Browsing by Subject "FRESH-WATER"

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  • Guo, Baocheng; Fang, Bohao; Shikano, Takahito; Momigliano, Paolo; Wang, Cui; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    Hybridization and convergent evolution are phenomena of broad interest in evolutionary biology, but their occurrence poses challenges for reconstructing evolutionary affinities among affected taxa. Sticklebacks in the genus Pungitius are a case in point: evolutionary relationships and taxonomic validity of different species and populations in this circumpolarly distributed species complex remain contentious due to convergent evolution of traits regarded as diagnostic in their taxonomy, and possibly also due to frequent hybridization among taxa. To clarify the evolutionary relationships among different Pungitius species and populations globally, as well as to study the prevalence and extent of introgression among recognized species, genomic data sets of both reference genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms and de novo assembled RAD-tag loci were constructed with RAD-seq data. Both data sets yielded topologically identical and well-supported species trees. Incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-based trees was found and suggested possibly frequent hybridization and mitogenome capture during the evolution of Pungitius sticklebacks. Further analyses revealed evidence for frequent nuclear genetic introgression among Pungitius species, although the estimated proportions of autosomal introgression were low. Apart from providing evidence for frequent hybridization, the results challenge earlier mitochondrial and morphology-based hypotheses regarding the number of species and their affinities in this genus: at least seven extant species can be recognized on the basis of genetic data. The results also shed new light on the biogeographical history of the Pungitius-complex, including suggestion of several trans-Arctic invasions of Europe from the Northern Pacific. The well-resolved phylogeny should facilitate the utility of this genus as a model system for future comparative evolutionary studies.
  • Holopainen, Sari; Cehovska, Marketa; Jaatinen, Kim; Laaksonen, Toni; Linden, Andreas; Nummi, Petri; Piha, Markus; Pöysä, Hannu; Toivanen, Tero; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2022)
    Certain species experience rapid population increases in human-modified and -affected environments. Conservation actions and increased wintertime food availability have led to a population increase of several large herbivorous waterbird species. In Northern Europe, this trend is opposite to the overall decrease of several smaller waterbird species. We examined whether the recovery of a flagship species, the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), and the spreading of the nonnative Canada goose (Branta canadensis), cause asymmetric competition with other sympatric waterbirds at their breeding sites. We used data from the national Finnish waterbird surveys collected in the late 1980s and early 2020 s at 942 sites, to assess the site-level effects of large herbivore occurrence on other waterbird species, while considering their trophic overlap. We hypothesised that there could be competitive effects of large herbivorous on smaller species, especially those with similar foraging niches. We however found that other waterbird populations have decreased less at sites occupied by whooper swans since the 1980 s. Canada goose site occupation was not associated with the abundance of other waterbirds. Thereby, our findings are not consistent with the suggestion that population increases of large herbivore species lead to asymmetric competition on the breeding wetlands. The whooper swan may potentially act as an indicator of habitat quality and further on as a flagship umbrella species with multidisciplinary conservation benefits, of which may accrue benefits also to other waterbirds exhibiting declining population trends. Our findings underline the importance of considering species interactions when designing and implementing management actions in conservation strategies.
  • Chichorro, Filipe; Juslén, Aino; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Biodiversity is shrinking rapidly, and despite our efforts only a small part of it has been assessed for extinction risk. Identifying the traits that make species vulnerable might help us to predict the status for those less known. We gathered information on the relationships between traits and extinction risk from 173 publications, across all taxa, spatial scales and biogeographical regions, in what we think it is the most comprehensive compilation to date. We aimed to identify (1) taxonomical and spatial biases, and (2) statistically robust and generalizable predictors of extinction risk through the use of meta-analyses. Vertebrates and the Palaearctic are the most studied taxon and region because of higher accumulation of data in these groups. Among the many traits that have been suggested to be predictors, only three had enough data for meta-analyses. Two of them are potentially useful in assessing risk for the lesser-known species: regardless of the taxon, species with small range and narrow habitat breadth are more vulnerable to extinction. Contrastingly, body size (the most studied trait) did not present a consistently positive or negative response. We hypothesize that the relationship between body size and extinction risk is shaped by different aspects, namely the phenomena represented by body size depending on the taxonomic group. To increase our understanding of the drivers of extinction, further studies should focus on understudied groups such as invertebrates and fungi and regions such as the tropics and expand the number of traits in comparative analyses that should avoid current biases.
