Browsing by Subject "FUSION"

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  • Tang, Zhipeng; Adhikari, Hari; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne (2021)
    Combined with increasing computing ability, the free and open access to Landsat archive has enabled the changes on the Earth’s surface to be monitored for almost 50 years. However, due to missing observations that result from clouds, cloud shadows, and scan line corrector failure, the Landsat data record is neither a continuous nor consistent time series. We present a new gap-filling method, Missing Observation Prediction based on Spectral-Temporal Metrics (MOPSTM), which uses spectral-temporal metrics computed from Landsat one-year time series and the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) regression. Herein, we demonstrate the performance of MOPSTM by using five, nearly cloud-free, full scene Landsat images from Kenya, Finland, Germany, the USA, and China. Cloud masks from the images with extensive cloud cover were used to simulate large-area gaps, with the highest value we tested being 92% of missing data. The gap-filling accuracy was assessed quantitatively considering all five sites and different land use/land cover types, and the MOPSTM algorithm performed better than the spectral angle-mapper based spatiotemporal similarity (SAMSTS) gap-filling algorithm. The mean RMSE values of MOPSTM were 0.010, 0.012, 0.025, 0.012, and 0.018 for the five sites, while those of SAMSTS were 0.011, 0.017, 0.038, 0.014, and 0.023, respectively. Furthermore, MOPSTM had mean coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.90, 0.86, 0.78, 0.92, and 0.89, which were higher than those for SAMSTS (0.84, 0.75, 0.55, 0.89, and 0.83). The performance of MOPSTM was not considerably affected by image gap sizes as images ranging from gap sizes of 51% of the image all the way to 92% of the image yielded similar gap-filling accuracy. Also, MOPSTM does not require local parametertuning except for the k values in the k-NN regression, and it can make a gap-free image from any acquisition date. MOPSTM provides a new spectral-temporal approach to generate the gap-free imagery for typical Landsat applications, such as land use, land cover, and forest monitoring.
  • Lutfullahoglu-Bal, Guleycan; Keskin, Abdurrahman; Seferoglu, Ayse Bengisu; Dunn, Cory D. (2017)
    Background: During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present-day eukaryotes. Mitochondria harbor proteomes derived from coding information located both inside and outside the organelle, and the rate-limiting step toward the formation of eukaryotic cells may have been development of an import apparatus allowing protein entry to mitochondria. Currently, a widely conserved translocon allows proteins to pass from the cytosol into mitochondria, but how proteins encoded outside of mitochondria were first directed to these organelles at the dawn of eukaryogenesis is not clear. Because several proteins targeted by a carboxyl-terminal tail anchor (TA) appear to have the ability to insert spontaneously into the mitochondrial outer membrane (OM), it is possible that self-inserting, tail-anchored polypeptides obtained from bacteria might have formed the first gate allowing proteins to access mitochondria from the cytosol. Results: Here, we tested whether bacterial TAs are capable of targeting to mitochondria. In a survey of proteins encoded by the proteobacterium Escherichia coli, predicted TA sequences were directed to specific subcellular locations within the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Importantly, TAs obtained from DUF883 family members ElaB and YqjD were abundantly localized to and inserted at the mitochondrial OM. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that eukaryotic cells are able to utilize membrane-targeting signals present in bacterial proteins obtained by lateral gene transfer, and our findings make plausible a model in which mitochondrial protein translocation was first driven by tail-anchored proteins.
  • Kivioja, Jarno; Lopez Marti, Jesus M.; Kumar, Ashwini; Kontro, Mika; Edgren, Henrik; Parsons, Alun; Lundan, Tuija; Wolf, Maija; Porkka, Kimmo; Heckman, Caroline (2018)
    The t(5;11)(q35;p15.4) is a clinically significant marker of poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is difficult to detect due to sub-telomeric localization of the breakpoints. To facilitate the detection of this rearrangement, we studied NUP98-NSD1 transcript variants in patients with the t(5;11) using paired-end RNA sequencing and standard molecular biology techniques. We discovered three NUP98-NSD1 transcripts with two fusion junctions (NUP98 exon 11-12/NSD1 exon 6), alternative 5' donor site in NUP98 exon 7, and NSD1 exon 7 skipping. Two of the transcripts were in-frame and occurred in all t(5;11) samples (N=5). The exonic splicing events were present in all samples (N=23) regardless of the NUP98-NSD1 suggesting that these novel splice events are unassociated with t(5;11). In conclusion, we provide evidence of two different NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts in adult AML, which result in functional proteins and represent suitable molecular entities for monitoring t(5;11) AML patients.
