Browsing by Subject "Fennoscandia"

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  • Luttinen, Arto; Lehtonen, Elina; Bohm, Katja; Lindholm, Tanja Marjukka; Söderlund, Ulf; Salminen, Johanna (2022)
    We have reappraised the age and composition of the mid-Proterozoic Häme dyke swarm in southern Finland. The dominant trend of the dykes of this swarm is NW to WNW. Petrographic observations and geochemical data indicate uniform, tholeiitic low- Mg parental magmas for all of the dykes. Nevertheless, the variability in incompatible trace element ratios, such as Zr/Y and La/Nb, provides evidence of changing mantle melting conditions and variable crustal contamination. Our ID-TIMS 207Pb/206Pb ages for four low-Zr/Y-type dykes indicate emplacement at 1639 ± 3 Ma, whereas the most reliable previously published ages suggest emplacement of the high-Zr/Y-type dykes at 1642 ± 2 Ma. We propose that the Häme dyke swarm, and possibly also the other mid- Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southern Finland, records a progressive decrease in Zr/Y values due to magma generation under developing areas of thinned lithosphere. We consider that the formation of mafic magmas was most probably associated with the upwelling of hot convective mantle in an extensional setting possibly related to the nearby Gothian orogeny. The generation of tholeiitic magmas below continental lithosphere was probably promoted by the elevated mantle temperature underneath the Nuna supercontinent. We speculate that the origin of most of the relatively small mid-Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms, anorthosites, rapakivi granites, and associated rocks found across Nuna was similarly triggered by extensional plate tectonics and the convection of anomalous hot upper mantle below the supercontinent.
  • Latus, Jessica (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Urbanization is occurring at rapid rates worldwide. While the effects of urbanization are numerous, those on wildlife are of utmost concern in the continued fight for biodiversity conservation. Specifically, the focus on global pollinator declines is of interest due to the interconnectedness between pollinators and plant communities. It is feared that urban areas could become dead zones to these species, specifically bumblebees. Bumblebees are one of the native pollinators of Finland, and therefore were the focus of this study, which was conducted in Helsinki (southern Finland). This project's focus was on the influence of both local (i.e. flowering resources) and landscape (i.e. levels of urbanization) features on bumblebee communities. More specifically, I was interested in the effects of urbanization on bumblebee abundance and species richness. To study this question, community gardens (allotment gardens) were used as study sites along a gradient of urbanization from low to high (chosen by GIS mapping of the levels of impervious surfaces within 500 m of the sites). It is thought that these greenspaces could function as habitat for bumblebees in cities. This study was conducted during the summer of 2013 in 12 community gardens across the city of Helsinki. Two methods to survey bee populations were utilized, pan traps as well as sweep netting. Furthermore, a vegetation analysis was conducted to assess the level of resources present within the gardens, while GIS was used to measure a set of landscape variables in and around each garden. At the end of the season (June to September) the bees were identified and Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models were used to analyze the data. This study found that local variables more strongly predicted both bee abundance and species richness. Even though landscape variables were not strong predictors, this does not make them irrelevant in future conservation strategies. However, it is thought that as long as community gardens are planted appropriately (i.e. native flowers) the bees will be present in these gardens despite the surrounding matrix of inhospitable land (sealed surfaces). In conjunction with the investigation into the effects of local versus landscape determinants, this study also aimed to investigate the perception of gardeners towards bees. A questionnaire was utilized in order to gauge gardeners' opinions towards the bees in their plot and the garden as a whole. These results helped to evaluate the overall attitude towards bees, and in short, were very favorable. This extrapolates to a possibility of working in conjunction with gardeners to conserve habitat for pollinators in the continued effort for interconnected greenspaces in urban areas.
  • Skytta, Pietari; Maatta, Maiju; Piippo, Simo; Kara, Jaakko; Kapyaho, Asko; Heilimo, Esa; O'Brien, Hugh (2020)
    The Archean crust in northern Fennoscandia preserves a fragmentary geological record, making direct correlation among Archean domains challenging. This study presents two new zircon U-Pb age determinations from the Archean Kukkola Gneiss Complex (KGC) that straddles the border between Finland and Sweden. The results indicate that crystallization of tonalites within the magmatic core of the complex occurred at 2711 +/- 8 Ma, somewhat earlier than previously considered. A new pulse of magmatism occurred at 2675 +/- 10 Ma as demonstrated by hornblende-tonalites cutting the 2.71 Ga rocks. The results further indicate that the first deformation event responsible for development of penetrative foliations occurred after the first magmatic event at 2.71 Ga and prior to the subsequent tectonothermal event at 2.68 Ga. These findings are in concert with the known major periods of magmatism (2.8-2.7 Ga) and deformation (2.7 Ga) within better-known Archean domains in northern Fennoscandia, and hence support their correlation with KGC. Three complementary age determinations on the Haparanda-suite granites and tonalites were conducted: the results indicate crystallization ages of 1.90-1.89 Ga, overlapping with the known age range of the suite and supporting its predominance over the 1.8 Ga Lina suite granites in the Tornio-Haparanda area.
