Browsing by Subject "FRUIT"

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  • Zhu, Ruixin; Fogelholm, Mikael; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Møller, Grith; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Stratton, Gareth; Sundvall, Jouko; Råman, Laura; Jalo, Elli; Taylor, Moira A.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne (2021)
    Plant-based diets are recommended by dietary guidelines. This secondary analysis aimed to assess longitudinal associations of an overall plant-based diet and specific plant foods with weight-loss maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors. Longitudinal data on 710 participants (aged 26–70 years) with overweight or obesity and pre-diabetes from the 3-year weight-loss maintenance phase of the PREVIEW intervention were analyzed. Adherence to an overall plant-based diet was evaluated using a novel plant-based diet index, where all plant-based foods received positive scores and all animal-based foods received negative scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, linear mixed models with repeated measures showed that the plant-based diet index was inversely associated with weight regain, but not with cardiometabolic risk factors. Nut intake was inversely associated with regain of weight and fat mass and increments in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Fruit intake was inversely associated with increments in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. Vegetable intake was inversely associated with an increment in diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides and was positively associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol. All reported associations with cardiometabolic risk factors were independent of weight change. Long-term consumption of nuts, fruits, and vegetables may be beneficial for weight management and cardiometabolic health, whereas an overall plant-based diet may improve weight management only.
  • Seppä, Laila Elisabet; Tahvonen, Risto; Tuorila, Hely Margareetta (2016)
  • Salmela, Jatta; Kouvonen, Anne; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Lallukka, Tea (2022)
    Background Disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances are associated with certain unhealthy food habits such as inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables. This study examined whether multiple socioeconomic measures are consistently associated with a variety of food habits. Methods We examined associations of 2 childhood and 6 adult socioeconomic measures with 8 recommended food habits among 19-39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected in 2017 via online and mailed surveys. Our sample consisted of 4621 employees (80% women). The analyses included adjusted binary logistic regression models. Results More advantaged socioeconomic circumstances were positively associated with the recommended consumption of vegetables, fruit or berries, dark bread, skimmed milk products, fish, and cooking oil, but not consistently with red or processed meat and fat spread. All socioeconomic measures were positively associated with having several (6-8) recommended food habits after gender and age adjustments. The strongest associations were found for participant's education, occupational class, and current financial difficulties. These associations remained after adjustments of childhood and adult socioeconomic measures, although especially participant's education attenuated the associations for occupational class. Conclusions The consistent associations between multiple childhood and adult socioeconomic measures and food habits found among employees highlight the need for improving food habits among people with disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances in particular. Financial barriers together with social aspects of adhering to healthy diets should be considered in future dietary interventions and policy actions.
  • Adebayo, Folasade A.; Itkonen, Suvi T.; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2017)
    Aims: We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. Methods: We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian (n = 527), Somali (n = 337) and Kurdish (n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. Conclusions: We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.
  • Tarro, Saija; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Lagström, Hanna (2022)
    A good quality diet in childhood is important for optimal growth as well as for long-term health. It is not well established how eating behaviors affect overall diet quality in childhood. Moreover, very few studies have considered the association of diet quality and a neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood. Our aim was to investigate how diet quality is associated with eating behaviors and neighborhood disadvantage and their interaction in preschool age children in Finland. The participants were from the Steps to Healthy Development Study at age 2 y (n = 780) and 5 y (n = 653). Diet quality was measured with a short questionnaire on habitual food consumption and eating behavior was assessed with the child eating behavior questionnaire to indicate the child's eating style regarding food approach and food avoidance dimensions. Information on neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were obtained from the statistics Finland grid database. We found that diet quality was higher at 5 years compared to 2 years of age (p < 0.001). Food approach subscale, enjoyment of food, was positively associated with the diet quality (p < 0.001 for 2 and 5 y) while subscale desire to drink was negatively associated with the diet quality (p = 0.001 for 2 and 5 y). Food avoidance was negatively associated with the diet quality both at 2 and at 5 years of age (p < 0.001). A higher neighborhood disadvantage was negatively associated with the diet quality at the age of 2 years (p = 0.02), but not at the age of 5 years. Eating behavior had similar associations with diet quality both in affluent and deprived neighborhoods. Our results suggest that both the eating behavior and neighborhood disadvantage are, already in the early age, important factors when considering children's diet quality.
