Browsing by Subject "FUNGI"

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  • Beck, Janina; Fuhr, Olaf; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan (2020)
    The synthesis of highly substituted hydroanthraquinone derivatives with up to three stereogenic centres via a Diels-Alder reaction, starting from easily accessible 2-substituted naphthoquinones, is described. The [4+2]-cycloaddition is applicable for a broad range of substrates, runs under mild conditions and results in high yields. The highly regioselective outcome of the reactions is enabled by a benzoyl substituent at C2 of the dienophiles. The obtained hydroanthraquinones can be further modified and represent ideal substrates for follow-up intramolecular coupling reactions to create unique bicyclo[3.3.1] or -[3.2.2]nonane ring systems which are important natural product skeletons.
  • Schmidt, Alexander; Kaulfuss, Uwe; Bannister, Jennifer; Baronov, Victor; Beimforde, Christina; Bleile, Natalie; Borkent, Art; Busch, Ariane; Conran, John; Engel, Michael; Harvey, Mark; Kennedy, Elisabeth; Kerr, Peter; Kettunen, Elina Johanna; Kiecksee, Anna; Lengeling, Franziska; Lindqvist, Jon; Maraun, Mark; Mildenhall, Dallas; Perrichot, Vincent; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla; Stebner, Frauke; Szwedo, Jacek; Ulbrich, Philipp; Lee, Daphne (2018)
    Terrestrial ecosystems of the long-isolated former Gondwanan landmass of New Zealand are hotspots of modern global biodiversity, based on the level of endemism and distinctiveness of the biota. However, little is known of the evolutionary history of the rarely preserved but diverse, distinctive, fragile, mainly soft-bodied organisms such as arthropods and fungi that comprise 95% of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Our discovery of fossils preserved in Oligocene/Miocene amber of araucarian origin reveals a diverse invertebrate and fungal biota and complex ecological networks. These fossils comprise 10 orders and approximately 20 families of terrestrial arthropods and include representatives of Pseudoscorpiones, Acari, Araneae, Collembola, Hemiptera, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera, together with nematodes, mold fungi and araucarian wood. Ecologically the fossils encompass predators such as spiders with web remains, soil and bark mites, detritivores, parasites, fungivores and decomposers, fungi that grew on solidified resin flows, as well as predatory fungi. This study reports the first major amber deposit with an abundance of biological inclusions from the Southern Hemisphere and the only Cenozoic one of verified araucarian origin. These fossils expand the global record and evolutionary history of many arthropod and fungal groups, providing insights into mid-Cenozoic araucarian forest ecosystems and resolving controversial issues around the antecedents of the modem New Zealand terrestrial biota. (C) 2017 International Association for Gondwana Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nionelli, Luana; Wang, Yaqin; Pontonio, Erica; Immonen, Mikko; Rizzello, Carlo; Maina, Ndegwa; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2020)
    Bread is one of the most consumed food products in the world and one of the most discarded, due to its intrinsic short shelf-life and susceptibility to mold spoilage. Additionally, bread waste is generated during production and distribution, leading to the disposal of bread otherwise still fit for consumption. To avoid generating huge amount of bread waste, strategies to enable its reutilization should be sought. In this study, surplus bread, still suitable for consumption, was bioprocessed with enzymes and fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria generating an ingredient with antifungal properties. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lactobacillus brevis AM7 showed broad inhibitory spectrum against the fungal species tested and antifungal activity ranging from 20 to 70%. Nine antifungal peptides were identified via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/ Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS), having 10-17 amino acid residues and mass ranging from 1083.6 to 1980.7 Da, all of them encrypted in wheat proteins sequences. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lb. brevis AM7, non fermented bread hydrolysate and a slurry consisting of water-bread mixture were used as ingredients in bread making and compared to regular wheat bread. Breads containing the fermented hydrolysate (18 and 22% of the dough weight) showed the longest mold-free shelf-life compared to the other breads, lasting up to 10 days before mold appearance. Additionally, the fermented hydrolysate was the least detrimental on bread quality, emphasizing the positive impact and potential of the studied biotechnology.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietiläinen, Maria (2017)
