Browsing by Subject "FUNGI"

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  • Beck, Janina; Fuhr, Olaf; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan (2020)
    The synthesis of highly substituted hydroanthraquinone derivatives with up to three stereogenic centres via a Diels-Alder reaction, starting from easily accessible 2-substituted naphthoquinones, is described. The [4+2]-cycloaddition is applicable for a broad range of substrates, runs under mild conditions and results in high yields. The highly regioselective outcome of the reactions is enabled by a benzoyl substituent at C2 of the dienophiles. The obtained hydroanthraquinones can be further modified and represent ideal substrates for follow-up intramolecular coupling reactions to create unique bicyclo[3.3.1] or -[3.2.2]nonane ring systems which are important natural product skeletons.
  • Schmidt, Alexander; Kaulfuss, Uwe; Bannister, Jennifer; Baronov, Victor; Beimforde, Christina; Bleile, Natalie; Borkent, Art; Busch, Ariane; Conran, John; Engel, Michael; Harvey, Mark; Kennedy, Elisabeth; Kerr, Peter; Kettunen, Elina Johanna; Kiecksee, Anna; Lengeling, Franziska; Lindqvist, Jon; Maraun, Mark; Mildenhall, Dallas; Perrichot, Vincent; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla; Stebner, Frauke; Szwedo, Jacek; Ulbrich, Philipp; Lee, Daphne (2018)
    Terrestrial ecosystems of the long-isolated former Gondwanan landmass of New Zealand are hotspots of modern global biodiversity, based on the level of endemism and distinctiveness of the biota. However, little is known of the evolutionary history of the rarely preserved but diverse, distinctive, fragile, mainly soft-bodied organisms such as arthropods and fungi that comprise 95% of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Our discovery of fossils preserved in Oligocene/Miocene amber of araucarian origin reveals a diverse invertebrate and fungal biota and complex ecological networks. These fossils comprise 10 orders and approximately 20 families of terrestrial arthropods and include representatives of Pseudoscorpiones, Acari, Araneae, Collembola, Hemiptera, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera, together with nematodes, mold fungi and araucarian wood. Ecologically the fossils encompass predators such as spiders with web remains, soil and bark mites, detritivores, parasites, fungivores and decomposers, fungi that grew on solidified resin flows, as well as predatory fungi. This study reports the first major amber deposit with an abundance of biological inclusions from the Southern Hemisphere and the only Cenozoic one of verified araucarian origin. These fossils expand the global record and evolutionary history of many arthropod and fungal groups, providing insights into mid-Cenozoic araucarian forest ecosystems and resolving controversial issues around the antecedents of the modem New Zealand terrestrial biota. (C) 2017 International Association for Gondwana Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nionelli, Luana; Wang, Yaqin; Pontonio, Erica; Immonen, Mikko; Rizzello, Carlo; Maina, Ndegwa; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2020)
    Bread is one of the most consumed food products in the world and one of the most discarded, due to its intrinsic short shelf-life and susceptibility to mold spoilage. Additionally, bread waste is generated during production and distribution, leading to the disposal of bread otherwise still fit for consumption. To avoid generating huge amount of bread waste, strategies to enable its reutilization should be sought. In this study, surplus bread, still suitable for consumption, was bioprocessed with enzymes and fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria generating an ingredient with antifungal properties. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lactobacillus brevis AM7 showed broad inhibitory spectrum against the fungal species tested and antifungal activity ranging from 20 to 70%. Nine antifungal peptides were identified via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/ Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS), having 10-17 amino acid residues and mass ranging from 1083.6 to 1980.7 Da, all of them encrypted in wheat proteins sequences. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lb. brevis AM7, non fermented bread hydrolysate and a slurry consisting of water-bread mixture were used as ingredients in bread making and compared to regular wheat bread. Breads containing the fermented hydrolysate (18 and 22% of the dough weight) showed the longest mold-free shelf-life compared to the other breads, lasting up to 10 days before mold appearance. Additionally, the fermented hydrolysate was the least detrimental on bread quality, emphasizing the positive impact and potential of the studied biotechnology.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietiläinen, Maria (2017)