  • Vepsalainen, Henna; Korkalo, Liisa; Mikkila, Vera; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koivusilta, Leena; Roos, Eva; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2018)
    Objective: To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children. Design: Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores. Setting: The DAGIS study, Finland. Subjects: The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data. Results: We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16.7% of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = -0.05, P <0.01) and positively associated with the health-conscious (beta = 0.07, P <0.01) and vegetables-and-processed meats patterns (beta = 0.06, P <0.01). The availability of sugar-enriched foods was positively associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = 0.10, P <0.01) and inversely associated with the health-conscious pattern (beta = -0.03, P <0.01). Conclusions: Considering dietary patterns, the availability of sugar-enriched foods in the home seems to have a stronger role than that of fruits and vegetables. Parents should restrict the availability of unhealthy foods in the home.
  • Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris; I Family Consortium (2017)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.
  • Pajulahti, Riikka; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lehto, Reetta; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Roos, Eva; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ray, Carola (2021)
    Consistently linked with children?s food consumption are food availability and accessibility. However, less is known about potential individual differences among young children in their susceptibility to home food environments. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the association between home food availability and accessibility of sugar-rich foods and drinks (SFD) or fruits and vegetables (FV) and children?s consumption of these foods differ according to their temperament. The study used two cross-sectional datasets collected as part of the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) study: 1) a cross-sectional data of 864 children aged 3?6 years old collected between fall 2015 and spring 2016, and 2) an intervention baseline data of 802 children aged 3?6 collected in fall 2017. Parents reported their children?s temperament, consumption of FV and SFD, and home availability and accessibility of SFD and FV. Examination of whether associations between home availability and accessibility of FV and their consumption differ according to children?s temperament involved using linear regression models. Similar models were used to examine association between home availability and accessibility of SFD and their consumption, and the moderating role of temperament. The association between home accessibility of SFD and their consumption frequency was dependent on the level of children?s negative affectivity. More frequent consumption of SFD was observed with higher home accessibility of SFD. The association was stronger in children with higher scores in negative affectivity. No other interactions were found. Children with higher negative affectivity are possibly more vulnerable to food cues in the home environment than children with lower negative affectivity. Consideration of children?s individual characteristics is necessary in supporting their healthy eating.
  • Jiang, Guangyang; He, Juan; Gan, Longzhan; Li, Xiaoguang; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Li; Li, Ran; Tian, Yongqiang (2022)
    The novel exopolysaccharide EPS-E8, secreted by Pediococcus pentosaceus E8, was obtained by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Structural analyses identified EPS-E8 as a heteropolysaccharide containing mannose, glucose, and galactose. Its major backbone consists of -> 2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 -> 2,6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -> 6)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 ->, and its molecular weight is 5.02 x 10(4) g/mol. Using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, many spherical and irregular reticular-like shapes were observed in the microstructure of EPS-E8. EPS-E8 has outstanding thermal stability (305.7 degrees C). Both the zeta potential absolute value and average particle diameter increased gradually with increasing concentration. Moreover, at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, the antioxidant capacities of, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS and hydroxyl radical were 50.62 +/- 0.5%, 52.17 +/- 1.4%, and 58.91 +/- 0.7%, respectively. EPS-E8 possesses excellent emulsifying properties against several food-grade oils, and its activity is retained under various conditions (temperature, pH, and ionic strength). Finally, we found that EPS-E8 as a polysaccharide-based coating could reduce the weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of strawberry, as well as preserving the vitamin C and soluble solid content during storage at 20 degrees C. Together, the results support the potential application of EPS-E8 as an emulsifier, and a polysaccharide-based coating in fruit preservation.
  • Hoornstra, Douwe; Vesterlin, Jenni; Parnanen, Pirjo; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Vered, Marilena; Salo, Tuula (2018)
    Background: Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cells are highly proliferative and invasive. Lingonberry contains several polyphenolic compounds similar to curcumin. We hypothesize that fermented lingonberry juice (FLJ) has an anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effect on OTSCC cells similarly to curcumin, which is known to be anti-carcinogenic. Materials and Methods: FLJ, curcumin dissolved in ethanol, or curcumin loaded in Candida extracellular vesicles (EVs) were added to more (HSC-3) and less aggressive (SCC-25) OTSCC cells. Cell proliferation was measured with a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine kit and invasion in the three-dimensional Myogel spheroid assay. Statistical analyses were completed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc testing. Results: Both FLJ and curcumin significantly reduced the proliferation and invasion of HSC-3 and SCC-25 cells. The effects of curcumin were not improved when cells were treated with curcumin loaded within EVs. Conclusion: Our results suggest that FLJ, like curcumin, has an anti-carcinogenic effect on aggressive OTSCC cells in vitro.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Korkalo, Liisa; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2017)
    The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36%) of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants' diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%), was 5-6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E%) was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants' diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds.