  • Hafez, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Tarik F.; Raj, Rahul; Antinheimo, Jussi; Siironen, Jari; Hernesniemi, Juha (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Most of the physician's attention during spinal surgery, when using wires and screws, is toward the avoidance of injuries of critical structures (nerves and vessels). When such wires are broken during surgery, the most important point is to take them out safely or, if it is impossible, to leaf them in secure place and follow the patient closely. Migrations of broken Kirschner wire (K-wire) are well known in literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, migration of a fractured K-wire during anterior atlantoaxial fixation of cervical spine has not been reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case in which a fractured K-wire was imbedded in the lateral mass of C1 for 3 years and then migrated to endanger the dominant right vertebral artery. By using posterior approach and drilling right part of posterior arch of C1, we manage to secure the vertebral artery. The broken K-wire was extracted successfully. In our case, with optimal follow-up, the burred wire inside hard bone was moved in delayed fashion to come out of the bone, grooving the dominant vertebral artery. CONCLUSIONS: Our recommendation is to inspect the K-wire before using it and to try retrieve as much as possible when removing it.
  • Luotamo, Markku; Yli-Heikkilä, Maria; Klami, Arto (2022)
    We consider the use of remote sensing for large-scale monitoring of agricultural land use, focusing on classification of tillage and vegetation cover for individual field parcels across large spatial areas. From the perspective of remote sensing and modelling, field parcels are challenging as objects of interest due to highly varying shape and size but relatively uniform pixel content and texture. To model such areas we need representations that can be reliably estimated already for small parcels and that are invariant to the size of the parcel. We propose representing the parcels using density estimates of remote imaging pixels and provide a computational pipeline that combines the representation with arbitrary supervised learning algorithms, while allowing easy integration of multiple imaging sources. We demonstrate the method in the task of the automatic monitoring of autumn tillage method and vegetation cover of Finnish crop fields, based on the integrated analysis of intensity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) polarity bands of the Sentinel-1 satellite and spectral indices calculated from Sentinel-2 multispectral image data. We use a collection of 127,757 field parcels monitored in April 2018 and annotated to six tillage method and vegetation cover classes, reaching 70% classification accuracy for test parcels when using both SAR and multispectral data. Besides this task, the method could also directly be applied for other agricultural monitoring tasks, such as crop yield prediction.
  • Leskinen, Anumaija; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna (2022)
    Development of H-3, C-14, Ca-41, Fe-55 and Ni-63 radiochemical analysis methods were carried out independently by two laboratories using both inactivate and activated concrete samples. Two preliminary radioanalytical procedures for the non-volatile radionuclides (Ca-41, Fe-55, Ni-63) and one Thermal oxidation method for the volatile radionuclides (H-3, C-14) were developed. The difficulties in the method development and analysis of results are discussed.
  • Benard-Slagter, Anne; Zondervan, Ilse; de Groot, Karel; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Sarhadi, Virinder; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; De Moerloose, Barbara; Schwab, Claire; Vettenranta, Kim; Harrison, Christine J.; Knuutila, Sakari; Schouten, Jan; Lammens, Tim; Savola, Suvi (2017)
    Recurrent and clonal genetic alterations are characteristic of different subtypes of T- and B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and several subtypes are strong independent predictors of clinical outcome. A next-generation sequencing based multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification variant (digitalMLPA) has been developed enabling simultaneous detection of copy number alterations (CNAs) of up to 1000 target sequences. This novel digitalMLPA assay was designed and optimized to detect CNAs of 56 key target genes and regions in ALL. A set of digital karyotyping probes has been included for the detection of gross ploidy changes, to determine the extent of CNAs, while also serving as reference probes for data normalization. Sixty-seven ALL patient samples (including B- and T-cell ALL), previously characterized for genetic aberrations by standard MLPA, array comparative genomic hybridization, and/or single-nucleotide polymorphism array, were analyzed single blinded using digitalMLPA. The digitalMLPA assay reliably identified whole chromosome losses and gains (including high hyperdiploidy), whole gene deletions or gains, intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21, fusion genes, and intragenic deletions, which were confirmed by other methods. Furthermore, subclonal alterations were reliably detected if present in at least 20% to 30% of neoplastic cells. The diagnostic sensitivity of the digitaLMLPA assay was 98.9%, and the specificity was 97.8%. These results merit further consideration of digitalMLPA as a valuable alternative for genetic work-up of newly diagnosed ALL patients.