    We conducted DNA metabarcoding (based on the nuclear ITS2 region) to characterize indoor pollen samples (possibly accompanied by other plant fragments) and to discover whether there are seasonal changes in their taxonomic diversity. It was shown that DNA metabarcoding has potential to allow a good discovery of taxonomic diversity. The number of spermatophyte families and genera varied greatly among sampling sites (pooled results per building) and times, between 9-40 and 10-66, respectively. Comparable Shannon's diversity indices equaled 0.33-2.76 and 0.94-3.16. The total number of spermatophyte genera found during the study was 187, of which 43.9, 39.6, 7.5 and 9.1% represented wild, garden/crop and indoor house plants, and non-domestic fruit or other plant material, respectively. Comparable proportions of individual sequences equaled 77.4, 18.8, 2.7 and 1.1%, respectively. When comparing plant diversities and taxonomic composition among buildings or between seasons, no obvious pattern was detected, except for the second summer, when pollen coming from outdoors was highly dominant and the proportions of likely allergens, birch, grass, alder and mugwort pollen, were very high. The average pairwise values of SOrensen(Chao) indices that were used to compare similarities for taxon composition between samples among the samples from the two university buildings, two nurseries and farmhouse equaled 0.514, 0.109, 0.564, 0.865 and 0.867, respectively, while the mean similarity index for all samples was 0.524. Cleaning frequency may strongly contribute to the observed diversity. The discovery of considerable diversities, including pollen coming from outside, in both winter and summer shows that substantial amounts of pollen produced in summer enter buildings and stay there throughout the year.
  • Pakarinen, Aku; Fritze, Hannu; Timonen, Sari; Kivijarvi, Pirjo; Velmala, Sannakajsa (2021)
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant phosphorus uptake, increase soil water holding abilities, reduce soil erosion and can protect their hosts from soil-borne pathogens. Hence, AMF play an important part in improving sustainable agricultural practices, and information about the effects of different preceding crop species on the following crop's AMF well-being is crucial for designing crop rotations. We studied onion root and soil microbial diversity and onion root AMF colonization rates after being preceded by three AMF hosting and one non-hosting green manure crop species in a boreal climate organic field. One-season cultivation of different preceding green manure crops did not have a strong effect on AMF colonization or microbial diversity in onion roots nor in the surrounding soil. Onions had high AMF colonization and microbial diversity after all four preceding crops. The overall fungal and bacterial populations of the soil reacted more strongly to seasonal variations than preceding crops. The study suggests that one season is a too short time to influence the AMF community in boreal climate organic fields with conventional tillage. Thus, non-host preceding crops can also be used in rotations, especially together with AMF host crops.
  • Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Sulyok, Michael; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jouppila, Kirsi; Nathanail, Alexis V (2021)
    The consumption of high-quality Andean grains (a.k.a. pseudocereals) is increasing worldwide, and yet very little is known about the susceptibility of these crops to mycotoxin contamination. In this survey study, a multi-analyte liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was utilised to determine mycotoxin and fungal metabolite levels in Andean grains (quinoa and kañiwa) in comparison to cereal grains (barley, oats and wheat), cultivated in both South American (Bolivia and Peru) and North European (Denmark, Finland and Latvia) countries. A total of 101 analytes were detected at varying levels, primarily produced by Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp., depending on the type of crop, geographical location and agricultural practices used. Generally, Andean grains from South America showed lower mycotoxin contamination (concentration and assortment) than those from North Europe, while the opposite occurred with cereal grains. Mycotoxin contamination profiles exhibited marked differences between Andean and cereal grains, even when harvested from the same regions, highlighting the need for crop-specific approaches for mycotoxin risk mitigation. Lastly, the efficacy of grain cleaning in respect to total mycotoxin content was assessed, which resulted in significantly lower levels (overall reduction approx. 50%) in cleaned samples for the majority of contaminants.