  • Liu, Jiming; Gao, Shilun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Mianzhi; Ngiam, Jia Jun; Rui Wen, Nicholas Cho; Yi, Joan Jong Jing; Weng, Xuehuang; Jia, Liming; Salojarvi, Jarkko (2022)
    Sapindus is an important forest tree genus with utilization in biodiesel, biomedicine, and it harbors great potential for biochemical engineering applications. For advanced breeding of Sapindus, it is necessary to evaluate the genetic diversity and construct a rationally designed core germplasm collection. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of Sapindus were conducted with 18 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers in order to establish a core germplasm collection from 161 Sapindus accessions. The population of Sapindus showed high genetic diversity and significant population structure. Interspecific genetic variation was significantly higher than intraspecific variation in the Sapindus mukorossi, Sapindus delavayi, and combined Sapindus rarak plus Sapindus rarak var. velutinus populations. S. mukorossi had abundant genetic variation and showed a specific pattern of geographical variation, whereas S. delavayi, S. rarak, and S. rarak var. velutinus showed less intraspecific variation. A core germplasm collection was created that contained 40% of genetic variation in the initial population, comprising 53 S. mukorossi and nine S. delavayi lineages, as well as single representatives of S. rarak and S. rarak var. velutinus. These results provide a germplasm basis and theoretical rationale for the efficient management, conservation, and utilization of Sapindus, as well as genetic resources for joint genomics research in the future.
  • DAGIS Consortium Grp (2018)
    Background: Studies investigating dietary resemblance between parents and their children have gained mixed results, and the resemblance seems to vary across nutrients, foods, dietary-assessment tools used, and parent-child pairs. We investigated parent-child dietary resemblance using a novel approach in applying statistical analysis, which allowed the comparison of 'whole-diet' between parents and their children. Additionally, we sought to establish whether sociodemographic factors or family meals were associated with dietary resemblance and whether parent-child dietary resemblance was dependent on the parent providing food consumption data on behalf of the child (father or mother, "the respondent"). Methods: The DAGIS study investigated health behaviors among Finnish preschoolers using a cross-sectional design. One parent filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measuring the child's food consumption outside preschool hours during the last week. In addition, we instructed both parents or legal guardians, should the child have two, to fill in a similar FFQ regarding their own food use. Parents also reported their educational level, the number of children living in the same household, and the number of family meals. As a measure of dietary resemblance between a parent and a child, we computed Spearman correlations ranging mostly from no resemblance (0) to complete resemblance (+1) between parent-child pairs over the 'whole-diet' (excluding preschool hours). These resemblance measures were further investigated using linear mixed models. Results: We obtained 665 father-child and 798 mother-child resemblance measures. Mother-child resemblance was on average 0.57 and stronger than father-child resemblance (0.50, p <0.0001), which was explained by a parent-respondent interaction: the diet of the child resembled more the diet of the parent who provided food consumption data for the child. In univariate models, father-and mother-reported number of family meals were positively associated with father-child and mother-child resemblances. Mother-reported number of family meals was positively associated with mother-child resemblance in a full model. Conclusions: The diet of the child seems to resemble more the diet of the parent responsible for the reporting of food consumption. Studies should report who provided the food consumption data for the child and take this into account in analyses, since reporter-bias can influence the results.
  • Lagström, Hanna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Suominen, Sakari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2019)
    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with dietary habits among the residents, but few studies have examined this association separately among long-term residents and movers. We calculated cumulative neighborhood SES score weighted by residential time in each address over 6 years for non-movers (n = 7704) and movers (n = 8818) using national grid database. Increase in average neighborhood SES was associated with higher adherence to dietary recommendations in both groups. Among the movers, an upward trajectory from low to high neighborhood SES was also associated with better adherence. Our findings suggest high SES areas might offer healthier food environments than low SES areas.
  • Lehto, Marja; Kuisma, Risto Martti Johannes; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Mäki, Maarit (2018)
    The effect of decontamination methods on fresh-cut vegetable washing waters was evaluated. NEW, ClO2, organic acid-based product FPW, and UV-C were tested with and without an interfering carrot juice of 1% (IS), on Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and yeast Candida lambica. The use of ClO2 (50 ppm active chlorine) resulted in >4 log reduction of Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, E. coli and >3 log reduction of C. lambica. The antibacterial effect of NEW was less effective in the presence of IS when compared with ClO2. The inactivation of C. lambica by FPW reached a maximum of 2.8 log cfu/mL (concentration 0.125%), but the antimicrobial effect was delayed by the IS. The effect of FPW on E. coli was significantly reduced by 1% IS. The inactivation of E. coli and C. lambica with UV-C IS decreased the inactivation and lengthened its time. Filtration improved the effect of UV-C inactivation. Practical applicationsWhen chemical decontamination methods were used in fresh-cut vegetable processing, the presence of organic matter in process water increased the reaction times and the need for higher concentrations of the chemical decontamination and the time of physical decontamination. Yersinia required longer inactivation times than E. coli. When UV-C is used for decontamination of process waters, waters should be filtered to enhance the disinfection efficacy.
