Browsing by Subject "Fatty acid"

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  • Mantyselka, Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Wurtz, Peter; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Vanhala, Mauno (2014)
  • Tossavainen, Marika; Nykänen, Anne; Valkonen, Kalle Santeri; Ojala, Anne; Silja, Kostia; Romantschuk, Martin (2017)
    Growth and fatty acid production of microalga Selenastrum sp. with associated bacteria was studied in lab-scale experiments in three composting leachate liquids. Nutrient reduction in cultures was measured at different initial substrate strengths. A small, pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was used to verify labscale results. Similar growth conditions supported growth of both Selenastrum and bacteria. CO2 feed enhanced the production of biomass and lipids in PBR (2.4 g L-1 and 17% DW) compared to lab-scale (0.1-1.6 g L-1 and 4.0-6.5% DW) experiments. Also prolonged cultivation time increased lipid content in PBR. At both scales, NH4-N with an initial concentration of ca. 40 mg L-1 was completely removed from the biowaste leachate. In lab-scale, maximal COD reduction was over 2000 mg L-1, indicating mixotrophic growth of Selenastrum. Co-cultures are efficient in composting leachate liquid treatment, and conversion of waste to biomass is a promising approach to improve the bioeconomy of composting plants. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Lehenkari, Petri; Huhtakangas, Johanna; Turunen, Sanna; Joukainen, Antti; Kaariainen, Tommi; Paakkonen, Tommi; Kroger, Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri (2019)
    Background: Infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) has recently emerged as a potential source of inflammation in knee arthropathies. It has been proposed to be one source of adipocytokines, fatty acids (FA), and FA-derived lipid mediators that could contribute to the pathophysiological processes in the knee joint. Alterations in synovial fluid (SF) lipid composition have been linked to both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to compare the FA signatures in the IFP and SF of RA and OA patients. Methods: Pairs of IFP and SF samples were collected from the same knees of RA (n=10) and OA patients (n=10) undergoing total joint replacement surgery. Control SF samples (n=6) were harvested during diagnostic or therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery unrelated to RA or OA. The FA composition in the total lipids of IFP and SF was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Results: Arthropathies resulted in a significant reduction in the SF proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), more pronouncedly in OA than in RA. OA was also characterized with reduced percentages of 22:6n-3 and lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA. The proportions of total monounsaturated FA increased in both RA and OA SF. Regarding IFP, RA patients had lower proportions of 20:4n-6, total n-6 PUFA, and 22:6n-3, as well as lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA compared to OA patients. The average chain length of SF FA decreased in both diagnoses and the double bond index in OA. Conclusions: The observed complex alterations in the FA signatures could have both contributed to but also limited the inflammatory processes and cartilage destruction in the RA and OA knees.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Lehenkari, Petri; Huhtakangas, Johanna; Turunen, Sanna; Joukainen, Antti; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Paakkonen, Tommi; Kröger, Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) has recently emerged as a potential source of inflammation in knee arthropathies. It has been proposed to be one source of adipocytokines, fatty acids (FA), and FA-derived lipid mediators that could contribute to the pathophysiological processes in the knee joint. Alterations in synovial fluid (SF) lipid composition have been linked to both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to compare the FA signatures in the IFP and SF of RA and OA patients. Methods Pairs of IFP and SF samples were collected from the same knees of RA (n = 10) and OA patients (n = 10) undergoing total joint replacement surgery. Control SF samples (n = 6) were harvested during diagnostic or therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery unrelated to RA or OA. The FA composition in the total lipids of IFP and SF was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Results Arthropathies resulted in a significant reduction in the SF proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), more pronouncedly in OA than in RA. OA was also characterized with reduced percentages of 22:6n-3 and lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA. The proportions of total monounsaturated FA increased in both RA and OA SF. Regarding IFP, RA patients had lower proportions of 20:4n-6, total n-6 PUFA, and 22:6n-3, as well as lower product/precursor ratios of n-3 PUFA compared to OA patients. The average chain length of SF FA decreased in both diagnoses and the double bond index in OA. Conclusions The observed complex alterations in the FA signatures could have both contributed to but also limited the inflammatory processes and cartilage destruction in the RA and OA knees.
  • Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Anturaniemi (o.s. Roine), Johanna; Sankari, Satu; Griinari, Mikko; Atroshi, Faik; Ounjaijean, Sakaewan; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna Katrina (2016)
    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease, and the antioxidant physiological effect of omega-3 from fish oil may lead to improvement of canine spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: In this prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study, we assessed haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs with OA following supplementation with either a concentrated omega-3 deep sea fish oil product or corn oil. Blood samples from 77 client-owned dogs diagnosed as having OA were taken before (baseline) and 16 weeks after having orally ingested 0.2 ml/Kg bodyweight/day of deep sea fish oil or corn oil. Circulating malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), free carnitine (Free-Car), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and serum fatty acids, haemograms and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Differences within and between groups from baseline to end, were analysed using repeated samples T-test or Wilcoxon rank test and independent samples T-test or a Mann-Whitney test. Results: Supplementation with fish oil resulted in a significant reduction from day 0 to day 112 in MDA (from 3.41 +/- 1.34 to 2.43 +/- 0.92 mu mol/L; P <0.001) and an elevation in Free-Car (from 18.18 +/- 9.78 to 21.19 +/- 9.58 mu mol/L; P = 0.004) concentrations, whereas dogs receiving corn oil presented a reduction in MDA (from 3.41 +/- 1.34 to 2.41 +/- 1.01 mu mol/L; P = 0.001) and NTBI (from -1.25 +/- 2.17 to -2.31 +/- 1.64 mu mol/L; P = 0.002). Both groups showed increased (albeit not significantly) GSH and 8-OH-dG blood values. Dogs supplemented with fish oil had a significant reduction in the proportions of monocytes (from 3.84 +/- 2.50 to 1.77 +/- 1.92 %; P = 0.030) and basophils (from 1.47 +/- 1.22 to 0.62 +/- 0.62 %; P = 0.012), whereas a significant reduction in platelets counts (from 316.13 +/- 93.83 to 288.41 +/- 101.68 x 10(9)/L; P = 0.029), and an elevation in glucose (from 5.18 +/- 0.37 to 5.32 +/- 0.47 mmol/L; P = 0.041) and cholesterol (from 7.13 +/- 1.62 to 7.73 +/- 2.03 mmol/L; P = 0.011) measurements were observed in dogs receiving corn oil. Conclusions: In canine OA, supplementation with deep sea fish oil improved diverse markers of oxidative status in the dogs studied. As corn oil also contributed to the reduction in certain oxidative markers, albeit to a lesser degree, there was no clear difference between the two oil groups. No clinical, haematological or biochemical evidence of side effects emerged related to supplementation of either oil. Although a shift in blood fatty acid values was apparent due to the type of nutraceutical product given to the dogs, corn oil seems not to be a good placebo.
  • Keinanen, Marja; Kakela, Reijo; Ritvanen, Tiina; Myllyla, Timo; Ponni, Jukka; Vuorinen, Pekka J. (2017)
    Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and small herring (Clupea harengus) are the dominant prey fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea. If the fatty acid (FA) proportions of sprat and herring differ, the dietary history of ascending salmon could be determined from their FA profiles. Therefore, we investigated the FA composition of several age groups of whole sprat and small herring, caught from the three main feeding areas of salmon in autumn and spring. Oleic acid (18: 1n-9) was the most prevalent FA in sprat and characteristic of this species. In herring, palmitic acid (16: 0) was the most common FA, but herring lipid was characterized by n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and moreover, by palmitoleic acid (16: 1n-7) and vaccenic acid (18: 1n-7). Due to the higher lipid content of sprat, the concentrations of all other FAs, excluding these, were higher in sprat than in herring. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) increased with an increase in the lipid content and was consequently highest in the youngest specimens, being in young sprat almost double that of young herring, and 2.6 times higher in the sprat biomass than in that of herring. As a result of a decrease in the DHA concentration with age, the ratio thiamine/DHA increased with respect to age in both species, and was lower in sprat than in herring. It is concluded that an abundance of DHA in the diet of salmon most likely increases oxidative stress because of the susceptibility of DHA to peroxidation, and thus decreases thiamine resources of fasting, prespawning salmon. Because the FA composition of sprat and herring differs, and the relative abundancies of prey fish differ between the feeding areas of salmon, the feeding area of ascending salmon can most probably be derived by comparing their FA profiles.
  • Keinänen, Marja; Käkelä, Reijo; Ritvanen, Tiina; Myllylä, Timo; Pönni, Jukka; Vuorinen, Pekka J (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and small herring (Clupea harengus) are the dominant prey fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea. If the fatty acid (FA) proportions of sprat and herring differ, the dietary history of ascending salmon could be determined from their FA profiles. Therefore, we investigated the FA composition of several age groups of whole sprat and small herring, caught from the three main feeding areas of salmon in autumn and spring. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) was the most prevalent FA in sprat and characteristic of this species. In herring, palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common FA, but herring lipid was characterized by n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and moreover, by palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7). Due to the higher lipid content of sprat, the concentrations of all other FAs, excluding these, were higher in sprat than in herring. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) increased with an increase in the lipid content and was consequently highest in the youngest specimens, being in young sprat almost double that of young herring, and 2.6 times higher in the sprat biomass than in that of herring. As a result of a decrease in the DHA concentration with age, the ratio thiamine/DHA increased with respect to age in both species, and was lower in sprat than in herring. It is concluded that an abundance of DHA in the diet of salmon most likely increases oxidative stress because of the susceptibility of DHA to peroxidation, and thus decreases thiamine resources of fasting, prespawning salmon. Because the FA composition of sprat and herring differs, and the relative abundancies of prey fish differ between the feeding areas of salmon, the feeding area of ascending salmon can most probably be derived by comparing their FA profiles.