  • Kazakov, Ye. O.; Alcator C-Mod Team; JET Contributors; Ahlgren, Tommy Juha; Aho-Mantila, L.; Airila, M.; Asunta, O.; Björkas, Carolina Maria Isabel; Groth, M.; Hakola, A.; Järvinen, A.; Karhunen, J.; Koivuranta, S.; Lahtinen, Aki Alvar; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane; Nordlund, Kai Henrik; Safi, Elnaz (2017)
    We describe a new technique for the efficient generation of high-energy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in multi-ion plasmas. The discussed three-ion scenarios are especially suited for strong wave absorption by a very low number of resonant ions. To observe this effect, the plasma composition has to be properly adjusted, as prescribed by theory. We demonstrate the potential of the method on the world-largest plasma magnetic confinement device, JET (Joint European Torus, Culham, UK), and the high-magnetic-field tokamak Alcator C-Mod (Cambridge, USA). The obtained results demonstrate efficient acceleration of He-3 ions to high energies in dedicated hydrogendeuterium mixtures. Simultaneously, effective plasma heating is observed, as a result of the slowing-down of the fast He-3 ions. The developed technique is not only limited to laboratory plasmas, but can also be applied to explain observations of energetic ions in space-plasma environments, in particular, He-3-rich solar flares.
  • Jalanko, T.; Helenius, I.; Pakarinen, M.; Koivusalo, A. (2018)
    Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of consecutively operated neuromuscular scoliosis patients. Background and Aim: Surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis can be complicated by early gastrointestinal complications, but data on the extent and severity of them is scarce. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, course, and risk factors of gastrointestinal complications after neuromuscular scoliosis correction. Material and Methods: Ninety-one patients ( Results: The average age at surgery was 14.5 (SD 2.9) and follow-up time was 4.9 (SD 2.3) years. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 12 (13%) patients and included prolonged paralytic ileus (7%, 6/91), dysphagia (7%, 6/91), and gastroparesis (1%, 1/91). Hospital stay was 22 (SD 11) days in patients with gastrointestinal complications and 16 (SD 20) days in non-complicated patients (p = 0.005). Dysphagia required permanent feeding gastrostomy in one patient whereas other complications were transient and none caused death. The risk factors for postoperative gastrointestinal complications were preoperative main curve correction 90 degrees (RR = 5.5 (95% CI 1.3-23); p = 0.020), disturbance in intraoperative spinal cord monitoring (RR = 6.0 (95% CI 1.1-34); p = 0.043), and intravenous opioid medication over 5 days postoperatively (RR = 7.9 (95% CI 1.8-35), p = 0.006). Conclusion: Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 13% of patients after neuromuscular scoliosis correction. Marked gastrointestinal complications extended postoperative hospitalization period, but they were transient in majority (92%) of cases and none caused death. Rigid scoliosis was the most significant risk factor for gastrointestinal complications. Gastrointestinal complications appear to be less frequent after posterior only spinal fusion with total pedicle screw instrumentation and Ponte osteotomies.