  • Korhonen, Aku; Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Miettinen, Otto (2018)
    We propose a taxonomic revision of the two closely related white-rot polypore species, Skeletocutis nivea (Jungh.) Jean Keller and S. ochroalba Niemela (Incrustoporiaceae, Basidiomycota), based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha sequences. We show that prevailing morphological species concepts of S. nivea and S. ochroalba are non-monophyletic and we delineate new species boundaries based on phylogenetic inference. We recognise eleven species within the prevailing species concept of S. nivea (S. calida sp. nov., S. coprosmae comb. nov., S. futilis sp. nov., S. impervia sp. nov., S. ipuletii sp. nov., S. lepida sp. nov., S. nemonzlis sp. nov., S. nivea sensu typi, S. semipileata comb. nov., S. unguina sp. nov. and S. yuchengii sp. nov.) and assign new sequenced epitypes for S. nivea and S. semipileata. The traditional concept of S. ochroalba comprises two independent lineages embedded within the S. nivea species complex. The Eurasian conifer-dwelling species S. cummata sp. nov. is recognised as separate from the North American S. ochroalba sensu stricto. Despite comprehensive microscopic examination, the majority of the recognised species are left without stable diagnostic character combinations that would enable species identification based solely on morphology and ecology.
  • Mäkelä, Miia R.; Bouzid, Ourdia; Robl, Diogo; Post, Harm; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P. (2017)
    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic saccharification of the corresponding lignocellulose feedstocks. The enzyme cocktail P. anserina produced after three days of growth on SBH showed superior capacity to release reducing sugars from all tested plant biomass feedstocks compared to the enzyme mixtures from CSH and WS cultures. Detailed proteomics analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that SBH contained the most diverse set of enzymes targeted on plant cell wall polymers and was particularly abundant in xylan, mannan and pectin acting enzymes. The importance of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in plant biomass deconstruction was supported by identification of 20 out of 33 AA9 LPMOs in the SBH cultures. The results highlight the suitability of P. anserina as a source of plant cell wall degrading enzymes for biotechnological applications and the importance of selecting the most optimal substrate for the production of enzyme mixtures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi; Schmidt, Alexander (2020)
    Fruticose lichens of the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. (Parmeliaceae), generally known as beard lichens, are among the most iconic epiphytic lichens in modern forest ecosystems. Many of the c. 350 currently recognized species are widely distributed and have been used as bioindicators in air pollution studies. Here we demonstrate that usneoid lichens were present in the Palaeogene amber forests of Europe. Based on general morphology and annular cortical fragmentation, one fossil from Baltic amber can be assigned to the extant genus Usnea. The unique type of cortical cracking indirectly demonstrates the presence of a central cord that keeps the branch intact even when its cortex is split into vertebrae-like segments. This evolutionary innovation has remained unchanged since the Palaeogene, contributing to the considerable ecological flexibility that allows Usnea species to flourish in a wide variety of ecosystems and climate regimes. The fossil sets the minimum age for Usnea to 34 million years (late Eocene). While the other similar fossils from Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers cannot be definitely assigned to the same genus, they underline the diversity of pendant lichens in Palaeogene amber forests.