    We conducted DNA metabarcoding (based on the nuclear ITS2 region) to characterize indoor pollen samples (possibly accompanied by other plant fragments) and to discover whether there are seasonal changes in their taxonomic diversity. It was shown that DNA metabarcoding has potential to allow a good discovery of taxonomic diversity. The number of spermatophyte families and genera varied greatly among sampling sites (pooled results per building) and times, between 9-40 and 10-66, respectively. Comparable Shannon's diversity indices equaled 0.33-2.76 and 0.94-3.16. The total number of spermatophyte genera found during the study was 187, of which 43.9, 39.6, 7.5 and 9.1% represented wild, garden/crop and indoor house plants, and non-domestic fruit or other plant material, respectively. Comparable proportions of individual sequences equaled 77.4, 18.8, 2.7 and 1.1%, respectively. When comparing plant diversities and taxonomic composition among buildings or between seasons, no obvious pattern was detected, except for the second summer, when pollen coming from outdoors was highly dominant and the proportions of likely allergens, birch, grass, alder and mugwort pollen, were very high. The average pairwise values of SOrensen(Chao) indices that were used to compare similarities for taxon composition between samples among the samples from the two university buildings, two nurseries and farmhouse equaled 0.514, 0.109, 0.564, 0.865 and 0.867, respectively, while the mean similarity index for all samples was 0.524. Cleaning frequency may strongly contribute to the observed diversity. The discovery of considerable diversities, including pollen coming from outside, in both winter and summer shows that substantial amounts of pollen produced in summer enter buildings and stay there throughout the year.
  • Pakarinen, Aku; Fritze, Hannu; Timonen, Sari; Kivijarvi, Pirjo; Velmala, Sannakajsa (2021)
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant phosphorus uptake, increase soil water holding abilities, reduce soil erosion and can protect their hosts from soil-borne pathogens. Hence, AMF play an important part in improving sustainable agricultural practices, and information about the effects of different preceding crop species on the following crop's AMF well-being is crucial for designing crop rotations. We studied onion root and soil microbial diversity and onion root AMF colonization rates after being preceded by three AMF hosting and one non-hosting green manure crop species in a boreal climate organic field. One-season cultivation of different preceding green manure crops did not have a strong effect on AMF colonization or microbial diversity in onion roots nor in the surrounding soil. Onions had high AMF colonization and microbial diversity after all four preceding crops. The overall fungal and bacterial populations of the soil reacted more strongly to seasonal variations than preceding crops. The study suggests that one season is a too short time to influence the AMF community in boreal climate organic fields with conventional tillage. Thus, non-host preceding crops can also be used in rotations, especially together with AMF host crops.
  • Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Sulyok, Michael; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jouppila, Kirsi; Nathanail, Alexis V (2021)
    The consumption of high-quality Andean grains (a.k.a. pseudocereals) is increasing worldwide, and yet very little is known about the susceptibility of these crops to mycotoxin contamination. In this survey study, a multi-analyte liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was utilised to determine mycotoxin and fungal metabolite levels in Andean grains (quinoa and kañiwa) in comparison to cereal grains (barley, oats and wheat), cultivated in both South American (Bolivia and Peru) and North European (Denmark, Finland and Latvia) countries. A total of 101 analytes were detected at varying levels, primarily produced by Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp., depending on the type of crop, geographical location and agricultural practices used. Generally, Andean grains from South America showed lower mycotoxin contamination (concentration and assortment) than those from North Europe, while the opposite occurred with cereal grains. Mycotoxin contamination profiles exhibited marked differences between Andean and cereal grains, even when harvested from the same regions, highlighting the need for crop-specific approaches for mycotoxin risk mitigation. Lastly, the efficacy of grain cleaning in respect to total mycotoxin content was assessed, which resulted in significantly lower levels (overall reduction approx. 50%) in cleaned samples for the majority of contaminants.
  • Korhonen, Aku; Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Miettinen, Otto (2018)
    We propose a taxonomic revision of the two closely related white-rot polypore species, Skeletocutis nivea (Jungh.) Jean Keller and S. ochroalba Niemela (Incrustoporiaceae, Basidiomycota), based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha sequences. We show that prevailing morphological species concepts of S. nivea and S. ochroalba are non-monophyletic and we delineate new species boundaries based on phylogenetic inference. We recognise eleven species within the prevailing species concept of S. nivea (S. calida sp. nov., S. coprosmae comb. nov., S. futilis sp. nov., S. impervia sp. nov., S. ipuletii sp. nov., S. lepida sp. nov., S. nemonzlis sp. nov., S. nivea sensu typi, S. semipileata comb. nov., S. unguina sp. nov. and S. yuchengii sp. nov.) and assign new sequenced epitypes for S. nivea and S. semipileata. The traditional concept of S. ochroalba comprises two independent lineages embedded within the S. nivea species complex. The Eurasian conifer-dwelling species S. cummata sp. nov. is recognised as separate from the North American S. ochroalba sensu stricto. Despite comprehensive microscopic examination, the majority of the recognised species are left without stable diagnostic character combinations that would enable species identification based solely on morphology and ecology.
