Browsing by Subject "FRUITS"

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  • Comandolli-Wyrepkowski, Claudia Dantas; Jensen, Bruno Bezerra; Grafova, Iryna; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Comapa Barros, Angela Maria; Soares, Fabiane Veloso; Marques Barcellos, Jose Fernando; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; Grafov, Andriy; Ramos Franco, Antonia Maria (2017)
    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is difficult due to the scarce number of drugs able to eliminate completely the intracellular form of the parasite. In the present study, the aim was to evaluate: i) phytochemical properties of extracts from Libidibia ferrea; ii) antileishmanial activity of extracts from L. ferrea against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis; iii) the effects of topical treatment using hydrogel containing active extract of L. ferrea on golden hamsters infected with L. (L.) amazonensis. Extracts from leaves, branches and fruits of L. ferrea were obtained with hexane and methanol and were tested by in vitro assays in promastigotes and murine macrophages J774 experimentally infected with amastigotes of Leishmania. Groups of hamsters with CL received topical treatment with a formulation of extract (10%) hydrogels, 50 mg. day(-1) for 40 days. In vitro activity of FrMeOH (methanolic extract from fruits without seeds) resulted in significant reduction of viable promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis (IC50 of 15.4 mu g. mL(-1)) and demonstrated inhibition potential of amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) guyanensis and low cytotoxicity in macrophages. The overall data of topical treatment with extract hydrogels (GelFrMeOH) showed that lesion sizes were significantly reduced (42.78%), with low parasite burden by RT-qPCR and culture analysis by microscopy examination, and with histopathological findings such as lower inflammatory cell infiltration 40 days after treatment. Chemical analysis demonstrated FrMeOH contains high levels of phenolic compounds. The results indicate a possible alternative therapy for CL using phytotherapics. KEYWORDS: cutaneous leishmaniasis, natural products, topical formulations, experimental treatment
  • Lizarazo , Clara; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2021)
    Caraway seeds contain between 0.5-7% essential oil, rich in monoterpenes that have a characteristic aroma and chemical properties. Caraway oil has several bioactive compounds that are of industrial importance, particularly for pharmaceutical and health care products. Carvone and limonene are the main terpenes present in caraway oil, which along with some unique fatty acids (i.e. petroselinic acid) determine caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil quality. Both terpenes are important raw materials for industrial applications and their concentration influences the price of caraway seed and oil, hence there is need for identifying management practices that may increase the concentration of these and other bioactive compounds to improve caraway seed oil quality. A field experiment with five treatments: a control and a series of foliar-applied micronutrients (either Cu, Mg, Mn or Zn was done to identify their potential to enhance caraway oil quality. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector were used to characterize oil quality. Our results indicate that while the micronutrient treatments have a significant effect on essential oil composition, both in carvone and limonene, such an effect was not found on all fatty acids but only in two of them-palmitoleic and vaccenic acid-, which were highest after the Mn treatment. Overall, the carvone content of the seeds decreased the least between years following Mn treatment. Mn treatment also caused an increase in limonene in the second year in contrast to the trend for all other treatments. The Mn foliar spray needs to be studied further to elucidate whether it could have a consistent positive effect on caraway oil seed quality upon adjusting dosage and spraying time.
  • Oksuz, Tugba; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Boyacioglu, Dilek (2019)
    In this study, it is aimed to understand the changes in sour cherry phytochemicals when their co-digestions are simulated in dairy model systems comprising skim milk, non-fat-yoghurt, probiotic yoghurt or cream. These co-digestions were analyzed for their total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, total antioxidant activity (TAA) in addition to phenolic and anthocyanin profiles, individually. Sour cherry phenolics were stable during gastric conditions (120%); 54% lost in pancreatic digestion and being available (59%) in serum available fraction (IN). Anthocyanins were lost both in gastric (30%) and pancreatic digestions (16%), being only little available (0.6%) in IN. Soymilk had inhibitory effects on TAA. Dairy food matrix components evaluated were found to have distinct effects on the measured bioavailability of individual sour cherry phenolics. This study might aid both consumers and industry on selecting the food matrices to aiding increase in bioavailability.
  • Jokinen, Kari; Salovaara, Anna-Kaisa Johanna; Wasonga, Daniel; Edelmann, Minnamari; Simpura, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2022)
    Leafy vegetables like lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) naturally have high nitrate content and the European Commission has set maximum level for nitrate in lettuce. Glycinebetaine is an organic osmolyte alleviating plant stress, but its role in leaf nitrate accumulation remains unknown. The uptake of glycinebetaine by lettuce roots, and its potential to regulate lettuce nitrate content and improve plant quality were investigated. Two hydroponic lettuce experiments were conducted with different glycinebetaine application rates (Exp1 : 0, 1, 7.5, and 15 mM; Exp2: 0, 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 10, and 4 mM). Plants were analyzed at varying time points. Root application resulted in glycinebetaine uptake and translocation to the leaves. Glycinebetaine concentrations > 7.5 mM reduced leaf nitrate up to 40% and increased leaf dry matter content. Glycinebetaine showed a positive effect on leaf mineral and amino acid composition. Thus, glycinebetaine could be a novel strategy to reduce the nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce.