  • Karlsson, Magnus; Durling, Mikael Brandstrom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kosawang, Chatchai; Lackner, Gerald; Tzelepis, Georgios D.; Nygren, Kristiina; Dubey, Mukesh K.; Kamou, Nathalie; Levasseur, Anthony; Zapparata, Antonio; Wang, Jinhui; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Jensen, Birgit; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Panteris, Emmanuel; Lagopodi, Anastasia L.; Poeggeler, Stefanie; Vannacci, Giovanni; Collinge, David B.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jensen, Dan Funck (2015)
  • Haak, Bastiaan W.; Argelaguet, R.; Kinsella, C.M.; Kullberg, R.F.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Deijs, M.; Klein, M.; Jebbink, M.F.; Hugenholtz, F.; Kostidis, S.; Giera, M.; Hakvoort, T.B.M.; De Jonge, W.J.; Schultz, M.J.; Gool, T.V.; Van Der Poll, T.; De Vos, W.M.; Van Der Hoek, L.M.; Wiersingaa, W. Joost (2021)
    Bacterial microbiota play a critical role in mediating local and systemic immunity, and shifts in these microbial communities have been linked to impaired outcomes in critical illness. Emerging data indicate that other intestinal organisms, including bacteriophages, viruses of eukaryotes, fungi, and protozoa, are closely interlinked with the bacterial microbiota and their host, yet their collective role during antibiotic perturbation and critical illness remains to be elucidated. We employed multi-omics factor analysis (MOFA) to systematically integrate the bacterial (16S rRNA), fungal (intergenic transcribed spacer 1 rRNA), and viral (virus discovery next generation sequencing) components of the intestinal microbiota of 33 critically ill patients with and without sepsis and 13 healthy volunteers. In addition, we quantified the absolute abundances of bacteria and fungi using 16S and 18S rRNA PCRs and characterized the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, acetate, and propionate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observe that a loss of the anaerobic intestinal environment is directly correlated with an overgrowth of aerobic pathobionts and their corresponding bacteriophages as well as an absolute enrichment of opportunistic yeasts capable of causing invasive disease. We also observed a strong depletion of SCFAs in both disease states, which was associated with an increased absolute abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria. Therefore, these findings illustrate the complexity of transkingdom changes following disruption of the intestinal bacterial microbiome. IMPORTANCE While numerous studies have characterized antibiotic-induced disruptions of the bacterial microbiome, few studies describe how these disruptions impact the composition of other kingdoms such as viruses, fungi, and protozoa. To address this knowledge gap, we employed MOFA to systematically integrate viral, fungal, and bacterial sequence data from critically ill patients (with and without sepsis) and healthy volunteers, both prior to and following exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. In doing so, we show that modulation of the bacterial component of the microbiome has implications extending beyond this kingdom alone, enabling the overgrowth of potentially invasive fungi and viruses. While numerous preclinical studies have described similar findings in vitro, we confirm these observations in humans using an integrative analytic approach. These findings underscore the potential value of multi-omics data integration tools in interrogating how different components of the microbiota contribute to disease states. In addition, our findings suggest that there is value in further studying potential adjunctive therapies using anaerobic bacteria or SCFAs to reduce fungal expansion after antibiotic exposure, which could ultimately lead to improved outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU).
  • Vesth, Tammi C.; Nybo, Jane L.; Theobald, Sebastian; Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Hoof, Jakob B.; Brandl, Julian; Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Gladden, John M.; Phatale, Pallavi; Nielsen, Morten T.; Lyhne, Ellen K.; Kogle, Martin E.; Strasser, Kimchi; McDonnell, Erin; Barry, Kerrie; Clum, Alicia; Chen, Cindy; LaButti, Kurt; Haridas, Sajeet; Nolan, Matt; Sandor, Laura; Kuo, Alan; Hainaut, Matthieu; Drula, Elodie; Tsang, Adrian; Magnuson, Jon K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; Simmons, Blake A.; Makela, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R. (2018)
    Aspergillus section Nigri comprises filamentous fungi relevant to biomedicine, bioenergy, health, and biotechnology. To learn more about what genetically sets these species apart, as well as about potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, we sequenced 23 genomes de novo, forming a full genome compendium for the section (26 species), as well as 6 Aspergillus niger isolates. This allowed us to quantify both inter-and intraspecies genomic variation. We further predicted 17,903 carbohydrateactive enzymes and 2,717 secondary metabolite gene clusters, which we condensed into 455 distinct families corresponding to compound classes, 49% of which are only found in single species. We performed metabolomics and genetic engineering to correlate genotypes to phenotypes, as demonstrated for the metabolite aurasperone, and by heterologous transfer of citrate production to Aspergillus nidulans. Experimental and computational analyses showed that both secondary metabolism and regulation are key factors that are significant in the delineation of Aspergillus species.