  • Mäkelä, Miia R.; Bouzid, Ourdia; Robl, Diogo; Post, Harm; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P. (2017)
    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic saccharification of the corresponding lignocellulose feedstocks. The enzyme cocktail P. anserina produced after three days of growth on SBH showed superior capacity to release reducing sugars from all tested plant biomass feedstocks compared to the enzyme mixtures from CSH and WS cultures. Detailed proteomics analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that SBH contained the most diverse set of enzymes targeted on plant cell wall polymers and was particularly abundant in xylan, mannan and pectin acting enzymes. The importance of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in plant biomass deconstruction was supported by identification of 20 out of 33 AA9 LPMOs in the SBH cultures. The results highlight the suitability of P. anserina as a source of plant cell wall degrading enzymes for biotechnological applications and the importance of selecting the most optimal substrate for the production of enzyme mixtures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Han, Xiaocui; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    A precise quantification of insect chitin is needed in order to avoid overestimation of crude protein due to chitin-bound nitrogen. An UPLC/FLR method was optimized and validated for the determination of glucosamine (GlcN) hydrolyzed from chitin in insect materials. The method was applied for quantifying the chitin content in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus). A baseline separation was obtained using an Acquity HSS T3 C18 column, with an external calibration curve of excellent linearity, and a low limit of de-tection and quantification of GlcN. Even though the recovery of GlcN from spiked cricket material was slightly lower compared to that using spectrophotometric method, the UPLC/FLR method proved a sensitive and specific method of quantification of insect chitin. Chitin contents in T. molitor and A. domesticus were 4.6 +/- 0.1% and 4.5 +/- 0.0% on dry matter basis, respectively. Less than 0.01% of chitin was present in insect protein-enriched fractions extracted with 0.1 N NaCl at pH 10.
  • Christita, Margaretta; Sipila, Timo P.; Auzane, Agate; Overmyer, Kirk (2022)
    The phyllosphere is an important microbial habitat and reservoir of organisms that modify plant health. Taphrina betulina is the causal agent of birch witches' broom disease. Taphrina species are dimorphic, infecting hosts in the filamentous form and residing in the host phyllosphere as non-infectious yeast. As such, they are expected to be found as resident yeasts on their hosts, even on healthy tissues; however, there is little experimental data supporting this supposition. With the aim of exploring the local infection ecology of T. betulina, we isolated yeasts from the phyllosphere of birch leaves, using three sample classes; infected leaves inside symptom-bearing branches, healthy leaves from symptom-free branches on symptom-bearing trees and leaves from symptom-free branches on symptom-free trees. Isolations yielded 224 yeast strains, representing 11 taxa, including T. betulina, which was the most common isolate and was found in all sample classes, including symptom-free samples. Genotyping revealed genetic diversity among these T. betulina isolates, with seven distinct genotypes differentiated by the markers used. Twenty-two representative T. betulina strains were selected for further study, revealing further phenotypic differences. These findings support that T. betulina is ubiquitous on birch and that individual trees host a diversity of T. betulina strains.
