Browsing by Subject "FUNCTIONAL DECLINE"

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  • Lengefeld, Jette; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Maretich, Pema; Blair, Marguerite; Hagen, Hannah; McReynolds, Melanie R.; Sullivan, Emily; Majors, Kyra; Roberts, Christina; Kang, Joon Ho; Steiner, Joachim D.; Miettinen, Teemu P.; Manalis, Scott R.; Antebi, Adam; Morrison, Sean J.; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Boyer, Laurie A.; Yilmaz, Ömer H.; Amon, Angelika (2021)
    Stem cells are remarkably small. Whether small size is important for stem cell function is unknown. We find that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) enlarge under conditions known to decrease stem cell function. This decreased fitness of large HSCs is due to reduced proliferation and was accompanied by altered metabolism. Preventing HSC enlargement or reducing large HSCs in size averts the loss of stem cell potential under conditions causing stem cell exhaustion. Last, we show that murine and human HSCs enlarge during aging. Preventing this age-dependent enlargement improves HSC function. We conclude that small cell size is important for stem cell function in vivo and propose that stem cell enlargement contributes to their functional decline during aging.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.
  • Lavonius, Sirkku; Salminen, Marika; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Wuorela, Maarit; Lopponen, Minna; Viitanen, Matti; Viikari, Laura (2020)
    Purpose Psychosocial resources have been considered to be associated with survival among frail older adults but the evidence is scarce. The aim was to investigate whether psychosocial resources are related to survival among non-robust community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups. Participants were 909 non-robust (according to Rockwood's Frailty Index) older community-dwellers in Finland. Psychosocial resources were measured with living circumstances, education, satisfaction with friendship and life, visiting other people, being visited by other people, having someone to talk to, having someone who helps, self-rated health (SRH) and hopefulness about the future. To assess the association of psychosocial resources for survival, Cox regression analyses was used. Results Visiting other people more often than once a week compared to that of less than once a week (hazard ratio 0.61 [95% confidence interval 0.44-0.85], p = 0.003 in 10-year follow-up; 0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014 in 18-year follow-up) and good SRH compared to poor SRH (0.65 [0.44-0.97], p = 0.032; 0.68 [0.52-0.90], p = 0.007, respectively) were associated with better survival in both follow-ups. Visiting other people once a week (compared to that of less than once a week) (0.77 [0.62-0.95], p = 0.014) was only associated with better 18-year survival. Conclusions Psychosocial resources, such as regularly visiting other people and good self-rated health, seem to be associated with better survival among non-robust community-dwelling Finnish older people. This underlines the importance of focusing also on psychosocial well-being of frail older subjects to remain or promote their resilience. Key summary pointsAim To investigate whether psychosocial resources are associated with survival among non-robust community-dwelling older Finnish people during an 18-year follow-up. Findings Psychosocial resources, such as good self-rated health and regularly visiting other people, were significantly associated with better survival of non-robust older people. Message It is important to focus also on psychological well-being, together with physical activity and nutrition, of frail older people to remain or promoting their capacity.