Browsing by Subject "Faba bean"

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  • Liu, Fengyuan; Kariluoto, Susanna; Edelmann, Minnamari; Piironen, Vieno (2021)
    Cereals and legumes are rich in folate. However, due to the instability of folate, processing and digestion can induce significant folate loss. In this paper, folate bioaccessibility of faba bean, oat, rye and wheat flours and pastes was studied using a static in vitro digestion model. Folate bioaccessibility depended on food matrices, varying from 42% to 67% in flours and from 40% to 123% in pastes. Digestion was associated with the inter conversion of formyl folates, as well as the increase of oxidised vitamers and decrease of reduced vitamers. Especially in faba bean, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate showed surprisingly good stability both in digestion and heat treatment, resulting in high bioaccessibility. The physiological concentration of ascorbic acid did not stabilise folate in digestion; however, a higher level helped to maintain reduced vitamers. Heat treatment (10-min paste making) could improve folate bioaccessibility by liberating folate from the food matrices and by altering folate vitamer distribution.
  • Tuccillo, Fabio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    As the number of vegetarians and flexitarians is increasing, the demand for meat alternatives is following the same trend. Faba bean is a promising crop for environmental, health, and social reasons. From its seeds, several products can be produced, such as flour, protein concentrate, and protein isolate. These materials can be further processed for the development of texturized vegetable proteins. In this context, high moisture extrusion (HME) is an innovative technology, which requires more water, but milder temperatures than the more studied low moisture extrusion. The present thesis aimed at covering the current knowledge gap on this technology, by focusing on the flavor aspect of faba bean-based meat alternatives. The volatile profile of faba bean flour, protein concentrate, protein isolate, and mixtures was studied before and after high moisture extrusion by means of HS-SPME-GC-MS. Comparisons were made between raw materials (flour, protein concentrate, protein isolate, mixtures) and extrudates. The effect of the origin (Canadian and Finnish) of the protein concentrate was also investigated. Materials were also characterized for the following aspects: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, lipid-degrading enzymes (lipase and lipoxygenase), free amino acids, and free mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. Several classes of volatile compounds were observed in both raw materials and extrudates, namely organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, furans, esters, ketones, nitro compounds, and terpenes. Many compounds were characteristic of only one material, demonstrating that the formation of certain volatiles was product dependent. However, some other compounds were found in all materials, such as 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-pentylfuran. Literature addresses these compounds as responsible for the beany flavor. HME caused the inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase but did not prevent the formation of lipid oxidation products. Products from Maillard reaction were not found in the extrudates. After HME, 1-hexanol levels decreased, whereas the abundance of 2-pentylfuran significantly increased. The behavior of hexanal after HME was less stable and predictable than the two beforementioned compounds. Not only these novel findings could have application in product development, but they also laid the basis for further research aimed at improving the flavor of faba bean.
  • Wang, Yaqin; Sorvali, Päivi; Laitila, Arja; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Coda, Rossana; Katina, Kati (2018)
    The incorporation of faba bean flour into wheat-based products is a sustainable way to obtain protein-enriched food items. However, developing breads with a higher content of faba bean flour is challenging due to the poor textural/sensory properties of the final product. A potential solution is to use hydrocolloids as structuring agents to increase the viscoelastic properties of the composite bread. Microbial dextran is a natural hydrocolloid which can be used as a bread texture improver either as a pure food ingredient or by in situ production during sourdough fermentation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of dextran produced in situ by Weissella confusa VTT E-143403 (E3403) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 in faba bean sourdoughs on the quality of wheat bread supplemented with 43% faba bean sourdough. The impact of dextran on the rheological properties of dough and textural properties of the final bread were evaluated. Dextran formed by W. confusa and L. pseudomesenteroides reached a level of 5.2 and 3.6% (flour basis), respectively. Incorporation of faba bean sourdough containing dextran synthesized by W. confusa improved the dough viscoelastic properties, and also increased the specific volume (similar to 21%) and reduced crumb hardness (similar to 12%) of the final bread, compared to control breads. Similar positive effects were not obtained with sourdough containing dextran from L. pseudomesenteroides, probably due to its higher acidity. Dextran synthesized in situ by W. confusa is a promising clean label hydrocolloid option to improve the quality of wheat bread enriched with faba bean flour.