  • Ahmadinia, Saleh; Palviainen, Marjo; Kiuru, Petri; Routa, Johanna; Sikanen, Lauri; Urzainki, Inaki; Laurén, Annamari (Ari) (2022)
    Storing is an important part in the value chain of the energy use of forest chips as severe losses of dry mass and energy content and increases in greenhouse gas emissions may occur. During the storage the temperature in the biomass increases affecting the dry mass loss and the material drying. In a field-scale experiment, we monitored temperature inside two uncovered wood chip piles for 175 days and measured the chip gravimetric moisture content at the beginning and end of the experiment. In the laboratory the drying rate of the wood chips under different temperature and relative humidity conditions was determined. We constructed a new two-dimensional simulation model where water vapor diffusion within the pile, and chip moisture change was solved using a finite volume method. The determined chip drying rate was used as a source term in the simulation. The simulation model results were in close agreement with the experimental data in the middle sections of the pile, whereas the model was not able to describe the chip moisture redistribution in the pile tails. Modeling revealed that the pile size and porosity were important factors in determining the chip drying, which indicates that chip drying can be controlled by management, such as planning of pile dimensions and compaction.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi; Schmidt, Alexander (2020)
    Fruticose lichens of the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. (Parmeliaceae), generally known as beard lichens, are among the most iconic epiphytic lichens in modern forest ecosystems. Many of the c. 350 currently recognized species are widely distributed and have been used as bioindicators in air pollution studies. Here we demonstrate that usneoid lichens were present in the Palaeogene amber forests of Europe. Based on general morphology and annular cortical fragmentation, one fossil from Baltic amber can be assigned to the extant genus Usnea. The unique type of cortical cracking indirectly demonstrates the presence of a central cord that keeps the branch intact even when its cortex is split into vertebrae-like segments. This evolutionary innovation has remained unchanged since the Palaeogene, contributing to the considerable ecological flexibility that allows Usnea species to flourish in a wide variety of ecosystems and climate regimes. The fossil sets the minimum age for Usnea to 34 million years (late Eocene). While the other similar fossils from Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers cannot be definitely assigned to the same genus, they underline the diversity of pendant lichens in Palaeogene amber forests.
  • Kantelinen, Annina; Purhonen, Jenna; Halme, Panu; Myllys, Leena (2022)
    Lichens have a vital role in forest ecosystems and they are a threatened group in boreal forests. However, the conservation ecology of the total lichen community has very rarely been studied. Here we studied lichen species and communities, including macrolichens (=foliose and fruticose growth forms) and rarely studied crustose li-chens, on decaying wood in boreal spruce-dominated forests in Finland. We also studied obligate lignicoles that grow only on dead wood and are mostly crustose in growth form. Species richness and community composition were examined on decaying logs and natural or cut stumps of Picea abies at different decay stages (2-5) in 14 stands, half of which were natural or seminatural and half recently managed. We used thorough search to yield a species list as close to complete as possible. Our study questions were: 1) Are species richness and lichen communities different in natural and managed forests, and if so, are there differences between macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles in how they respond to forest management? 2) How does the decay stage and dead wood type affect the lichens, i.e. are there differences between stumps and logs? We found a total of 127 lichen species. Most (75 %) of the recorded lichen species were crustose. With a generalized linear model we found that crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles had a higher species richness in natural than managed forests, but macrolichen richness was not significantly affected by forest management. Utilizing non-metric multidi-mensional scaling we discovered that site level community composition of macrolichens, crustose lichens and obligate lignicoles was also significantly different between natural and managed forests. We found that on dead wood unit level the decay stage had a significant effect on species richness and community composition, so that the species richness of all studied groups declined during the decay process. The dead wood type (stump vs log) had a significant effect on species richness of macrolichens and obligate lignicoles, both for which species richness was higher on logs than on stumps, as well as on the communities of crustose lichens.