  • Stendahl, Johan; Berg, Björn; Lindahl, Björn D. (2017)
    Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R-2 = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon. In comparison, established ecosystem models applied on the same data have failed to predict carbon stocks (R-2 <0.05), and in our study manganese availability overshadowed both litter production and climatic factors. We also identified exchangeable potassium as an additional strong predictor, however strongly correlated with manganese. The negative correlation between manganese and carbon highlights the importance of Mn-peroxidases in oxidative decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter. The results support the idea that the fungus-driven decomposition could be a critical factor regulating humus carbon accumulation in boreal forests, as Mn-peroxidases are specifically produced by basidiomycetes.
  • Kovalchuk, Andriy; Mukrimin, Mukrimin; Zeng, Zhen; Raffaello, Tommaso; Liu, Mengxia; Kasanen, Risto; Sun, Hui; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2018)
    Plant microbiome plays an important role in maintaining the host fitness. Despite a significant progress in our understanding of the plant microbiome achieved in the recent years, very little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on composition of microbial communities associated with trees. In this study, we analysed the mycobiome of different anatomic parts of asymptomatic and symptomatic Norway spruce trees naturally infected by Heterobasidion spp. We also investigated the primary impact of the disease on the fungal communities, which are associated with Norway spruce trees. Our results demonstrate that the structure of fungal communities residing in the wood differed significantly among symptomatic and asymptomatic Heterobasidion-infected trees. However, no significant differences were found in the other anatomic regions of the trees. The results also show that not only each of individual tree tissues (wood, bark, needles and roots) harbours a unique fungal community, but also that symptomatic trees were more susceptible to co-infection by other wood-degrading fungi compared to the asymptomatic ones.
  • Miettinen, Otto; Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Rivoire, Bernard; Stenroos, Soili; Hibbett, David (2016)
    We explored whether DNA-phylogeny-based and morphology-based genus concepts can be reconciled in the basidiomycete family Phanerochaetaceae. Our results show that macromorphology of fruiting bodies and hymenophore construction do not reflect monophyletic groups. However, by integrating micromorphology and re-defining genera, harmonization of DNA phylogeny and morphological genus concepts is possible in most cases. In the case of one genus (Phlebiopsis), our genetic markers could not resolve genus limits satisfactorily and a clear morphological definition could not be identified. We combine extended species sampling, microscopic studies of fruiting bodies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS, nLSU and rpb1 to revise genus concepts. Three new polypore genera are ascribed to the Phanerochaetaceae: Oxychaete gen. nov. (type Oxyporus cervinogilvus), Phanerina gen. nov. (type Ceriporia mellea), and Riopa (including Ceriporia metamorphosa and Riopa pudens sp. nov.). Phlebiopsis is extended to include Dentocorticium pilatii, further species of Hjortstamia and the monotypic polypore genus Castanoporus. The polypore Ceriporia inflata is combined into Phanerochaete. The identity of the type species of the genus Riopa, R. davidii, has been misinterpreted in the current literature. The species has been included in Ceriporia as a species of its own or placed in synonymy with Ceriporia camaresiana. The effort to properly define R. davidii forced us to study Ceriporia more widely. In the process we identified five closely related Ceriporia species that belong to the true Ceriporia clade (Irpicaceae). We describe those species here, and introduce the Ceriporia pierii group. We also select a lectotype and an epitype for Riopa metamorphosa and neotypes for Sporotrichum aurantiacum and S. aurantium, the type species of the anamorphic genus Sporotrichum, and recommend that teleomorphic Riopa is conserved against it.
