Browsing by Subject "FTIR spectroscopy"

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  • Gorbikova, Elena; Kalendar, Ruslan (2020)
    Cytochrome c oxidase is terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain of mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria. It catalyzes reduction of oxygen to water. During its catalysis, CcO proceeds through several quite stable intermediates (R, A, PR/M, O/OH, E/EH). This work is concentrated on the elucidation of the differences between structures of oxidized intermediates O and OH in different CcO variants and at different pH values. Oxidized intermediates of wild type and mutated CcO from Paracoccus denitrificans were studied by means of static and time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in acidic and alkaline conditions in the infrared region 1800–1000 cm−1. No reasonable differences were found between all variants in these conditions, and in this spectral region. This finding means that the binuclear center of oxygen reduction keeps a very similar structure and holds the same ligands in the studied conditions. The further investigation in search of differences should be performed in the 4000–2000 cm−1 IR region where water ligands absorb.
  • Kyrö, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    FTIR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) is a fast method of analysis. The use of interferometers in Fourier devices enables the scanning of the whole infrared frequency region in a couple of seconds. There is no need to elaborate sample preparation when the FTIR spectrometer is equipped with an ATR accessory and the method is therefore easy to use. ATR accessory facilitates the analysis of various sample types. It is possible to measure infrared spectra from samples which are not suitable for traditional sample preparation methods. The data from FTIR spectroscopy is frequently combined with statistical multivariate analysis techniques. In cluster analysis the data from spectra can be grouped based on similarity. In hierarchical cluster analysis the similarity between objects is determined by calculating the distance between them. Principal component analysis reduces the dimensionality of the data and establishes new uncorrelated principal components. These principal components should preserve most of the variation of the original data. The possible applications of FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis have been studied a lot. For example in food industry its feasibility in quality control has been evaluated. The method has also been used for the identification of chemical compositions of essential oils and for the detection of chemotypes in oil plants. In this study the use of the method was evaluated in the classification of hog's fennel extracts. FTIR spectra of extracts from different plant parts of hog's fennel were compared with the measured FTIR spectra of standard substances. The typical absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of standard substances were identified. The wave number regions of the intensive absorption bands in the spectra of furanocoumarins were selected for multivariate analyses. Multivariate analyses were also performed in the fingerprint region of IR spectra, including the wave number region 1785-725 cm-1. The aim was to classify extracts according to the habitat and coumarin concentration of the plants. Grouping according to habitat was detected, which could mainly be explained by coumarin concentrations as indicated by analyses of the wave number regions of the selected absorption bands. In these analyses extracts mainly grouped and differed by their total coumarin concentrations. In analyses of the wave number region 1785-725 cm-1 grouping according to habitat was also detected but this could not be explained by coumarin concentrations. These groupings may have been caused by similar concentrations of other compounds in the samples. Analyses using other wave number regions were also performed, but the results from these experiments did not differ from previous results. Multivariate analyses of second-order derivative spectra in the fingerprint region did not reveal any noticeable changes either. In future studies the method could perhaps be further developed by investigating narrower carefully selected wave number regions of second-order derivative spectra.
  • Boden, Pit; Di Martino-Fumo, Patrick; Busch, Jasmin M.; Rehak, Florian R.; Steiger, Sophie; Fuhr, Oliver; Nieger, Martin; Volz, Daniel; Klopper, Willem; Bräse, Stefan; Gerhards, Markus (2021)
    To develop new and flexible Cu-I containing luminescent substances, we extend our previous investigations on two metal-centered species to four metal-centered complexes. These complexes could be a basis for designing new organic light-emitting diode (OLED) relevant species. Both the synthesis and in-depth spectroscopic analysis, combined with high-level theoretical calculations are presented on a series of tetranuclear Cu-I complexes with a halide containing Cu4X4 core (X=iodide, bromide or chloride) and two 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine bridging ligands with a methyl group in para (4-Me) or ortho (6-Me) position of the pyridine ring. The structure of the electronic ground state is characterized by X-ray diffraction, NMR, and IR spectroscopy with the support of theoretical calculations. In contrast to the para system, the complexes with ortho-substituted bridging ligands show a remarkable and reversible temperature-dependent dual phosphorescence. Here, we combine for the first time the luminescence thermochromism with time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Thus, we receive experimental data on the structures of the two triplet states involved in the luminescence thermochromism. The transient IR spectra of the underlying triplet metal/halide-to-ligand charge transfer (M-3/XLCT) and cluster-centered ((CC)-C-3) states were obtained and interpreted by comparison with calculated vibrational spectra. The systematic and significant dependence of the bridging halides was analyzed.
  • Gorbikova, Elena; Samsonov, Sergey; Kalendar, Ruslan (2020)
    Crystal structure analyses at atomic resolution and FTIR spectroscopic studies of cytochrome c oxidase have yet not revealed protonation or deprotonation of key sites of proton transfer in a time-resolved mode. Here, a sensitive technique to detect protolytic transitions is employed. In this work, probing a proton-loading site of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans with time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is presented for the first time. For this purpose, variants with single-site mutations of N131V, D124N, and E278Q, the key residues in the D-channel, were studied. The reaction of mutated CcO enzymes with oxygen was monitored and analyzed. Seven infrared bands in the “fast” kinetic spectra were found based on the following three requirements: (1) they are present in the “fast” phases of N131V and D124N mutants, (2) they have reciprocal counterparts in the “slow” kinetic spectra in these mutants, and (3) they are absent in “fast” kinetic spectra of the E278Q mutant. Moreover, the double-difference spectra between the first two mutants and E278Q revealed more IR bands that may belong to the proton-loading site protolytic transitions. From these results, it is assumed that several polar residues and/or water molecule cluster(s) share a proton as a proton-loading site. This site can be propionate itself (holding only a fraction of H+), His403, and/or water cluster(s).