  • Wang, Changyin (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a widely-cultivated legume with high nutritional value, especially rich in protein. However, the presence of antinutitional factors (e.g. phytic acid, condensed tannins, vicine and convicine and others) are hindering its utilization. Lactic acid fermentation is widely applied in food production and it is closely related with the promotion of nutritional, technological and health properties of the fermented food. The aim of this master’s thesis was to explore several functional characteristics of 28 lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from Italian and Finnish faba bean sourdoughs. In this study, phytase activity, β-glucosidase activity and the effect on degradation of condensed tannins, which are potentially directed towards reduction of anti-nutritional factors, were investigated. Three peptidase activities and dextran production capacity of the isolates were also evaluated. Besides, six antibiotics were used to study antibiotic susceptibility among the strains. Leuconostoc mesenteroides I01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus I214 expressed the highest phytase activity while P. pentosaceus I02, F01, F213 had the highest β-glucosidase activity. P. pentosaceus F15 was the most effective to decrease condensed tannins. Among analyzed peptidases, PepL showed the highest activity, especially in Pediococcus strains. High dextran production capacity was observed among isolates of Weissella spp. The strains showing functional traits could be used as starter to improve the nutritional and technological properties of faba bean. Further investigation is still ongoing to evaluate other properties of these lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for faba bean and legume fermentation.
  • Adunola, Paul Motunrayo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Lipoxygenase enzymes, which contribute significantly to storage protein in legume seeds have been reported to cause the emission of volatile compounds associated with the generation of off-flavours. This is an are important factor limiting the acceptance of faba bean (Vicia faba) I foods. This study aimed at using bioinformatic tools to identify seed-borne lipoxygenase (LOX) genes and to design a biological tool using molecular techniques to find changes in sequence in faba bean lines. LOX gene mining by Exonerate sequence comparison on the whole genome sequence of faba bean was used to identify six LOX genes containing Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-Toxin (PLAT) and/or LH2 LOX domains. Their sequence properties, evolutionary relationships, important conserved LOX motifs and subcellular location were analysed. The LOX gene proteins identified contained 272 – 853 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight ranged from 23.67 kDa in Gene 6 to 96.45 kDA in Gene 1. All the proteins had isoelectric points in the acidic range except Genes 6 and 7 which were alkaline. Only one gene had both LOX conserved domains with aa sequence length similar with that found in soybean and pea LOX genes and isoelectric properties with soybean LOX3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes were clustered into 9S LOX and 13S LOX types alongside other seed LOX genes in some legumes. Five motifs were found, and sequence analysis showed that three genes (Gene 1, 2 and 3) contained the 38-aa residue motif that includes five histidine residues [His-(X)4-His-(X)4-His-(X)17-His-(X)8-His]. The subcellular localization of the lipoxygenase proteins was predicted to be primarily the cytoplasm and chloroplast. Primers covering ~1.2 kb were designed, based on the conserved region of Genes 1, 2 and 3 nucleotide sequences. Gel electrophoresis showed the PCR amplification of the seed LOX gene at the expected region for twelve faba bean lines. Phylogenetic analysis showed evolutionary divergence among faba bean lines for sequenced and amplified region of their respective seed LOX alleles.