  • Anasonye, Festus; Tammeorg, Priit; Parshintsev, Evgeny; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Tuomela, Marja Tuulikki (2018)
    The use of biochar (BC) has been suggested for remediation of contaminated soils. This study aims to investigate the role of microorganisms in sorption of PAH to BC-amended soils. Fungi, especially the wood and litter-degrading fungi, have shown the ability for humification and to degrade recalcitrant molecules, and are thus suitable model organisms. Haplic Arenosol with high organic matter content was chosen to highlight the importance of soil organic matter (SOM) in PAH sorption, possibly to form non-extractable residue. Basidiomycetous fungi Agrocybe praecox and Phanerochaete velutina grown on pine bark were inoculated in organic matter (OM)-rich Haplic Arenosol and OM-poor sandy loam with either BC or chemically activated BC (ABC) and 14C-labelled pyrene for 60 days. Fungi did not mineralize pyrene, but increased sorption up to 47–56% in BC-amended Haplic Arenosol in comparison with controls (13–25%) without a fungus irrespective of the presence of an adsorbent. In OM-poor sandy loam, only 9–12% of pyrene was sorbed to amended soil in the presence of fungus and adsorbent. The results suggest that BC and fungal amendment increased sorption of pyrene, especially to Haplic Arenosol more than by either BC or fungi alone.
  • Mäkelä, Pirjo; Wasonga, Daniel; Solano Hernandez, Ainhoa; Santanen, Arja (2020)
    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development. Finding new P sources and ways to improve crop P utilization are necessary due to the depletion of phosphate reserves. Five crop species, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumL.), maize (Zea maysL.), oilseed rape (Brassica napusL. ssp.oleifera(Moench) Metzg.), spelt wheat (Triticum speltaL.), and white lupine (Lupinus albusL.), were grown in pots containing sandy soil with chemical nutrients, digestate, and meat bone meal (MBM) without added nutrients. Thirty days after the seeding plants were harvested, the growth stage, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) value, biomass, P content of the plants, colonization of the roots with endomycorrhiza, and soil pH were analyzed, and the number of fungal spores in the soil was counted. All species showed interaction with the P sources for measured traits, except for the rhizosphere pH. A high biomass was recorded in all species fertilized with various P sources compared to the unfertilized treatment. Buckwheat and spelt wheat showed a higher P uptake with MBM, and the mycorrhizal symbiosis improved with digestate or MBM compared to synthetic P. The results indicate that different species have adaptative mechanisms to various P sources which could improve the resilience and sustainability of cropping systems.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Malysheva, Vera; Haelewaters, Danny; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2019)
    Stypella vermiformis is a heterobasidiomycete producing minute gelatinous basidiocarps on rotten wood of conifers in the Northern Hemisphere. In the current literature, Stypella papillata, the genus type of Stypella (described from Brazil), is treated as a taxonomic synonym of S. vermiformis. In the present paper, we revise the type material of S. papillata and a number of specimens addressed to S. vermiformis. As a result, the presumed synonymy of S. papillata and S. vermiformis is rejected and the genus Stypella is restricted to the single species S. papillata. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of specimens from the Northern Hemisphere corresponding to the current concept of S. vermiformis uncovered three species from two newly described genera. S. vermiformis s.str. is distributed in temperate Europe and has small-sized basidia and basidiospores, and it is placed in a new genus, Mycostilla. Another genus, Stypellopsis, is created for two other species, the North American Stypellopsis farlowii, comb. nov., and the North European Stypellopsis hyperborea, sp. nov. Basidia and basidiospores of Stypellopsis spp. are larger than in Mycostilla vermiformis but other morphological characters are very similar. In addition, Spiculogloea minuta (Spiculogloeomycetes, Pucciniomycotina) is reported as new to Norway, parasitising basidiocarps of M. vermiformis and Tulasnella spp.