  • Lienart, Camilla; Cirtwill, Alyssa R.; Hedgespeth, Melanie L.; Bradshaw, Clare (2022)
    Allochthonous subsidies to marine ecosystems have mainly focused on biogeochemical cycles, but there has also been recent interest in how terrestrial carbon (C) influences marine food webs. In the Baltic Sea, pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollen is found in large amounts in shallow bays in early summer. Pollen is a significant C-source in freshwater ecosystems and may also be important in coastal food webs. We examined the consumption of pollen and autochthonous resources by benthic invertebrates in shallow bays of the Baltic Sea. We used stable isotopes to estimate diets and reconstructed consumer-resource networks (food webs) for grazers and particulate organic matter (POM)-feeders to compare how these different guilds used pollen. We found that P. sylvestris pollen was consumed in small amounts by a variety of animals and in some cases made up a sizeable proportion of invertebrates' diets. However, invertebrates generally depended less on pollen than other resources. The degree of pollen consumption was related to feeding traits, with generalist invertebrate grazers consuming more pollen (> 10% of diet) than the more specialist POM-feeders (< 5% of diet contributed by pollen). POM-feeders may consume additional microbially-degraded pollen which was not identifiable in our model. We suggest that pollen is a small but substantial allochthonous C-source in shallow bay food webs of the Baltic Sea, with the potential to affect the dynamics of these ecosystems.
  • Keva, Ossi; Kiljunen, Mikko; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Jones, Roger I.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kankaala, Paula; Laine, Miikka B.; Schilder, Jos; Strandberg, Ursula; Vesterinen, Jussi; Taipale, Sami J. (2022)
    Environmental change, including joint effects of increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP) in boreal northern lakes may affect food web energy sources and the biochemical composition of organisms. These environmental stressors are enhanced by anthropogenic land-use and can decrease the quality of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in seston and zooplankton, and therefore, possibly cascading up to fish. In contrast, the content of mercury in fish increases with lake browning potentially amplified by intensive forestry practises. However, there is little evidence on how these environmental stressors simultaneously impact beneficial omega-3 fatty acid (n3-FA) and total mercury (THg) content of fish muscle for human consumption. A space-for-time substitution study was conducted to assess whether environmental stressors affect Eurasian perch (Perea fluviatilis) allochthony and muscle nutritional quality [PUPA, THg, and their derivative, the hazard quotient (HQ)]. Perch samples were collected from 31 Finnish lakes along pronounced lake size (0.03-107.5 km(2)), DOC (5.0-24.3 mg L-1), TP (5-118 mu g L-1) and land-use gradients (forest: 50.7-96.4%, agriculture: 0-32A%). These environmental gradients were combined using principal component analysis (PCA). Allochthony for individual perch was modelled using source and consumer delta H-2 values. Perch allochthony increased with decreasing lake pH and increasing forest coverage (PC1), but no correlation between lake DOC and perch allochthony was found. Perch muscle THg and omega-6 fatty acid (n6-FA) content increased with PC1 parallel with allochthony. Perch muscle DHA (22:6n3) content decreased, and ALA (18:3n3) increased towards shallower murkier lakes (PC2). Perch allochthony was positively correlated with muscle THg and n6-FA content, but did not correlate with n3-FA content. Hence, the quality of perch muscle for human consumption decreases (increase in HQ) with increasing forest coverage and decreasing pH, potentially mediated by increasing fish allochthony.
  • Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Bartoli, Marco; Bruechert, Volker; Dalsgaard, Tage; Hall, Per O. J.; Hellemann, Dana; Hietanen, Susanna; Zilius, Mindaugas; Conley, Daniel J. (2019)
    Determining accurate rates of benthic nitrogen (N) removal and retention pathways from diverse environments is critical to our understanding of process distribution and constructing reliable N budgets and models. The whole-core N-15 isotope pairing technique (IPT) is one of the most widely used methods to determine rates of benthic nitrate-reducing processes and has provided valuable information on processes and factors controlling N removal and retention in aquatic systems. While the whole core IPT has been employed in a range of environments, a number of methodological and environmental factors may lead to the generation of inaccurate data and are important to acknowledge for those applying the method. In this review, we summarize the current state of the whole core IPT and highlight some of the important steps and considerations when employing the technique. We discuss environmental parameters which can pose issues to the application of the IPT and may lead to experimental artifacts, several of which are of particular importance in environments heavily impacted by eutrophication. Finally, we highlight the advances in the use of the whole-core IPT in combination with other methods, discuss new potential areas of consideration and encourage careful and considered use of the whole-core IPT. With the recognition of potential issues and proper use, the whole-core IPT will undoubtedly continue to develop, improve our understanding of benthic N cycling and allow more reliable budgets and predictions to be made.
  • Meier, H. E. Markus; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Placke, Manja; Neumann, Thomas; Andersson, Helén C.; Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dieterich, Christian; Frauen, Claudia; Friedland, René; Gröger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Gustafsson, Erik; Isaev, Alexey; Kniebusch, Madline; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Naumann, Michael; Omstedt, Anders; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Saraiva, Sofia; Savchuk, Oleg P. (2019)
    Following earlier regional assessment studies, such as the Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin and the North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, knowledge acquired from available literature about future scenario simulations of biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic Sea and their uncertainties is assessed. The identification and reduction of uncertainties of scenario simulations are issues for marine management. For instance, it is important to know whether nutrient load abatement will meet its objectives of restored water quality status in future climate or whether additional measures are required. However, uncertainties are large and their sources need to be understood to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of measures. The assessment of sources of uncertainties in projections of biogeochemical cycles based on authors' own expert judgment suggests that the biggest uncertainties are caused by (1) unknown current and future bioavailable nutrient loads from land and atmosphere, (2) the experimental setup (including the spin up strategy), (3) differences between the projections of global and regional climate models, in particular, with respect to the global mean sea level rise and regional water cycle, (4) differing model-specific responses of the simulated biogeochemical cycles to long-term changes in external nutrient loads and climate of the Baltic Sea region, and (5) unknown future greenhouse gas emissions. Regular assessments of the models' skill (or quality compared to observations) for the Baltic Sea region and the spread in scenario simulations (differences among projected changes) as well as improvement of dynamical downscaling methods are recommended.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Nevalainen, Liisa; Ojala, Antti E. K. (2019)
    Lakes are a dominant feature of the Arctic landscape and a focal point of regional and global biogeochemical cycling. We collected a sediment core from a High Arctic Lake in southwestern Svalbard for multiproxy paleolimnological analysis. The aim was to find linkages between the terrestrial and aquatic environments in the context of climate change to understand centennial-long Arctic biogeochemical cycling and environmental dynamics. Two significant thresholds in elemental cycling were found based on sediment physical and biogeochemical proxies that were associated with the end of the cold Little Ice Age and the recent warming. We found major shifts in diatom, chironomid and cladoceran communities and their functionality that coincided with increased summer temperatures since the 1950s. We also discovered paleoecological evidence that point toward expanded bird (Little Auk) colonies in the catchment alongside climate warming. Apparently, climate-driven increase in glacier melt water delivery as well as a prolonged snow- and ice-free period have increased the transport of mineral matter from the catchment, causing significant water turbidity and disappearance of several planktonic diatoms and clear-water chironomids. We also found sedimentary accumulation of microplastic particles following the increase in Little Auk populations suggesting that seabirds potentially act as biovectors for plastic contamination. Our study demonstrates the diverse nature of climate-driven changes in the Arctic lacustrine environment with increased inorganic input from the more exposed catchment, larger nutrient delivery from the increased bird colonies at the surrounding mountain summits and subsequent alterations in aquatic communities.