  • Herring, Shawn; Oda, Jessica M.; Wagoner, Jessica; Kirchmeier, Delaney; O'Connor, Aidan; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Qinfeng; Liang, Yuying; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Johansen, Lisa M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Olinger, Gene G.; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Aittokallio, Tero; Paine, Mary F.; Fink, Susan L.; White, Judith M.; Polyak, Stephen J. (2021)
    Neglected diseases caused by arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) and filoviruses like Ebola virus (EBOV) primarily afflict resource-limited countries, where antiviral drug development is often minimal. Previous studies have shown that many approved drugs developed for other clinical indications inhibit EBOV and LASV and that combinations of these drugs provide synergistic suppression of EBOV, often by blocking discrete steps in virus entry. We hypothesize that repurposing of combinations of orally administered approved drugs provides effective suppression of arenaviruses. In this report, we demonstrate that arbidol, an approved influenza antiviral previously shown to inhibit EBOV, LASV, and many other viruses, inhibits murine leukemia virus (MLV) reporter viruses pseudotyped with the fusion glycoproteins (GPs) of other arenaviruses (Junin virus (JUNV], lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Pichinde virus (PICA). Arbidol and other approved drugs, including aripiprazole, amodiaquine, sertraline, and niclosamide, also inhibit infection of cells by infectious PICV, and arbidol, sertraline, and niclosamide inhibit infectious LASV. Combining arbidol with aripiprazole or sertraline results in the synergistic suppression of LASV and JUNV GP-bearing pseudoviruses. This proof-of-concept study shows that arenavirus infection in vitro can be synergistically inhibited by combinations of approved drugs. This approach may lead to a proactive strategy with which to prepare for and control known and new arenavirus outbreaks.
  • Palmroth, Maaria; Viskari, Hanna; Seppänen, Mikko R. J.; Keskitalo, Salla; Virtanen, Anniina; Varjosalo, Markku; Silvennoinen, Olli; Isomäki, Pia (2021)
    Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) is a transcriptional coregulator that has an important role in the regulation of the immune response. IRF2BP2 has been associated with the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway, but its exact role remains elusive. Here, we identified a novel clinical variant, IRF2BP2 c.625_665del, from two members of a family with inflammatory conditions and investigated the function of IRF2BP2 and c.625_665del mutation in JAK-STAT pathway activation and inflammatory signaling. The levels of constitutive and cytokine-induced phosphorylation of STATs and total STAT1 in peripheral blood monocytes, T cells, and B cells from the patients and four healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry. Inflammation-related gene expression was studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using direct digital detection of mRNA (NanoString). Finally, we studied the relationship between IRF2BP2 and STAT1 activation using a luciferase reporter system in a cell model. Our results show that patients having the IRF2BP2 c.625_665del mutation presented overexpression of STAT1 protein and increased constitutive activation of STAT1. In addition, interferon-induced JAK-STAT signaling was upregulated, and several interferon-inducible genes were overexpressed. Constitutive phosphorylation of STAT5 was also found to be upregulated in CD4(+) T cells from the patients. Using a cell model, we show that IRF2BP2 was needed to attenuate STAT1 transcriptional activity and that IRF2BP2 c.625_665del mutation failed in this. We conclude that IRF2BP2 has an important role in suppressing immune responses elicited by STAT1 and STAT5 and suggest that aberrations in IRF2BP2 can lead to abnormal function of intrinsic immunity.
  • Kyrölä, K.; Kautiainen, H.; Pekkanen, L.; Mäkelä, P.; Kiviranta, I.; Häkkinen, A. (2019)
    Background and Aims: Adult spinal deformity surgery has increased with the aging population and modern surgical approaches, although it has high complication and reoperation rates. The permanence of radiographic correction, mechanical complications, predictive factors for poor patient-reported outcomes, and patient satisfaction were analyzed. Material and Methods: A total of 79 adult patients were retrospectively analyzed at baseline and 1-9 years after adult spinal deformity correction between 2007 and 2016. Patient-reported outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale, and Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores), changes in radiographic alignment, indications for reoperation, predictors of poor outcomes according to the Oswestry Disability Index and Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores, and patient satisfaction with management were studied. Results: Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale scores (p = 0.001), radiographic correction of thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and pelvic retroversion (p
  • Battersby, Brendan; Richter, Uwe; Safronov, Omid (2019)
    Proteotoxicity has long been considered a key factor in mitochondrial dysfunction and human disease. The origin of the endogenous offending toxic substrates and the regulatory pathways to deal with these insults, however, have remained unclear. Mitochondria maintain a compartmentalized gene expression system that in animals is only responsible for synthesis of 1% of the organelle proteome. Because of the relatively small contribution of the mitochondrial genome to the overall proteome, the synthesis and quality control of these nascent chains to maintain organelle proteostasis has long been overlooked. However, recent research has uncovered mechanisms by which defects to the quality control of mitochondrial gene expression are linked to a novel cellular stress response that impinges upon organelle form and function and cell fitness. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms for a key event in the response: activation of the metalloprotease OMA1. This severs the membrane tether of the dynamin-related GTPase OPA1, which is a critical determinant for mitochondrial morphology and function. We also highlight the evolutionary conservation from bacteria of these quality-control mechanisms to maintain membrane integrity, gene expression, and cell fitness.