  • Pinto, A.; Adams, S.; Ahring, K.; Allen, H.; Almeida, M. F.; Garcia-Arenas, D.; Arslan, N.; Assoun, M.; Altinok, Y. Atik; Barrio-Carreras, D.; Quintana, A. Belanger; Bernabei, S. M.; Bontemps, C.; Boyle, F.; Bruni, G.; Bueno-Delgado, M.; Caine, G.; Carvalho, R.; Chrobot, A.; Chyz, K.; Cochrane, B.; Correia, C.; Corthouts, K.; Daly, A.; De Leo, S.; Desloovere, A.; De Meyer, A.; De Theux, A.; Didycz, B.; Dijsselhof, M. E.; Dokoupil, K.; Drabik, J.; Dunlop, C.; Eberle-Pelloth, W.; Eftring, K.; Ekengrena, J.; Errekalde, I.; Evans, S.; Foucart, A.; Fokkema, L.; Francois, L.; French, M.; Forssell, E.; Gingell, C.; Goncalves, C.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Grimsley, A.; Gugelmo, G.; Gyure, E.; Heller, C.; Hensler, R.; Jardim, I.; Joost, C.; Joerg-Streller, M.; Jouault, C.; Jung, A.; Kanthe, M.; Koc, N.; Kok, I. L.; Kozanoglu, T.; Kumru, B.; Lang, F.; Lang, K.; Liegeois, I.; Liguori, A.; Lilje, R.; Lubina, O.; Manta-Vogli, P.; Mayr, D.; Meneses, C.; Newby, C.; Meyer, U.; Mexia, S.; Nicol, C.; Och, U.; Olivas, S. M.; Pedron-Giner, C.; Pereira, R.; Plutowska-Hoffmann, K.; Purves, J.; Dionigi, A. Re; Reinson, K.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L.; Rocha, J. C.; Rohde, C.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Rossi, A.; Ruiz, M.; Saligova, J.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, A.; Schlune, A.; Schulpis, K.; Serrano-Nieto, J.; Skarpalezou, A.; Skeath, R.; Slabbert, A.; Straczek, K.; Gizewska, M.; Terry, A.; Thom, R.; Tooke, A.; Tuokkola, J.; van Dam, E.; van den Hurk, T. A. M.; van der Ploegcn, E. M. C.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Van Driessche, M.; van Wegberg, A. M. J.; van Wyk, K.; Vasconcelos, C.; Garcia, V. Velez; Wildgoose, J.; Winkler, T.; Zolkowska, J.; Zuvadelli, J.; MacDonald, A. (2019)
    Background: In phenylketonuria (PKU), weaning is considered more challenging when compared to feeding healthy infants. The primary aim of weaning is to gradually replace natural protein from breast milk or standard infant formula with solids containing equivalent phenylalanine (Phe). In addition, a Phe-free second stage L-amino acid supplement is usually recommended from around 6 months to replace Phe-free infant formula. Our aim was to assess different weaning approaches used by health professionals across Europe. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire (survey monkey (R)) composed of 31 multiple and single choice questions was sent to European colleagues caring for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). Centres were grouped into geographical regions for analysis. Results: Weaning started at 17-26 weeks in 85% (n=81/95) of centres, > 26 weeks in 12% (n=11/95) and <17 weeks in 3% (n=3/95). Infant's showing an interest in solid foods, and their age, were important determinant factors influencing weaning commencement. 51% (n=48/95) of centres introduced Phe containing foods at 17-26 weeks and 48% (n=46/95) at > 26 weeks. First solids were mainly low Phe vegetables (59%, n=56/95) and fruit (34%, n=32/95). A Phe exchange system to allocate dietary Phe was used by 52% (n=49/95) of centres predominantly from Northern and Southern Europe and 48% (n=46/95) calculated most Phe containing food sources (all centres in Eastern Europe and the majority from Germany and Austria). Some centres used a combination of both methods. A second stage Phe-free L-amino acid supplement containing a higher protein equivalent was introduced by 41% (n=39/95) of centres at infant age 26-36 weeks (mainly from Germany, Austria, Northern and Eastern Europe) and 37% (n=35/95) at infant age > 1y mainly from Southern Europe. 53% (n=50/95) of centres recommended a second stage Phe-free L-amino acid supplement in a spoonable or semi-solid form. Conclusions: Weaning strategies vary throughout European PKU centres. There is evidence to suggest that different infant weaning strategies may influence longer term adherence to the PKU diet or acceptance of Phe-free L-amino acid supplements; rendering prospective long-term studies important. It is essential to identify an effective weaning strategy that reduces caregiver burden but is associated with acceptable dietary adherence and optimal infant feeding development.