  • Coda, Rossana; Varis, Jutta; Verni, Michela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Katina, Kati (2017)
    The effects of the substitution of wheat flour with faba bean flour and faba bean sourdough on the properties of composite bread were investigated. Bread was prepared by replacing wheat flour with 30% of faba bean flour, native or after sourdough fermentation. The addition of faba bean flour influenced the structure of the breads, causing a slight decrease of volume and higher hardness compared to wheat bread. However, when fermented faba bean flour was added, the crumb porosity of the bread was not affected. The addition of 30% of faba bean flour increased wheat bread protein content from 11.6 up to 16.5% of dry matter. The addition of native faba bean flour did not affect the in vitro protein digestibility, resulting similar to wheat bread (64%). On the contrary, faba bean sourdough bread showed higher protein digestibility (73%). Generally, the addition of native faba bean flour caused an improvement of the nutritional indexes of the composite bread, further enhanced when fermentation was carried out. The free amino acid profile, protein chemical score, and biological value index were the highest in faba bean sourdough bread. In addition, the predicted glycemic index was the lowest in faba bean sourdough bread. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kianjam, Maryam (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The literature review deals with faba bean and the important effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on legumes. Particularly, the information about sourdough and LAB microbiota together with the main factors affecting sourdough microbial community is presented. A brief introduction regarding the methods used for LAB identification is also given. The main aim of the experimental study was to identify LAB microbiota in faba bean sourdoughs of two different varieties during backslopping procedure. Doughs from Italian (I) and Finnish (F) faba bean flours were spontaneously fermented and propagated daily through backslopping on a laboratory scale for 14 days. Samples were taken from selected propagation times (0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 14) for microbiological and biochemical analyses. The pH values and total titratable acidity (TTA) were monitored throughout the process. Analyses of organic acids and oligosaccharides of selected samples were carried out with HPLC methods at University of Bari, Italy. The identity of the LAB isolates was revealed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and the differentiation of LAB strains was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Minor changes occurred between I and F sourdoughs based on microbiological and biochemical analyses. However, several differences were found in LAB diversity between these two sourdoughs. More variety of LAB species and higher strains diversity were found in F faba bean sourdough. Besides Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella koreensis identified in both sourdoughs, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus lactis, and Weissella cibaria were only detected in F sourdough. In both sourdoughs, Pediococcus pentosaceus was predominant and persistent. Also, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was found as second frequent species in both sourdoughs. According to all analyses, the maturity of sourdoughs was achieved during 5 days of propagation. This study demonstrated the importance of flour type and composition on establishing microbial ecology of sourdough. The research study encourages exploring the potential of faba bean flour in sourdough-type fermentation and encourages further investigations on the identified isolates as starter cultures for fermented faba beans and faba bean-cereal products.
  • Yang, Zhen; Piironen, Vieno Irene; Lampi, Anna-Maija (2017)
    The aim was to study lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxygenase (PDX) activities in oat and faba bean samples to be able to evaluate their potential in formation of lipid-derived off-flavours. Lipase and LOX activities were measured by spectroscopy, and PDX activities via the formation of epoxides. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to study the formation of fatty acid epoxides. The epoxides of esters were measured by gas chromatography. Mass spectroscopy was used to verify the identity of the epoxides. Both oat and faba bean possessed high lipase activities. In faba bean, LOX catalysed the formation of hydroperoxides, whose break-down products are the likely cause of off-flavours. Since oat had low LOX activity, autoxidation is needed to initiate lipid oxidation. Oat had high PDX activity, which is able to convert hydroperoxides to epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids that could contribute significantly to off-flavours. PDX activity in the faba bean was low. Thus, in faba bean volatile lipid oxidation products could rapidly be formed by LOX, whereas in oat reactions are slower due to the need of autoxidation prior to further reactions.