  • Amini, Poorya; Stojkov, Darko; Felser, Andrea; Jackson, Christopher B.; Courage, Carolina; Schaller, Andre; Gelman, Laurent; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Scorrano, Luca; Benarafa, Charaf; Yousefi, Shida; Simon, Hans-Uwe (2018)
    Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important role in the innate immune system. Using conditional knockout mice lacking Opa1 in neutrophils (Opa1(N Delta)), we report that lack of OPA1 reduces the activity of mitochondrial electron transport complex I in neutrophils. This then causes a decline in adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) production through glycolysis due to lowered NAD(+) availability. Additionally, we show that OPA1-dependent ATP production in these cells is required for microtubule network assembly and for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Finally, we show that Opa1(N Delta) mice exhibit a reduced antibacterial defense capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Shah, Saundarya; Jäntti, Jussi; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Rosenmund, Christian (2021)
    OSBP-homologous proteins (ORPs, Oshp) are lipid binding/transfer proteins. Several ORP/Oshp localize to membrane contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane, where they mediate lipid transfer or regulate lipid-modifying enzymes. A common way in which they target contacts is by binding to the ER proteins, VAP/Scs2p, while the second membrane is targeted by other interactions with lipids or proteins. We have studied the cross-talk of secretory SNARE proteins and their regulators with ORP/Oshp and VAPA/Scs2p at ER-plasma membrane contact sites in yeast and murine primary neurons. We show that Oshp-Scs2p interactions depend on intact secretory SNARE proteins, especially Sec9p. SNAP-25/Sec9p directly interact with ORP/Osh proteins and their disruption destabilized the ORP/Osh proteins, associated with dysfunction of VAPA/Scs2p. DeletingOSH1-3in yeast or knocking down ORP2 in primary neurons reduced the oligomerization of VAPA/Scs2p and affected their multiple interactions with SNAREs. These observations reveal a novel cross-talk between the machineries of ER-plasma membrane contact sites and those driving exocytosis.
  • Kalinichenko, A; Casoni, GP; Dupre, L; Trotta, L; Huemer, J; Galgano, D; German, Y; Haladik, B; Pazmandi, J; Thian, M; Petronczki, OY; Chiang, SC; Taskinen, M; Hekkala, A; Kauppila, S; Lindgren, O; Tapiainen, T; Kraakman, MJ; Vettenranta, K; Lomakin, AJ; Saarela, J; Seppanen, MRJ; Bryceson, YT; Boztug, K (2021)
    Exocytosis of cytotoxic granules (CG) by lymphocytes is required for the elimination of infected and malignant cells. Impairments in this process underly a group of diseases with dramatic hyperferritinemic inflammation termed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Although genetic and functional studies of HLH have identified proteins controlling distinct steps of CG exocytosis, the molecular mechanisms that spatiotemporally coordinate CG release remain partially elusive. We studied a patient exhibiting characteristic clinical features of HLH associated with markedly impaired cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell exocytosis functions, who beared biallelic deleterious mutations in the gene encoding the small GTPase RhoG. Experimental ablation of RHOG in a model cell line and primary CTLs from healthy individuals uncovered a hitherto unappreciated role of RhoG in retaining CGs in the vicinity of the plasma membrane (PM), a fundamental prerequisite for CG exocytotic release. We discovered that RhoG engages in a protein-protein interaction with Munc13-4, an exocytosis protein essential for CG fusion with the PM. We show that this interaction is critical for docking of Munc13-41 CGs to the PM and subsequent membrane fusion and release of CG content. Thus, our study illuminates RhoG as a novel essential regulator of human lymphocyte cytotoxicity and provides the molecular pathomechanism behind the identified here and previously unreported genetically determined form of HLH.