  • Vrieling, Alina; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ros, Martine M.; Kampman, Ellen; Aben, Katja K.; Buchner, Frederike L.; Jansen, Eugene H.; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Jakszyn, Paula; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ehrnstrom, Roy; Malm, Johan; Ljungberg, Borje; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Riboli, Elio; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. (2019)
    Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.
  • Ray, Carola; van der Borgh-Sleddens, Ester; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta; Gubbels, Jessica; Bjelland, Mona; Roos, Eva (2022)
    Introduction Many instruments for assessing general parenting have been reported as burdensome and are thus seldom used in studies exploring children’s energy balance-related behaviors or weight. This study evaluates the factorial structure of the item-reduced version of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (CGPQ), which assesses five constructs of general parenting. Methods The study uses data from two cross-sectional studies: Study 1 in 2014 (n = 173) and Study 2 in 2015–16 (n = 805). Parents of children aged three to six answered the CGPQ; in Study 1 the 69-item version, and in Study 2 the 29-item version. The reduction was based on the results of the confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in Study 1. In both datasets, internal consistency, as Cronbach’s alphas and intraclass correlations between the items of each construct, was tested. A combined assessment of the CFA and items response theory evaluated the construct validity and the item importance for the 29-item version, and a further the reduced 22-item version. Results In Study 1, the highest Cronbach’s alphas were shown for the five constructs in the 69-item version. A higher intraclass correlation was found between the constructs in the 69- and 29-item versions, than between the 69- and the 22-item version. However, a high concordance was found between the constructs in the 29- and 22-item versions in both Study 1 and in Study 2 (0.76–1.00). Testing the goodness-of-fit of the CFA models revealed that the 22-item model fulfilled all the criteria, showing that it had a better factorial structure than the 29-item model. Standard estimations ranged from 0.20 to 0.76 in the 22-item version. Conclusion The reduced 22- and 29-item versions of the 69-item CGPQ showed good model fit, the 22-item version the better of the two. These short versions can be used to assess general parenting without overburdening the respondents.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; Halmesvaara, Otto; Fogelholm, Mikael; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2021)
    Background Although sociodemographic differences in dietary intake have been widely studied, the up-to-date evidence on the corresponding variations in motives for food selection is limited. We investigated how sociodemographic characteristics and special diets in households are associated with the relative importance of various food motives. Methods Participants were members of the S Group loyalty card program across Finland who consented to release their grocery purchase data to be used for research purposes and responded to a web-based questionnaire in 2018 (LoCard study). Self-reported information on sociodemographic factors (age, gender, marital status, living situation, education, household income), special diets in household and food motives (Food Choice Questionnaire) were utilized in the present analyses (N = 10,795). Age- and gender-adjusted linear models were performed separately for each sociodemographic predictor and motive dimension (derived by factor analysis) outcome. The importance of each sociodemographic predictor was evaluated based on an increase in R-2 value after adding the predictor to the age- and gender-adjusted model. Results Age emerged as a central determinant of food motives with the following strongest associations: young adults emphasized convenience ( increment R-2 = 0.09, P < 0.001) and mood control ( increment R-2 = 0.05, P < 0.001) motives more than middle-aged and older adults. The relative importance of cheapness decreased with increasing socioeconomic position (SEP) ( increment R-2 = 0.08, P < 0.001 for income and increment R-2 = 0.04, P < 0.001 for education). However, the price item ("is good value for money") depicting the concept of worth did not distinguish between SEP categories. Considerations related to familiarity of food were more salient to men ( increment R-2 = 0.02, P < 0.001) and those with lower SEP ( increment R-2 = 0.03, P < 0.001 for education and increment R-2 = 0.01, P < 0.001 for income). Respondents living in households with a vegetarian, red-meat-free, gluten-free or other type of special diet rated ethical concern as relatively more important than households with no special diets ( increment R-2 = 0.02, P < 0.001). Conclusions We observed sociodemographic differences in a range of food motives that might act as barriers or drivers for adopting diets that benefit human and planetary health. Interventions aiming to narrow SEP and gender disparities in dietary intake should employ strategies that take into account higher priority of familiarity and price in daily food selection in lower-SEP individuals and males.