  • Chetelat, John; McKinney, Melissa A.; Amyot, Marc; Dastoor, Ashu; Douglas, Thomas A.; Heimburger-Boavida, Lars-Eric; Kirk, Jane; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Outridge, Peter M.; Pelletier, Nicolas; Skov, Henrik; St Pierre, Kyra; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Wang, Feiyue (2022)
    Dramatic environmental shifts are occuring throughout the Arctic from climate change, with consequences for the cycling of mercury (Hg). This review summarizes the latest science on how climate change is influencing Hg transport and biogeochemical cycling in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. As environmental changes in the Arctic continue to accelerate, a clearer picture is emerging of the profound shifts in the climate and cryosphere, and their connections to Hg cycling. Modeling results suggest climate influences seasonal and interannual variability of atmospheric Hg deposition. The clearest evidence of current climate change effects is for Hg transport from terrestrial catchments, where widespread permafrost thaw, glacier melt and coastal erosion are increasing the export of Hg to downstream environments. Recent estimates suggest Arctic permafrost is a large global reservoir of Hg, which is vulnerable to degradation with climate warming, although the fate of permafrost soil Hg is unclear. The increasing development of thermokarst features, the formation and expansion of thaw lakes, and increased soil erosion in terres- trial landscapes are increasing river transport of particulate-bound Hg and altering conditions for aquatic Hg transfor- mations. Greater organic matter transport may also be influencing the downstream transport and fate of Hg. More severe and frequent wildfires within the Arctic and across boreal regions may be contributing to the atmospheric pool of Hg. Climate change influences on Hg biogeochemical cycling remain poorly understood. Seasonal evasion and retention of inorganic Hg may be altered by reduced sea-ice cover and higher chloride content in snow. Experi- mental evidence indicates warmer temperatures enhance methylmercury production in ocean and lake sediments as well as in tundra soils. Improved geographic coverage of measurements and modeling approaches are needed to better evaluate net effects of climate change and long-term implications for Hg contamination in the Arctic.
  • Mercier, Léon; Peltomaa, Elina; Ojala, Anne (2022)
    Phycobiliproteins are pigments with uses in pharmacology, cosmetics, foods, and as fluorescent probes in biochemistry. Cryptophyte microalgae are one possible source of phycobiliproteins as well as other molecules such as omega-3 fatty acids. The use of cryptophytes in biotechnology is currently very limited and especially the potential of freshwater species is poorly documented. For commercial microalgae production, it is important to find the best performing strains in terms of growth and yields of the products of interest. Phycoerythrin is a phycobiliprotein with red colour and strong yellow fluorescence. In this study, we evaluate the growth and phycoerythrin production of eight strains of freshwater cryptophytes belonging to the genus Cryptomonas, comparing them to two marine strains. The strains are grown in batch cultures under standardised conditions. Most of the studied freshwater strains have lower growth rates and all of them have lower biomass yields than the marine strains. However, most of them have much higher cellular phycoerythrin concentrations, which in the case of two strains leads them to a significantly higher overall phycoerythrin yield. There is large variation among cryptophytes in growth rates and phycoerythrin content. Our results suggest that freshwater cryptophytes of the genus Cryptomonas may be better sources of phycoerythrin than the more extensively studied marine strains.
  • Peltomaa, Elina; Hällfors, Heidi; Taipale, Sami J. (2019)
    Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (-3) and omega-6 (-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to alleviate many diseases in humans. So far, fish oil has been the main human source of EPA and DHA, but alternative sources are needed to satisfy the growing need for them. Therefore, we compared a fatty acid profile and content of 10 diatoms and seven dinoflagellates originating from marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. These two phytoplankton groups were chosen since they are excellent producers of EPA and DHA in aquatic food webs. Multivariate analysis revealed that, whereas the phytoplankton group (46%) explained most of the differences in the fatty acid profiles, habitat (31%) together with phytoplankton group (24%) explained differences in the fatty acid contents. In both diatoms and dinoflagellates, the total fatty acid concentrations and the -3 and -6 PUFAs were markedly higher in freshwater than in brackish or marine strains. Our results show that, even though the fatty acid profiles are genetically ordered, the fatty acid contents may vary greatly by habitat and affect the -3 and -6 availability in food webs.