  • Fraixedas, Sara; Linden, Andreas; Husby, Magne; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2020)
    The Common Crane (Grus grus) population has experienced an unprecedented increase across Europe during the last decades. Although cranes feed mostly on invertebrates, amphibians and berries during the breeding season, they can also eat eggs and young of other birds. Therefore, conservationists have raised concerns about the potential predatory effect of cranes on wetland avifauna, but the effects of crane predation on bird numbers have so far not been investigated. We here test the relationship between the crane and peatland bird population' abundances in Finland for five common wader and passerine species, and a set of seven less common waders, using line-transect data spanning from 1987 to 2014. We found that the population densities of two small passerines (Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis and Western Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava) and one wader species (Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola) were positively associated with crane numbers, probably related to a protective effect against nest predators. For the two other common species and the set of less common waders, we did not find any significant relationships with crane abundance. None of the species was influenced by the (lagged) effect of crane presence (i.e. years since crane was first observed). Peatland drainage was responsible for most species' negative densities, indicating the need to protect and restore peatlands to mitigate the loss of peatland bird diversity in Finland. In addition, openness, wetness and area size were important peatland characteristics positively influencing most of the studied bird populations. The development in crane and other mire bird numbers in Europe should be monitored regularly to reveal any possible future predatory effects contributing to the shaping of the peatland bird community.
  • Brittain, John E.; Heino, Jani; Friberg, Nikolai; Aroviita, Jukka; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu‐Maaria; Keck, François; Lento, Jennifer; Liljaniemi, Petri; Mykrä, Heikki; Schneider, Susanne C.; Ylikörkkö, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad-scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α- and β-diversity. 2. Using information from a database set up within the scope of the Arctic Council's Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, we analysed patterns and correlates of α- and β-diversity in benthic diatom and macroinvertebrate communities across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We analysed variation in total β-diversity and its replacement and richness difference components in relation to location of the river reach and its drainage basin (Baltic Sea in the south, the Barents Sea in the east and the north, and the Norwegian Sea in the west), in addition to climate and environmental variables. 3. In both macroinvertebrates and diatoms, the replacement and richness difference components showed wide variation. For macroinvertebrates, the richness difference component was the more important, whereas for diatoms, the replacement component was the more important in contributing to variation in β-diversity. There was no significant difference in β-diversity between the three main drainage basins, but species composition differed among the drainage basins. 4. Based on the richness difference component of β-diversity, climate variables were most strongly associated with community variation in macroinvertebrates. In diatoms, both environmental and climate variables were strongly correlated with community compositional variation. In both groups, there were also significant differences in α-diversity among the three main drainage basins, and several taxa were significant indicators of one of these drainage basins. Alpha diversity was greater in areas with a continental climate, while the oceanic areas in the west harboured greatly reduced flora and fauna. 5. The correlates of biodiversity were relatively similar in macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Climate variables, in particular temperature, were the most strongly associated with biodiversity patterns in the Arctic rivers of Fennoscandia. Sedimentary geology may be associated with increased productivity and, to a lesser extent, with sensitivity to acidification. There was considerable variation in community composition across Arctic Fennoscandia, indicating the necessity of protecting several stream reaches or even whole catchments within each region to conserve total riverine biodiversity. Furthermore, it is likely that the predicted changes in temperature in Arctic areas will influence riverine diversity patterns across Fennoscandia.
  • Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam; Mäkinen, Jaakko; Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Näränen, Jyri; Saari, Timo (Springer, 2021)
    Journal of Geodesy
    Postglacial rebound in Fennoscandia causes striking trends in gravity measurements of the area. We present time series of absolute gravity data collected between 1976 and 2019 on 12 stations in Finland with different types of instruments. First, we determine the trends at each station and analyse the effect of the instrument types. We estimate, for example, an offset of 6.8 μgal for the JILAg-5 instrument with respect to the FG5-type instruments. Applying the offsets in the trend analysis strengthens the trends being in good agreement with the NKG2016LU_gdot model of gravity change. Trends of seven stations were found robust and were used to analyse the stabilization of the trends in time and to determine the relationship between gravity change rates and land uplift rates as measured with global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) as well as from the NKG2016LU_abs land uplift model. Trends calculated from combined and offset-corrected measurements of JILAg-5- and FG5-type instruments stabilized in 15 to 20 years and at some stations even faster. The trends of FG5-type instrument data alone stabilized generally within 10 years. The ratio between gravity change rates and vertical rates from different data sets yields values between − 0.206 ± 0.017 and − 0.227 ± 0.024 µGal/mm and axis intercept values between 0.248 ± 0.089 and 0.335 ± 0.136 µGal/yr. These values are larger than previous estimates for Fennoscandia.
  • Tiira, Timo; Janik, Tomasz; Skrzynic, Tymon; Komminaho, Kari; Heinonen, Aku; Veikkolainen, Toni; Väkevä, Sakari; Korja, Annakaisa (2020)
    The Kokkola–Kymi Deep Seismic Sounding profile crosses the Fennoscandian Shield in northwest-southeast (NW–SE) direction from Bothnian belt to Wiborg rapakivi batholith through Central Finland granitoid complex (CFGC). The 490-km refraction seismic line is perpendicular to the orogenic strike in Central Finland and entirely based on data from quarry blasts and road construction sites in years 2012 and 2013. The campaign resulted in 63 usable seismic record sections. The average perpendicular distance between these and the profile was 14 km. Tomographic velocity models were computed with JIVE3D program. The velocity fields of the tomographic models were used as starting points in the ray tracing modelling. Based on collected seismic sections a layer-cake model was prepared with the ray tracing package SEIS83. Along the profile, upper crust has an average thickness of 22 km average, and P-wave velocities (Vp) of 5.9–6.2 km/s near the surface, increasing downward to 6.25–6.40 km/s. The thickness of middle crust is 14 km below CFGC, 20 km in SE and 25 km in NW, but Vp ranges from 6.6 to 6.9 km/s in all parts. Lower crust has Vp values of 7.35–7.4 km/s and lithospheric mantle 8.2–8.25 km/s. Moho depth is 54 km in NW part, 63 km in the middle and 43 km in SW, yet a 55-km long section in the middle does not reveal an obvious Moho reflection. S-wave velocities vary from 3.4 km/s near the surface to 4.85 km/s in upper mantle, consistently with P-wave velocity variations. Results confirm the previously assumed high-velocity lower crust and depression of Moho in central Finland.
  • Jokelainen, Pikka; Moroni, Barbara; Hoberg, Eric; Oksanen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli (2019)
    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are known to host a wide variety of parasites, including those in the gastrointestinal system. Here, we review the current knowledge of the main gastrointestinal parasites of reindeer focusing on northern Fennoscandia, which comprises parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia. We explore both the historical baseline data for diversity and distribution and recent advancements in our understanding of parasite faunas in reindeer across this region. It is evident that the balance between reindeer and their gastrointestinal parasites, along with the potential for emergent disease in the changing world warrants careful monitoring and further studies.
  • Pesonen, Lauri J.; Korja, Annakaisa; Hjelt, Sven-Erik (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2000)
  • Lahtinen, Raimo; Korja, Annakaisa; Arhe, Katriina; Eklund, Olav; Hjelt, Sven-Erik; Pesonen, Lauri J. (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2002)
  • Ehlers, Carl; Eklund, Olav; Korja, Annakaisa; Kruuna, Annika; Lahtinen, Raimo (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2004)
  • Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Eklund, Olav; Korja, Annakaisa; Korja, Toivo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Poutanen, Markku (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2006)
  • Korja, Toivo; Arhe, Katriina; Kaikkonen, Pertti; Korja, Annakaisa; Lahtinen, Raimo; Lunkka, Juha Pekka (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2008)
  • Heikkinen, Pekka; Arhe, Katriina; Korja, Toivo; Lahtinen, Raimo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Rämö, Tapani (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2010)
  • Kukkonen, Ilmo; Kosonen, Emilia; Oinonen, Kati; Eklund, Olav; Korja, Annakaisa; Korja, Toivo; Lahtinen, Raimo; Lunkka, Juha Pekka; Poutanen, Markku (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2012)
  • Eklund, Olav; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Skyttä, Pietari; Sonck-Koota, Pia; Väisänen, Markku; Whipp, David (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2014)