  • Tossavainen, Marika; Ilyass, Usman; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Valkonen, Kalle; Ojala, Anne; Romantschuk, Martin (2019)
    Nitrogen limitation is considered a good strategy for enhancement of algal lipid production while conversely N repletion has been shown to result in biomass rich in proteins. In this study, the influence of long-term N limitation on Euglena gracilis fatty acid (FA), protein, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations was studied in N limited cultures. Biomass composition was analyzed from three-time points from N starved late stationary phase cultures, exposed to three different initial N concentrations in the growth medium. Total lipid content increased under N limitation in ageing cultures, but the low N content and prolonged cultivation time resulted in the formation of a high proportion of saturated FAs. Furthermore, growth as well as the production of proteins, chlorophyll a and carotenoids were enhanced in higher N concentrations and metabolism of these cellular components stayed stable during the stationary growth phase. Our findings showed that a higher N availability and a shorter cultivation time is a good strategy for efficient E. gracilis biomass production, regardless of whether the produced biomass is intended for maximal recovery of polyunsaturated FAs, proteins, or photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, we showed an increase of neoxanthin, beta-carotene, and diadinoxanthin as a response to higher N availability.
  • Kiamehr, Mostafa; Viiri, Leena E.; Vihervaara, Terhi; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Hilvo, Mika; Ekroos, Kim; Kakela, Reijo; Aalto-Setala, Katriina (2017)
    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an alternative model to primary human hepatocytes to study lipid aberrations. However, the detailed lipid profile of HLCs is yet unknown. In the current study, functional HLCs were differentiated from iPSCs generated from dermal fibroblasts of three individuals by a three-step protocol through the definitive endoderm (DE) stage. In parallel, detailed lipidomic analyses as well as gene expression profiling of a set of lipid-metabolism-related genes were performed during the entire differentiation process from iPSCs to HLCs. Additionally, fatty acid (FA) composition of the cell culture media at different stages was determined. Our results show that major alterations in the molecular species of lipids occurring during DE and early hepatic differentiation stages mainly mirror the quality and quantity of the FAs supplied in culture medium at each stage. Polyunsaturated phospholipids and sphingolipids with a very long FA were produced in the cells at a later stage of differentiation. This work uncovers the previously unknown lipid composition of iPSC-HLCs and its alterations during the differentiation in conjunction with the expression of key lipid-associated genes. Together with biochemical, functional and gene expression measurements, the lipidomic analyses allowed us to improve our understanding of the concerted influence of the exogenous metabolite supply and cellular biosynthesis essential for iPSC-HLC differentiation and function. Importantly, the study describes in detail a cell model that can be applied in exploring, for example, the lipid metabolism involved in the development of fatty liver disease or atherosclerosis.
  • Lamminen, Marjukka (2021)
    Microalgae are a diverse group of microorganisms that are an interesting alternative feed resource for ruminant production. Microalgae species with high protein concentration and adequate amino acid (AA) composition can be used to substitute conventional protein feeds, whereas species with high carbohydrate or lipid concentration can be used to supply energy. Microalgal polyunsaturated acids and short-chain fatty acids have potential to improve the nutritive value of ruminant milk and meat for human consumption and mitigate enteric methane emissions. Microalgae composition is very plastid in comparison to conventional ruminant feeds and it can be influenced relatively easily by environmental conditions, such as nutrient supply. Microalgae also contain many compounds, especially carbohydrates and cell coverings, which are not usually found in ruminant feeds. Standard feed evaluation methods involving the use of crucibles or nylon bags (detergent fibre method, in vitro digestibility and in vivo rumen incubation) suit poorly to the analysis of microalgae with microscopic particle size. This paper attempts to give a general overview of the nutritive value (protein, lipids and carbohydrates) of microalgae for ruminant feeding applications and the possibilities to tailor microalgae composition for a certain ruminant feeding objectives. In addition, the key knowledge gaps related to the nutritive value of microalgae for ruminant nutrition are identified.