  • Karlsson, Magnus; Durling, Mikael Brandstrom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kosawang, Chatchai; Lackner, Gerald; Tzelepis, Georgios D.; Nygren, Kristiina; Dubey, Mukesh K.; Kamou, Nathalie; Levasseur, Anthony; Zapparata, Antonio; Wang, Jinhui; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Jensen, Birgit; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Panteris, Emmanuel; Lagopodi, Anastasia L.; Poeggeler, Stefanie; Vannacci, Giovanni; Collinge, David B.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jensen, Dan Funck (2015)
  • Haak, Bastiaan W.; Argelaguet, R.; Kinsella, C.M.; Kullberg, R.F.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Deijs, M.; Klein, M.; Jebbink, M.F.; Hugenholtz, F.; Kostidis, S.; Giera, M.; Hakvoort, T.B.M.; De Jonge, W.J.; Schultz, M.J.; Gool, T.V.; Van Der Poll, T.; De Vos, W.M.; Van Der Hoek, L.M.; Wiersingaa, W. Joost (2021)
    Bacterial microbiota play a critical role in mediating local and systemic immunity, and shifts in these microbial communities have been linked to impaired outcomes in critical illness. Emerging data indicate that other intestinal organisms, including bacteriophages, viruses of eukaryotes, fungi, and protozoa, are closely interlinked with the bacterial microbiota and their host, yet their collective role during antibiotic perturbation and critical illness remains to be elucidated. We employed multi-omics factor analysis (MOFA) to systematically integrate the bacterial (16S rRNA), fungal (intergenic transcribed spacer 1 rRNA), and viral (virus discovery next generation sequencing) components of the intestinal microbiota of 33 critically ill patients with and without sepsis and 13 healthy volunteers. In addition, we quantified the absolute abundances of bacteria and fungi using 16S and 18S rRNA PCRs and characterized the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, acetate, and propionate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observe that a loss of the anaerobic intestinal environment is directly correlated with an overgrowth of aerobic pathobionts and their corresponding bacteriophages as well as an absolute enrichment of opportunistic yeasts capable of causing invasive disease. We also observed a strong depletion of SCFAs in both disease states, which was associated with an increased absolute abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria. Therefore, these findings illustrate the complexity of transkingdom changes following disruption of the intestinal bacterial microbiome. IMPORTANCE While numerous studies have characterized antibiotic-induced disruptions of the bacterial microbiome, few studies describe how these disruptions impact the composition of other kingdoms such as viruses, fungi, and protozoa. To address this knowledge gap, we employed MOFA to systematically integrate viral, fungal, and bacterial sequence data from critically ill patients (with and without sepsis) and healthy volunteers, both prior to and following exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. In doing so, we show that modulation of the bacterial component of the microbiome has implications extending beyond this kingdom alone, enabling the overgrowth of potentially invasive fungi and viruses. While numerous preclinical studies have described similar findings in vitro, we confirm these observations in humans using an integrative analytic approach. These findings underscore the potential value of multi-omics data integration tools in interrogating how different components of the microbiota contribute to disease states. In addition, our findings suggest that there is value in further studying potential adjunctive therapies using anaerobic bacteria or SCFAs to reduce fungal expansion after antibiotic exposure, which could ultimately lead to improved outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU).
  • Vesth, Tammi C.; Nybo, Jane L.; Theobald, Sebastian; Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Hoof, Jakob B.; Brandl, Julian; Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Gladden, John M.; Phatale, Pallavi; Nielsen, Morten T.; Lyhne, Ellen K.; Kogle, Martin E.; Strasser, Kimchi; McDonnell, Erin; Barry, Kerrie; Clum, Alicia; Chen, Cindy; LaButti, Kurt; Haridas, Sajeet; Nolan, Matt; Sandor, Laura; Kuo, Alan; Hainaut, Matthieu; Drula, Elodie; Tsang, Adrian; Magnuson, Jon K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; Simmons, Blake A.; Makela, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R. (2018)
    Aspergillus section Nigri comprises filamentous fungi relevant to biomedicine, bioenergy, health, and biotechnology. To learn more about what genetically sets these species apart, as well as about potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, we sequenced 23 genomes de novo, forming a full genome compendium for the section (26 species), as well as 6 Aspergillus niger isolates. This allowed us to quantify both inter-and intraspecies genomic variation. We further predicted 17,903 carbohydrateactive enzymes and 2,717 secondary metabolite gene clusters, which we condensed into 455 distinct families corresponding to compound classes, 49% of which are only found in single species. We performed metabolomics and genetic engineering to correlate genotypes to phenotypes, as demonstrated for the metabolite aurasperone, and by heterologous transfer of citrate production to Aspergillus nidulans. Experimental and computational analyses showed that both secondary metabolism and regulation are key factors that are significant in the delineation of Aspergillus species.
  • Stendahl, Johan; Berg, Björn; Lindahl, Björn D. (2017)
    Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R-2 = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon. In comparison, established ecosystem models applied on the same data have failed to predict carbon stocks (R-2 <0.05), and in our study manganese availability overshadowed both litter production and climatic factors. We also identified exchangeable potassium as an additional strong predictor, however strongly correlated with manganese. The negative correlation between manganese and carbon highlights the importance of Mn-peroxidases in oxidative decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter. The results support the idea that the fungus-driven decomposition could be a critical factor regulating humus carbon accumulation in boreal forests, as Mn-peroxidases are specifically produced by basidiomycetes.