  • Kukkonen, Ilmo; Heinonen, Suvi; Oinonen, Kati; Arhe, Katriina; Eklund, Olav; Karell, Fredrik; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Luttinen, Arto; Lahtinen, Raimo; Lunkka, Juha; Nykänen, Vesa; Poutanen, Markku; Tanskanen, Eija; Tiira, Timo (Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, 2016)
  • Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne; Fattorini, Simone (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Journal of Biogeography 2019; 46: 2548– 2557
    Aim Ecogeographical patterns have been widely studied in endothermic vertebrates, but relatively few studies have simultaneously examined patterns and causes of gradients in species richness, range size and body size in ectothermic insects. We examined patterns in species richness, mean range size and mean body size of ground beetle assemblages across the biogeographical provinces of Northern Europe, a region that was mostly covered by ice sheets during the latest Ice Age and that presents strong contemporary climatic gradients. Location Northern Europe. Methods We used literature information on the occurrence of ground beetles, and analysed patterns in species richness, mean range size and mean body size across the provinces using generalized linear models and boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis. Results We found a strongly decreasing gradient in species richness with increasing latitude, a strongly unimodal range size-latitude relationship, and a weak unimodal body size-latitude relationship in entire ground beetle assemblages. These gradients also varied among four major genera, suggesting that the overall patterns result from the nuances of smaller clades of ground beetles. The relative importance of contemporary environmental drivers also varied between species richness, mean range size and mean body size in BRT analysis. While species richness increased with mean annual temperature, mean range size showed an opposite relationship. Mean body size was most clearly associated with the precipitation of the driest month. Main Conclusions Our findings showed that the latitudinal species richness gradient was strong, and it was closely related to concomitant variation in temperature, whereas variations in mean range size and mean body size were more complex. These findings suggest that the causes for range size and body size variation in insects may be complex, requiring additional insights from studies conducted at local, regional and continental scales.
  • Mikola, Juha Tapio; Silfver, Tarja Hannele; Rousi, Matti (2018)
    Facilitative plant-plant interactions are common in harsh environments such as Arctic and alpine tree lines. In Fennoscandia, mountain birch dominates tree lines, but mixes with Scots pine in less severe areas. Using over 30-yr. old Scots pine common gardens, established at three locations near the present Scots pine tree line, we tested (1) if mountain birch can facilitate Scots pine numbers and (2) if improved soil fertility under mountain birch canopies has a role in facilitation. We counted the number of pines within 1-m and 3-m radii of the tallest mountain birch vs. a random spot in 70-75 planting plots and sampled soil for nutrients at 0.3-, 1- and 3-m distance to the birch in ten plots in each location. Number of Scots pines was 29% higher within a 1-m radius of a mountain birch than of a random spot. This effect did not depend on location, although the locations differed significantly in soil fertility, and no effect was detected within a 3-m radius. Concentrations of water, NH4, NO3 and PO4 decreased significantly with increasing distance to a mountain birch, but only in the least fertile location. Mountain birch can significantly facilitate Scots pine in tree line conditions. However, unlike we expected, improved soil fertility under birch canopies may not have a general role in facilitation.
  • Kuglerová, Lenka; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sponseller, Ryan Allen; Muotka, Timo; Hallsby, Goran; Laudon, Hjalmar (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 756 (2021), 143521
    In this paper we describe how forest management practices in Fennoscandian countries, namely Sweden and Finland, expose streams to multiple stressors over space and time. In this region, forestry includes several different management actions and we explore how these may successively disturb the same location over 60–100 year long rotation periods. Of these actions, final harvest and associated road construction, soil scarification, and/or ditch network maintenance are the most obvious sources of stressors to aquatic ecosystems. Yet, more subtle actions such as planting, thinning of competing saplings and trees, and removing logging residues also represent disturbances around waterways in these landscapes. We review literature about how these different forestry practices may introduce a combination of physicochemical stressors, including hydrological change, increased sediment transport, altered thermal and light regimes, and water quality deterioration. We further elaborate on how the single stressors may combine and interact and we consequently hypothesise how these interactions may affect aquatic communities and processes. Because production forestry is practiced on a large area in both countries, the various stressors appear multiple times during the rotation cycles and potentially affect the majority of the stream network length within most catchments. We concluded that forestry practices have traditionally not been the focus of multiple stressor studies and should be investigated further in both observational and experimental fashion. Stressors accumulate across time and space in forestry dominated landscapes, and may interact in unpredictable ways, limiting our current understanding of what forested stream networks are exposed to and how we can design and apply best management practices.