  • Pfisterer, Simon; Gateva, Gergana; Horvath, Peter; Pirhonen, Juho; Salo, Veijo T.; Karhinen, Leena; Varjosalo, Markku; Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Lappalainen, Pekka; Ikonen, Elina (2017)
    Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular organelles specialized in triacylglycerol (TG) storage undergoing homotypic clustering and fusion. In non-adipocytic cells with numerous LDs this is balanced by poorly understood droplet dissociation mechanisms. We identify non-muscle myosin IIa (NMIIa/MYH-9) and formin-like 1 (FMNL1) in the LD proteome. NMIIa and actin filaments concentrate around LDs, and form transient foci between dissociating LDs. NMIIa depletion results in decreased LD dissociations, enlarged LDs, decreased hydrolysis and increased storage of TGs. FMNL1 is required for actin assembly on LDs in vitro and for NMIIa recruitment to LDs in cells. We propose a novel acto-myosin structure regulating lipid storage: FMNL1-dependent assembly of myosin II-functionalized actin filaments on LDs facilitates their dissociation, thereby affecting LD surface-to-volume ratio and enzyme accessibility to TGs. In neutrophilic leucocytes from MYH9-related disease patients NMIIa inclusions are accompanied by increased lipid storage in droplets, suggesting that NMIIa dysfunction may contribute to lipid imbalance in man.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Pekkanen, Juska; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Viinikainen, Jussi; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    A search for nonresonant production of Higgs boson pairs via gluon-gluon and vector boson fusion processes in final states with two bottom quarks and two photons is presented. The search uses data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb(-1). No significant deviation from the background-only hypothesis is observed. An upper limit at 95% confidence level is set on the product of the Higgs boson pair production cross section and branching fraction into gamma gamma b (b) over bar. The observed (expected) upper limit is determined to be 0.67 (0.45) fb, which corresponds to 7.7 (5.2) times the standard model prediction. This search has the highest sensitivity to Higgs boson pair production to date. Assuming all other Higgs boson couplings are equal to their values in the standard model, the observed coupling modifiers of the trilinear Higgs boson self-coupling kappa(lambda) and the coupling between a pair of Higgs bosons and a pair of vector bosons c(2V) are constrained within the ranges -3.3 < kappa(lambda) < 8.5 and -1.3 < c(2V) < 3.5 at 95% confidence level. Constraints on kappa(lambda) are also set by combining this analysis with a search for single Higgs bosons decaying to two photons, produced in association with top quark-antiquark pairs, and by performing a simultaneous fit of kappa(lambda) and the top quark Yukawa coupling modifier kappa(t).
  • Tang, Zhipeng; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne (2022)
    The number of Landsat time-series applications has grown substantially because of its approximately 50-year history and relatively high spatial resolution for observing long term changes in the Earth's surface. However, missing observations (i.e., gaps) caused by clouds and cloud shadows, orbit and sensing geometry, and sensor issues have broadly limited the development of Landsat time-series applications. Due to the large area and temporal and spatial irregularity of time-series gaps, it is difficult to find an efficient and highly precise method to fill them. The Missing Observation Prediction based on Spectral-Temporal Metrics (MOPSTM) method has been proposed and delivered good performance in filling large-area gaps of single-date Landsat images. However, it can be less practical for a time series longer than one year due to the lack of mechanics that exclude dissimilar data in time series (e.g., different phenology or changes in land cover). To solve this problem, this study proposes a new gap-filling method, Spectral Temporal Information for Missing Data Reconstruction (STIMDR), and examines its performance in Landsat reflectance time series. Two groups of experiments, including 2000 x 2000 pixel Landsat single-date images and Landsat time series acquired from four sites (Kenya, Finland, Germany, and China), were performed to test the new method. We simulated artificial gaps to evaluate predicted pixel values with real observations. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of gap-filled images through comparisons with other state-of-the-art methods confirmed the more robust and accurate performance of the proposed method. In addition, the proposed method was also able to fill gaps contaminated by extreme cloud cover for a period (e.g., winter in high-latitude areas). A down-stream task of random forest supervised classification through both gap-filled simulated datasets and the original valid datasets verified that STIMDR-generated products are relevant to the user community for land cover applications.