  • Zhou, Xuan; Sun, Hui; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank (2022)
    Microbial biodiversity plays the dominant role in soil carbon emissions in fire-disturbed boreal forests. Microbial communities often possess enormous diversity, raising questions about whether this diversity drives ecosystem functioning, especially the influence of diversity on soil decomposition and respiration. Although functional redundancy is widely observed in soil microorganisms, evidence that species occupy distinct metabolic niches has also emerged. In this paper, we found that apart from the environmental variables, increases in microbial diversity, notably bacterial diversity, lead to an increase in soil C emissions. This was demonstrated using structural equation modelling (SEM), linking soil respiration with naturally differing levels of soil physio-chemical properties, vegetation coverage, and microbial diversity after fire disturbance. Our SEMs also revealed that models including bacterial diversity explained more variation of soil CO2 emissions (about 45%) than fungal diversity (about 38%). A possible explanation of this discrepancy is that fungi are more multifunctional than bacteria and, therefore, an increase in fungal diversity does not necessarily change soil respiration. Further analysis on functional gene structure suggested that bacterial and fungal diversities mainly explain the potential decomposition of recalcitrant C compare with that of labile C. Overall, by incorporating microbial diversity and the environmental variables, the predictive power of models on soil C emission was significantly improved, indicating microbial diversity is crucial for predicting ecosystem functions.
  • Kovalchuk, Andriy; Mukrimin, Mukrimin; Zeng, Zhen; Raffaello, Tommaso; Liu, Mengxia; Kasanen, Risto; Sun, Hui; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2018)
    Plant microbiome plays an important role in maintaining the host fitness. Despite a significant progress in our understanding of the plant microbiome achieved in the recent years, very little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on composition of microbial communities associated with trees. In this study, we analysed the mycobiome of different anatomic parts of asymptomatic and symptomatic Norway spruce trees naturally infected by Heterobasidion spp. We also investigated the primary impact of the disease on the fungal communities, which are associated with Norway spruce trees. Our results demonstrate that the structure of fungal communities residing in the wood differed significantly among symptomatic and asymptomatic Heterobasidion-infected trees. However, no significant differences were found in the other anatomic regions of the trees. The results also show that not only each of individual tree tissues (wood, bark, needles and roots) harbours a unique fungal community, but also that symptomatic trees were more susceptible to co-infection by other wood-degrading fungi compared to the asymptomatic ones.
  • Miettinen, Otto; Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Rivoire, Bernard; Stenroos, Soili; Hibbett, David (2016)
    We explored whether DNA-phylogeny-based and morphology-based genus concepts can be reconciled in the basidiomycete family Phanerochaetaceae. Our results show that macromorphology of fruiting bodies and hymenophore construction do not reflect monophyletic groups. However, by integrating micromorphology and re-defining genera, harmonization of DNA phylogeny and morphological genus concepts is possible in most cases. In the case of one genus (Phlebiopsis), our genetic markers could not resolve genus limits satisfactorily and a clear morphological definition could not be identified. We combine extended species sampling, microscopic studies of fruiting bodies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS, nLSU and rpb1 to revise genus concepts. Three new polypore genera are ascribed to the Phanerochaetaceae: Oxychaete gen. nov. (type Oxyporus cervinogilvus), Phanerina gen. nov. (type Ceriporia mellea), and Riopa (including Ceriporia metamorphosa and Riopa pudens sp. nov.). Phlebiopsis is extended to include Dentocorticium pilatii, further species of Hjortstamia and the monotypic polypore genus Castanoporus. The polypore Ceriporia inflata is combined into Phanerochaete. The identity of the type species of the genus Riopa, R. davidii, has been misinterpreted in the current literature. The species has been included in Ceriporia as a species of its own or placed in synonymy with Ceriporia camaresiana. The effort to properly define R. davidii forced us to study Ceriporia more widely. In the process we identified five closely related Ceriporia species that belong to the true Ceriporia clade (Irpicaceae). We describe those species here, and introduce the Ceriporia pierii group. We also select a lectotype and an epitype for Riopa metamorphosa and neotypes for Sporotrichum aurantiacum and S. aurantium, the type species of the anamorphic genus Sporotrichum, and recommend that teleomorphic Riopa is conserved against it.