Browsing by Subject "FUNCTIONAL-ORGANIZATION"

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  • Vanni, Simo; Hokkanen, Henri; Werner, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra (2020)
    The cerebral cortex of primates encompasses multiple anatomically and physiologically distinct areas processing visual information. Areas V1, V2, and VS/MT are conserved across mammals and are central for visual behavior. To facilitate the generation of biologically accurate computational models of primate early visual processing, here we provide an overview of over 350 published studies of these three areas in the genus Macaca, whose visual system provides the closest model for human vision. The literature reports 14 anatomical connection types from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to V1 having distinct layers of origin or termination, and 194 connection types between V1, V2, and VS, forming multiple parallel and interacting visual processing streams. Moreover, within V1, there are reports of 286 and 120 types of intrinsic excitatory and inhibitory connections, respectively. Physiologically, tuning of neuronal responses to 11 types of visual stimulus parameters has been consistently reported. Overall, the optimal spatial frequency (SF) of constituent neurons decreases with cortical hierarchy. Moreover, VS neurons are distinct from neurons in other areas for their higher direction selectivity, higher contrast sensitivity, higher temporal frequency tuning, and wider SF bandwidth. We also discuss currently unavailable data that could be useful for biologically accurate models.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.