  • Palermo, Ronald (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Soil acidity limits the growth and development of crops. Yield of plants decreases due to not only low pH conditions in acid soils but also dissolution of detrimental elements affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Aluminum toxicity have been one major cause of decline in yield due to the stunting of the primary root and inhibition of lateral root formation. Plants have ways to mitigate aluminum toxicity which includes Al exclusion mechanisms as a first defense to external Al ions and Al detoxifying mechanisms where Al ions are transported and sequestered inside the plant cells. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba or broad bean is one of the oldest crops grown for being a cheap but excellent foundation of protein in human diets, a good fodder and a forage crop for animals, and one of the most powerful nitrogen fixers. The crop is well adapted to low temperatures but moderately susceptible to hostile subsoils and has very low exchangeable Aluminum tolerance. Responsive varieties were previously identified but mechanisms to counteract with the conditions are still to be realized hence the study aimed to understanding the molecular mechanisms of rootzone aluminum toxicity tolerance in faba bean which was realized by using RNA-Seq technique to analyze the transcriptome of roots of faba bean exposed to acidic and aluminum stressed environment and by then, Al responsive genes were identified. The administration of stress was done in a aquaponics set-up. Results revealed that although gene directly interacting with Al was not identified, faba bean have a variety of well-adapted mechanisms to encounter with the Al stressed condition and mitigate the adverse effects to the plant growth and development which includes (1)transporter activity, (2)signaling(ROS), and (3)ubiquitination. The findings will provide valuable information for designing future crop breeding programs.
  • Yaqin, Wang (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Faba bean flour is a sustainable and relatively inexpensive way to make protein rich food in comparison with meat products, because it has high proteins content (rich in lysine (30%)) and considerable amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Even rough faba bean is widely cultivated and consumed, few data is available concerning the suitability to be fermented. The objective of this master’s thesis was to study the potential of sourdough fermentation of faba bean with selected lactic acid bacteria for in situ production of dextrans as texture forming components for various food applications. In this study, the growth and dextran formation by Leuconostoc and Weissella in faba bean sourdoughs were investigated. Eight lactic acid bacteria belonging to genera Leuconostoc and Weissella characterized for slime formation were used as starters for in situ formation of exopolysaccharides in faba bean flour. The growth of lactic acid bacteria, pH and acidity, and viscosity of different sourdoughs were analyzed. An enzyme assisted method and acid hydrolysis were used to analyze dextran content with further quantification by HPAEC-PAD. The amount of dextran formed by Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193, Leuc. mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939, Leuc. Citreum DSM 5577, W. cibaria LMG 17699, and W. cibaria Sj1b varied from 1.86 to 4.22 g kg-1 (wet weight), which allows the possibilities to use dextran as alternatives for hydrocolloids in food applications. The synthesized dextran increased significantly viscosity of sourdoughs. After fermentation, the amount of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) were decreased. The results of the sourdough fermented faba bean flours showed that Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Leuc. Mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939 were the most potential strains to produce dextrans and increase viscosity properties.
  • Coda, Rossana; Kianjam, Maryam; Pontonio, Erica; Verni, Michela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Katina, Kati; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco (2017)
    The microbial ecology of faba bean sourdoughs obtained from an Italian (Ita) and a Finnish (Fi) cultivar, belonging respectively to Vicia faba major and V. faba minor groups, was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and culture -dependent analysis. The sourdoughs were propagated with traditional backslapping procedure throughout 14 days. Higher microbial diversity was found in the sourdough deriving from V. faba minor (Fi), still containing residual hulls after the milling procedure. After 2 days of propagation, the microbial profile of Ita sourdough was characterized by the dominance of the genera Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Weissella, while the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Escherichia, as well as Enterobacteriaceae were present in Fi sourdoughs. Yeasts were in very low cell density until the second backslopping and were not anymore found after this time by plate count or pyrosequencing analysis. Among the lactic acid bacteria isolates, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Weissella koreensis had the highest frequency of occurrence in both the sourdoughs. Lactobacillus sakei was the only lactobacillus isolated from the first to the last propagation day in Fi sourdough. According to microbiological and acidification properties, the maturity of the sourdoughs was reached after 5 days. The presence of hulls and the different microbial composition reflected on biochemical characteristics of Fi sourdoughs, including acidification and phenolic compounds. Moreover, proteolysis in Fi sourdough was more intense compared to Ita. The microbial dynamic of the faba bean sourdoughs showed some differences with the most studied cereal sourdoughs. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.