  • Momigliano, Paolo; Jokinen, Henri; Calboli, Federico; Aro, Eero; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    Unobserved diversity, such as undetected genetic structure or the presence of cryptic species, is of concern for the conservation and management of global biodiversity in the face of threatening anthropogenic processes. For instance, unobserved diversity can lead to overestimation of maximum sustainable yields and therefore to overharvesting of the more vulnerable stock components within unrecognized mixed-stock fisheries. We used DNA from archival (otolith) samples to reconstruct the temporal (1976-2011) genetic makeup of two mixed-stock flounder fisheries in the angstrom land Sea (AS) and the Gulf of Finland (GoF). Both fisheries have hitherto been managed as a single stock of European flounders (Platichthys flesus), but were recently revealed to target two closely related species: the pelagic-spawning P. flesus and the newly described, demersal-spawning P. solemdali. While the AS and GoF fisheries were assumed to consist exclusively of P. solemdali, P. flesus dominated the GoF flounder assemblage (87% of total) in 1983, had disappeared (0%) by 1993, and remained in low proportions (10%-11%) thereafter. In the AS, P. solemdali dominated throughout the sampling period (>70%), and P. flesus remained in very low proportions after 1983. The disappearance of P. flesus from the GoF coincides in time with a dramatic (similar to 60%) decline in commercial landings and worsening environmental conditions in P. flesus' northernmost spawning ground, the Eastern Gotland Basin, in the preceding 4-6 years. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that P. flesus in the GoF is a sink population relying on larval subsidies from southern spawning grounds and the cause of their disappearance is a cessation of larval supply. Our results highlight the importance of uncovering unobserved genetic diversity and studying spatiotemporal changes in the relative contribution of different stock components, as well as the underlying environmental causes, to manage marine resources in the age of rapid anthropogenic change.
  • Hintz, William D.; Arnott, Shelley E.; Symons, Celia C.; Greco, Danielle A.; McClymont, Alexandra; Brentrup, Jennifer A.; Canedo-Arguelles, Miguel; Derry, Alison M.; Downing, Amy L.; Gray, Derek K.; Melles, Stephanie J.; Relyea, Rick A.; Rusak, James A.; Searle, Catherine L.; Astorg, Louis; Baker, Henry K.; Beisner, Beatrix E.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Ersoy, Zeynep; Espinosa, Carmen; Franceschini, Jaclyn; Giorgio, Angelina T.; Göbeler, Norman; Hassal, Emily; Hebert, Marie-Pier; Huynh, Mercedes; Hylander, Samuel; Jonasen, Kacie L.; Kirkwood, Andrea E.; Langenheder, Silke; Langvall, Ola; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lind, Lovisa; Lundgren, Maria; Proia, Lorenzo; Schuler, Matthew S.; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Steiner, Christopher F.; Striebel, Maren; Thibodeau, Simon; Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Vendrell-Puigmitja, Lidia; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. (2022)
    Human-induced salinization caused by the use of road deicing salts, agricultural practices, mining operations, and climate change is a major threat to the biodiversity and functioning of freshwater ecosystems. Yet, it is unclear if freshwater ecosystems are protected from salinization by current water quality guidelines. Leveraging an experimental network of land-based and in-lake mesocosms across North America and Europe, we tested how salinization-indicated as elevated chloride (C-) concentration-will affect lake food webs and if two of the lowest Cl- thresholds found globally are sufficient to protect these food webs. Our results indicated that salinization will cause substantial zooplankton mortality at the lowest Cl- thresholds established in Canada (120 mg Cl-/L) and the United States (230 mg Cl-/L) and throughout Europe where Cl- thresholds are generally higher. For instance, at 73% of our study sites, Cl- concentrations that caused a >= 50% reduction in cladoceran abundance were at or below Cl thresholds in Canada, in the United States, and throughout Europe. Similar trends occurred for copepod and rotifer zooplankton. The loss of zooplankton triggered a cascading effect causing an increase in phytoplankton biomass at 47% of study sites. Such changes in lake food webs could alter nutrient cycling and water clarity and trigger declines in fish production. Current Cl- thresholds across North America and Europe clearly do not adequately protect lake food webs. Water quality guidelines should be developed where they do not exist, and there is an urgent need to reassess existing guidelines to protect lake ecosystems from human-induced salinization.
  • Lindholm, Marja; Gronroos, Mira; Hjort, Jan; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Tokola, Laura; Heino, Jani (2018)
    Understanding the drivers of community structure is an important topic in ecology. We examined whether different species trait groups of stream diatoms (ecological guilds and specialization groups) show divergent responses to spatial and environmental factors in a subarctic drainage basin. We used local- and catchment-scale environmental and spatial variables in redundancy analysis and variation partitioning to examine community structuring. Local and catchment conditions and spatial variables affected diatom community structure with different relative importance. Local-scale environmental variables explained most of the variation in the low-profile and motile guilds, whereas local and spatial variables explained the same amount of the variation in the high-profile guild. The variations in the planktic guild and the specialist species were best explained by spatial variables, and catchment variables explained most variation only in generalist species. Our study showed that diatom communities in subarctic streams are a result of both environmental filtering and spatial processes. Our findings also suggested that dividing whole community into different groups by species traits can increase understanding of metacommunity organization.
  • Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne (2017)
    The species richness and community composition of the diatom communities were studied in the Baltic Sea, Northern Europe, to enhance knowledge about the diversity of these organisms in a brackish water ecosystem. Many organisms in the Baltic Sea have been studied extensively, but studies investigating littoral diatoms are scarce. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of climatic, spatial and water physicochemical variables as drivers of epilithic diatoms in the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. The variation in species richness was best explained by pH, total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Redundancy Analysis indicated that the most important factors correlating with species composition were air temperature, silicon, total phosphorus, water temperature, salinity and pH. Variation Partitioning showed that the species composition was mostly affected by climatic and spatial variables, whereas physicochemical variables had little impact. However, the strongest factor was the combined influence of climatic, spatial and physicochemical variables. The results suggest that diatom species richness in the northern Baltic Sea is primarily regulated by local factors, while climatic and spatial variables have little impact on richness. Species composition is mostly affected by climatic and spatial variables. We conclude that understanding the distribution patterns of Baltic Sea diatoms requires the inclusion of climatic, spatial and water chemistry variables.
  • Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Alguero-Muniz, Maria; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C.; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G. (2018)
    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (similar to 760 mu atm pCO(2)) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.
  • Kozak, Natalia; Ahonen, Salla A.; Keva, Ossi; ostbye, Kjartan; Taipale, Sami J.; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2021)
    Subarctic lakes are getting warmer and more productive due to the joint effects of climate change and intensive land-use practices (e.g. forest clear-cutting and peatland ditching), processes that potentially increase leaching of peat- and soil-stored mercury into lake ecosystems. We sampled biotic communities from primary producers (algae) to top consumers (piscivorous fish), in 19 subarctic lakes situated on a latitudinal (69.0-66.5 degrees N), climatic (+3.2 degrees C temperature and +30% precipitation from north to south) and catchment land-use (pristine to intensive forestry areas) gradient. We first tested how the joint effects of climate and productivity influence mercury biomagnification in food webs focusing on the trophic magnification slope (TMS) and mercury baseline (THg baseline) level, both derived from linear regression between total mercury (log10THg) and organism trophic level (TL). We examined a suite of environmental and biotic variables thought to explain THg baseline and TMS with stepwise generalized multiple regression models. Finally, we assessed how climate and lake productivity affect the THg content of top predators in subarctic lakes. We found biomagnification of mercury in all studied lakes, but with variable TMS and THg baseline values. In stepwise multiple regression models, TMS was best explained by negative relationships with food chain length, climate-productivity gradient, catchment properties, and elemental C:N ratio of the top predator (full model R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). The model examining variation in THg baseline values included the same variables with positive relationships (R2 = 0.69, p = 0.014). Mass standardized THg content of a common top predator (1 kg northern pike, Esox lucius) increased towards warmer and more productive lakes. Results indicate that increasing eutrophication via forestry-related land-use activities increase the THg levels at the base of the food web and in top predators, suggesting that the sources of nutrients and mercury should be considered in future bioaccumulation and biomagnification studies. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Kivilä, E. Henriikka; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Kiljunen, Mikko; Rautio, Milla; Nevalainen, Liisa (2019)
    Climate warming and consequent greening of subarctic landscapes increase the availability of organic carbon to the detrital food webs in aquatic ecosystems. This may cause important shifts in ecosystem functioning through the functional feeding patterns of benthic organisms that rely differently on climatically altered carbon resources. Twenty-five subarctic lakes in Finnish Lapland across a tree line ecotone were analysed for limnological and optical variables, carbon (delta C-13) and nitrogen (delta N-15) stable isotope (SI) composition of surface sediment organic matter (OM) and fossil Chironomidae (Diptera) remains to examine environmental controls behind chironomid functional feeding group (FFG) structure and their isotopic associations for assessing ecosystem functioning and carbon utilisation. We hypothesise that the chironomid SI signatures reflect increased allochthony with increasing allochthonous input, but the resource use may be altered by the functional characteristics of the assemblage. Multivariate analyses indicated that carbon geochemistry in the sediments (delta C-13, delta N-15, C/N), nutrients, indices of productivity (chlorophyll-a) and lake water optical properties, related to increasing presence of OM, played a key role in defining the chironomid FFG composition and isotopic signatures. Response modelling was used to examine how individual FFGs respond to environmental gradients. They showed divergent responses for OM quantity, dissolved organic carbon and nutrients between feeding strategies, suggesting that detritivores and filter feeders prefer contrasting carbon and nutrient conditions, and may thus hold paleoecological indicator potential to identify changes between different carbon fluxes. Benthic production was the primary carbon source for the chironomid assemblages according to a three-source SI mixing model, whereas pelagic and terrestrial components contributed less. Between-lake variability in source utilisation was high and controlled primarily by allochthonous OM inputs. Combination of biogeochemical modelling and functional classification is useful to widen our understanding of subarctic lake ecosystem functions and responses to climate-driven changes in limnology and catchment characteristics for long-term environmental change assessments and functional paleoecology.