  • Kilpeläinen, Jouni; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Lehto, Tarja (2020)
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants and fungi associate with lower soil organic matter, higher pH, lower phosphorus and higher nitrogen than ectomycorrhizal (EM) ones. However, soil conditions correlate with climatic factors, and we suggest that temperature and humidity have also direct roles in the success of mycorrhiza types. The hypothesis here is that EM perform better at low temperatures than AM, and AM resist drought better than EM. Narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia E. James) forms both AM and EM. We grew seedlings in soil at 14, 20 and 26 °C in factorial combinations with adequate watering and a cyclic mild drought for 4 and 7 weeks. As hypothesized, the percent of EM root tips was largest at 14 °C, while the proportional root length with AM was largest at the two higher temperatures. However, unlike expectations, drought increased EM formation slightly, while the AM colonization was lower in the dry treatment. Plant growth was reduced more by low temperature than drought. Root branching was more prominent at low temperature and root length and mass growth at higher temperatures. Soil nutrient availability did not provide a direct explanation to the results, as both soluble soil N and P were the same in 14 and 20 °C, while the change in mycorrhiza colonization took place between these temperatures. Differences in root morphology (root branching vs length) may affect the proportions of the mycorrhiza types at different temperature regimes. The most likely explanation to the differential colonization is that temperature affects AM and EM fungi in a different way. In nature, temperature and humidity regimes are tightly correlated, and temperature as such may be a stronger determinant for the success of mycorrhiza types than has been previously considered. The poorer performance of AM in low-temperature and drought conditions may reflect stress avoidance rather than stress tolerance by AM fungi.
  • Garrigues, Sandra; Kun, Roland; Peng, Mao; Gruben, Birgit; Benoit Gelber, Isabelle; Mäkelä, Miia; de Vries, Ronald (2021)
    In nature, filamentous fungi are exposed to diverse nutritional sources and changes in substrate availability. Conversely, in submerged cultures, mycelia are continuously exposed to the existing substrates, which are depleted over time. Submerged cultures are the preferred choice for experimental setups in laboratory and industry and are often used for understanding the physiology of fungi. However, to what extent the cultivation method affects fungal physiology, with respect to utilization of natural substrates, has not been addressed in detail. Here, we compared the transcriptomic responses of Aspergillus niger grown in submerged culture and solid culture, both containing sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a carbon source. The results showed that expression of CAZy (Carbohydrate Active enZyme)-encoding and sugar catabolic genes in liquid SBP was time dependent. Moreover, additional components of SBP delayed the A. niger response to the degradation of pectin present in SBP. In addition, we demonstrated that liquid cultures induced wider transcriptome variability than solid cultures. Although there was a correlation regarding sugar metabolic gene expression patterns between liquid and solid cultures, it decreased in the case of CAZyme-encoding genes. In conclusion, the transcriptomic response of A. niger to SBP is influenced by the culturing method, limiting the value of liquid cultures for understanding the behavior of fungi in natural habitats. IMPORTANCE Understanding the interaction between filamentous fungi and their natural and biotechnological environments has been of great interest for the scientific community. Submerged cultures are preferred over solid cultures at a laboratory scale to study the natural response of fungi to different stimuli found in nature (e.g., carbon/nitrogen sources, pH). However, whether and to what extent submerged cultures introduce variation in the physiology of fungi during growth on plant biomass have not been studied in detail. In this study, we compared the transcriptomic responses of Aspergillus niger to growth on liquid and solid cultures containing sugar beet pulp (a by-product of the sugar industry) as a carbon source. We demonstrate that the transcriptomic response of A. niger was highly affected by the culture condition, since the transcriptomic response obtained in a liquid environment could not fully explain the behavior of the fungus in a solid environment. This could partially explain the differences often observed between the phenotypes on plates compared to liquid cultures.