higher TAC intakes (p for trend < 0.05 for both FRAP and TRAP). On the contrary, when coffee was excluded from the TAC scores a significant although modest decrease in overall cancer risk was observed (p for trend = 0.016 for both FRAP and TRAP without coffee). In the indexes where coffee was included in the score it contributed up to 43 % and 76 % of total FRAP and TRAP scores respectively. After coffee the main contributors to dietary TAC intake were tea, wine, fruits, vegetables, fruit juice and chocolate. The mean daily intake of TAC was 20.5 mmol of FRAP and 20.2 TE of TRAP in the scores including coffee. When coffee was excluded from the scores, the mean intake levels dropped to 9.4 mmol and 4.9 TE. Conclusion: Dietary total antioxidant capacity was associated with a statistically significant but modest decrease in cancer incidence when intake of coffee, the main TAC source, was not taken into account. Coffee seems to be acting as a confounding factor since when it was included in the TAC scores, there was a small but statistically significant positive association with cancer risk. For future studies it would be crucial to standardise the TAC methods so that comparisons between studies could be made. On the other hand in vitro nature of the TAC methods should be kept in mind; a fact that challenges the interpretation of the results from the biological perspective.
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.
  • Koskinen, Mikko; Hotulainen, Pirta (2014)
  • Lemetti, Laura; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Fedorov, Dmitrii; Batys, Piotr; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Tenhu, Heikki; Linder, Markus B.; Sesilja Aranko, A. (2019)
    Gaining insights into the processes that transform dispersed biopolymers into well-ordered structures, such as soluble spidroin-proteins to spider silk threads, is essential for attempts to understand their biological function and to mimic their unique properties. One of these processes is liquid-liquid phase separation, which can act as an intermediate step for molecular assembly. We have shown that a self-coacervation step that occurs at a very high protein concentration (> 200 gl(-1)) is crucial for the fiber assembly of an engineered triblock silk-like molecule. In this study, we demonstrate that the addition of a crowding agent lowers the concentration at which coacervation occurs by almost two orders of magnitude. Coacervates induced by addition of a crowding agent are functional in terms of fiber formation, and the crowding agent appears to affect the process solely by increasing the effective concentration of the protein. Furthermore, induction at lower concentrations allows us to study the thermodynamics of the system, which provides insights into the coacervation mechanism. We suggest that this approach will be valuable for studies of biological coacervating systems in general.
  • Kashkan, Ivan; Hrtyan, Mónika; Retzer, Katarzyna; Humpolíčková, Jana; Jayasree, Aswathy; Filepová, Roberta; Vondráková, Zuzana; Simon, Sibu; Rombaut, Debbie; Jacobs, Thomas B.; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Petrášek, Jan; Růžička, Kamil (2022)
    Advanced transcriptome sequencing has revealed that the majority of eukaryotic genes undergo alternative splicing (AS). Nonetheless, little effort has been dedicated to investigating the functional relevance of particular splicing events, even those in the key developmental and hormonal regulators. Combining approaches of genetics, biochemistry and advanced confocal microscopy, we describe the impact of alternative splicing on the PIN7 gene in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PIN7 encodes a polarly localized transporter for the phytohormone auxin and produces two evolutionarily conserved transcripts, PIN7a and PIN7b. PIN7a and PIN7b, differing in a four amino acid stretch, exhibit almost identical expression patterns and subcellular localization. We reveal that they are closely associated and mutually influence each other's mobility within the plasma membrane. Phenotypic complementation tests indicate that the functional contribution of PIN7b per se is minor, but it markedly reduces the prominent PIN7a activity, which is required for correct seedling apical hook formation and auxin-mediated tropic responses. Our results establish alternative splicing of the PIN family as a conserved, functionally relevant mechanism, revealing an additional regulatory level of auxin-mediated plant development.