  • Taipale, Sami J.; Vuorio, Kristiina; Aalto, Sanni L.; Peltomaa, Elina; Tiirola, Marja (2019)
    Eutrophication (as an increase in total phosphorus [TP]) increases harmful algal blooms and reduces the proportion of high-quality phytoplankton in seston and the content of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) in fish. However, it is not well-known how eutrophication affects the overall nutritional value of phytoplankton. Therefore, we studied the impact of eutrophication on the production (as concentration; μg L−1) and content (μg mg C−1) of amino acids, EPA, DHA, and sterols, i.e., the nutritional value of phytoplankton in 107 boreal lakes. The lakes were categorized in seven TP concentration categories ranging from ultra-oligotrophic (50 μg L−1). Phytoplankton total biomass increased with TP as expected, but in contrast to previous studies, the contribution of high-quality phytoplankton did not decrease with TP. However, the high variation reflected instability in the phytoplankton community structure in eutrophic lakes. We found that the concentration of amino acids increased in the epilimnion whereas the concentration of sterols decreased with increasing TP. In terms of phytoplankton nutritional value, amino acids, EPA, DHA, and sterols showed a significant quadratic relationship with the lake trophic status. More specifically, the amino acid contents were the same in the oligo- and mesotrophic lakes, but substantially lower in the eutrophic lakes (TP > 35 μg L−1/1.13 μmol L−1). The highest EPA and DHA content in phytoplankton was found in the mesotrophic lakes, whereas the sterol content was highest in the oligotrophic lakes. Based on these results, the nutritional value of phytoplankton reduces with eutrophication, although the contribution of high-quality algae does not decrease. Therefore, the results emphasize that eutrophication, as excess TP, reduces the nutritional value of phytoplankton, which may have a significant impact on the nutritional value of zooplankton, fish, and other aquatic animals at higher food web levels.
  • Helenius, Laura Kristiina; Saiz, Enric (2017)
    Laboratory feeding experiments were conducted to study the functional response and prey size spectrum of the young naupliar stages of the calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars. Experiments were conducted on a range of microalgal prey of varying sizes and motility patterns. Significant feeding was found in all prey of a size range of 4.5-19.8 mu m, with Holling type III functional responses observed for most prey types. The highest clearance rates occurred when nauplii fed on the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa sp. and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (respectively, 0.61 and 0.70 mL ind(-1) d(-1)), suggesting an optimal prey: predator ratio of 0.09. Additional experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the presence of alternative prey (either Heterocapsa sp. or Gymnodinium litoralis) on the functional response to the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. In the bialgal mixtures, clearance and ingestion rates of I. galbana along the range of the functional response were significantly reduced as a result of selectivity towards the larger, alternative prey. Paradoxically, relatively large prey trigger a perception response in the nauplii, but most likely such prey cannot be completely ingested and a certain degree of sloppy feeding may occur. Our results are further evidence of the complex prey-specific feeding interactions that are likely to occur in natural assemblages with several available prey types.