Browsing by Subject "Factor analysis"

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  • Niskanen, Vesa A. (Springer-Verlag, 2017)
    Studies in Computational Intelligence
    A rapid soft computing method for dimensionality reduction of data sets is presented. Traditional approaches usually base on factor or principal component analysis. Our method applies fuzzy cluster analysis and approximate reasoning instead, and thus it is also viable to nonparametric and nonlinear models. Comparisons are drawn between the methods with two empiric data sets.
  • Khan, Suleiman A.; Leppaaho, Eemeli; Kaski, Samuel (2016)
    We introduce Bayesian multi-tensor factorization, a model that is the first Bayesian formulation for joint factorization of multiple matrices and tensors. The research problem generalizes the joint matrix-tensor factorization problem to arbitrary sets of tensors of any depth, including matrices, can be interpreted as unsupervised multi-view learning from multiple data tensors, and can be generalized to relax the usual trilinear tensor factorization assumptions. The result is a factorization of the set of tensors into factors shared by any subsets of the tensors, and factors private to individual tensors. We demonstrate the performance against existing baselines in multiple tensor factorization tasks in structural toxicogenomics and functional neuroimaging.
  • Vainio, Annukka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka (2019)
    Achieving a sustainable energy transition is crucial for mitigating climate change. Citizens' acceptance of the transition is important for it to succeed. We explored citizens' images of the future energy forms and energy system in Finland, and the drivers of a sustainable energy transition. The data gathered with an online questionnaire targeting an adult population 17–75 years of age (N = 1012) were analysed with exploratory factor analysis and multiple linear regression. Four dimensions of future energy forms were identified: next-generation renewables, fossil energy, bioenergy, and established renewable vs. nuclear energy. Four dimensions of the future energy system were also identified: renewing the energy market, domestic power, small-scale producers, and consumer awareness. Five transition drivers were likewise identified: mainstreaming renewable energy, international actors, individual actions, changing values and economy, and emancipatory change. Mainstreaming renewable energy emerged as the key driver of transition, followed by individual actions. Generally, the sustainable energy transition was strongly supported by citizens' images, but different socio-economic groups preferred somewhat different images. Thus, the diversity of consumers' and citizens’ roles in the transition needs to be acknowledged and encouraged in legitimate national energy policies.
  • Hulkkonen, S.; Repo, J. P.; Häkkinen, A.; Karppinen, J.; Ryhänen, J. (2020)
    Background and Aims: Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire is a widely used patient-reported outcome measure in hand surgery. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire into Finnish for Finnish patients with hand problems following international standards and guidelines. Material and Methods: The original English Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated into Finnish. Altogether, 115 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, and reference outcomes: Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder, EQ-5D 3L and pain intensity on a visual analog scale. Grip and key pinch forces were measured. After 1-2 weeks, 63 patients completed the Finnish Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire the second time. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was analyzed for internal consistency, repeatability, correlations with the reference outcomes, and factor analysis. Results: Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales, showing high internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good to excellent test-retest reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.91 in all the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire subscales. In factor analysis, the structure with six subscales was not confirmed. All the subscales correlated with Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder score, and five subscales correlated with EQ-5D index. Conclusion: The Finnish version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire showed similar properties compared to the original English version and thus can be used as patient-reported outcome measure for Finnish patients with hand problems.
  • Ehrström, Jolanda; Pöyhiä, Reino; Kettunen, Jyrki; Santavirta, Nina; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    Background: Health care providers' beliefs influence the outcomes of low back pain patients care. Objectives: The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale into Finnish (HC-PAIRS-FI) and to evaluate its psychometric properties and factor structure in a sample of Finnish physiotherapists and physiotherapy students. Methods: The translation was performed using established guidelines. Participants answered an online survey consisting of HC-PAIRS-FI and the Finnish Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia adapted for health care providers (TSK-HC-FI). Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. A second round of analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed as the fit indices of the initial CFA were not satisfactory. Results: A sample of 202 physiotherapists and 97 physiotherapy students completed the survey. The second round of analysis EFA and CFA, conducted on a randomly split subsample, revealed and confirmed a three-factor, 11item HC-PAIRS-FI scale with satisfactory model fit indices. Cronbach's alpha 0.79 and ICC = 0.82 (p < 0.001) indicate good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The standard error of measurement was 2.12. HCPAIRS-FI scores correlated moderately with TSK-HC-FI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The 11 items HC-PAIRS-FI appears to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to evaluate Finnish physiotherapists' and physiotherapy students' attitudes and beliefs about the relationship between chronic low back pain and impairment. Future studies are required to validate this scale for other health care providers.
  • de la Fuentes, Javier; Cabello, Maria; Levola, Jonna; Felix Caballero, Francisco; Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Jose; Pitkänen, Tuuli (2018)
    Objectives: Psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) are common in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). The PARADISE24 has been shown to be an adequate tool for measuring PSDs in inpatients with SUDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PARADISE24 in a sample of patients with SUDs. Methods: 2637 participants with SUDs completed the PARADISE24 questionnaire during their treatment. The latent structure of the PARADISE24 questionnaire was analyzed in the outpatient sample by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA). Metric invariance was then assessed in relation to the inpatient sample using multiple group CFA. Finally, evidences of known-groups validity were checked to test the ability of the questionnaire to differentiate between socio-demographic and clinical groups. Results: The one-factor model presented an adequate fit in both the EFA (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07) and the CFA (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07) solutions. The reliability of the scale was found to be high (alpha = 0.93). Strict metric invariance between inpatients and outpatients was achieved (RMSEA = 0.063; TLI = 0.983; CFI = 0.981). The PARADISE24 was able to discriminate between the inpatients and outpatients at both latent (d = 0.98) and observed levels (d = 0.86). Conclusions: The PARADISE24 is a unidimensional tool that is reliable for assessing and comparing PSDs in both outpatients and inpatients with SUDs. Further research is required for evaluating the ability of the PARADISE24 to quantify longitudinal changes in PSDs.