Browsing by Subject "Fermentation"

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  • Nionelli, Luana; Wang, Yaqin; Pontonio, Erica; Immonen, Mikko; Rizzello, Carlo; Maina, Ndegwa; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2020)
    Bread is one of the most consumed food products in the world and one of the most discarded, due to its intrinsic short shelf-life and susceptibility to mold spoilage. Additionally, bread waste is generated during production and distribution, leading to the disposal of bread otherwise still fit for consumption. To avoid generating huge amount of bread waste, strategies to enable its reutilization should be sought. In this study, surplus bread, still suitable for consumption, was bioprocessed with enzymes and fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria generating an ingredient with antifungal properties. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lactobacillus brevis AM7 showed broad inhibitory spectrum against the fungal species tested and antifungal activity ranging from 20 to 70%. Nine antifungal peptides were identified via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/ Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS), having 10-17 amino acid residues and mass ranging from 1083.6 to 1980.7 Da, all of them encrypted in wheat proteins sequences. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lb. brevis AM7, non fermented bread hydrolysate and a slurry consisting of water-bread mixture were used as ingredients in bread making and compared to regular wheat bread. Breads containing the fermented hydrolysate (18 and 22% of the dough weight) showed the longest mold-free shelf-life compared to the other breads, lasting up to 10 days before mold appearance. Additionally, the fermented hydrolysate was the least detrimental on bread quality, emphasizing the positive impact and potential of the studied biotechnology.
  • Chamlagain, Bhawani; Peltonen, Liisa; Edelmann, Minnamari; Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Kemppinen, Asmo; Jouppila, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka; Piironen, Vieno (2021)
    The bioaccessibility of vitamin B12 (B12) in plant-based products fortified using wheat bran extract fermented with B12-producing food-grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii was studied by applying a standard static in vitro model. At first, a culture of P. freudenreichii, fresh or heat-treated, was subjected to in vitro assays. Then, food ingredients or products were evaluated for their in vitro bioaccessibility: spray-dried wheat bran extract powder, pasta made with an extruder using fermented bran extract and breads made with spray-dried powder or with added cyanocobalamin. B12 bioaccessibility from the fresh P. freudenreichii culture was only ca. 53%, which, when heated, increased to 73%. The bioaccessibility of B12 from the food products varied from 75% (spray-dried powder) to 95% (breads). B12 from the fortified bread was as bioaccessible as from the bread made with added cyanocobalamin (99%). The in vitro results suggest that B12 synthesized by P. freudenreichii, when fortified in the studied cereal-based products, is largely bioaccessible and could be available for absorption. Plant-based products fortified using fermentation with P. freudenreichii could thus be considered excellent sources of bioaccessible B12.
  • Koirala, Prabin; Maina, Ndegwa; Nihtilä, Hanna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2021)
    BackgroundLactic acid bacteria can synthesize dextran and oligosaccharides with different functionality, depending on the strain and fermentation conditions. As natural structure-forming agent, dextran has proven useful as food additive, improving the properties of several raw materials with poor technological quality, such as cereal by-products, fiber-and protein-rich matrices, enabling their use in food applications. In this study, we assessed dextran biosynthesis in situ during fermentation of brewers spent grain (BSG), the main by-product of beer brewing industry, with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM20193 and Weissella confusa A16. The starters performance and the primary metabolites formed during 24 h of fermentation with and without 4% sucrose (w/w) were followed.ResultsThe starters showed similar growth and acidification kinetics, but different sugar utilization, especially in presence of sucrose. Viscosity increase in fermented BSG containing sucrose occurred first after 10 h, and it kept increasing until 24 h concomitantly with dextran formation. Dextran content after 24 h was approximately 1% on the total weight of the BSG. Oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization were formed together with dextran from 10 to 24 h. Three dextransucrase genes were identified in L. pseudomesenteroides DSM20193, one of which was significantly upregulated and remained active throughout the fermentation time. One dextransucrase gene was identified in W. confusa A16 also showing a typical induction profile, with highest upregulation at 10 h.Conclusions Selected lactic acid bacteria starters produced significant amount of dextran in brewers' spent grain while forming oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization. Putative dextransucrase genes identified in the starters showed a typical induction profile. Formation of dextran and oligosaccharides in BSG during lactic acid bacteria fermentation can be tailored to achieve specific technological properties of this raw material, contributing to its reintegration into the food chain.
  • Koirala, Prabin; Maina, Ndegwa H.; Nihtilä, Hanna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria can synthesize dextran and oligosaccharides with different functionality, depending on the strain and fermentation conditions. As natural structure-forming agent, dextran has proven useful as food additive, improving the properties of several raw materials with poor technological quality, such as cereal by-products, fiber-and protein-rich matrices, enabling their use in food applications. In this study, we assessed dextran biosynthesis in situ during fermentation of brewers´ spent grain (BSG), the main by-product of beer brewing industry, with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM20193 and Weissella confusa A16. The starters performance and the primary metabolites formed during 24 h of fermentation with and without 4% sucrose (w/w) were followed. Results The starters showed similar growth and acidification kinetics, but different sugar utilization, especially in presence of sucrose. Viscosity increase in fermented BSG containing sucrose occurred first after 10 h, and it kept increasing until 24 h concomitantly with dextran formation. Dextran content after 24 h was approximately 1% on the total weight of the BSG. Oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization were formed together with dextran from 10 to 24 h. Three dextransucrase genes were identified in L. pseudomesenteroides DSM20193, one of which was significantly upregulated and remained active throughout the fermentation time. One dextransucrase gene was identified in W. confusa A16 also showing a typical induction profile, with highest upregulation at 10 h. Conclusions Selected lactic acid bacteria starters produced significant amount of dextran in brewers’ spent grain while forming oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization. Putative dextransucrase genes identified in the starters showed a typical induction profile. Formation of dextran and oligosaccharides in BSG during lactic acid bacteria fermentation can be tailored to achieve specific technological properties of this raw material, contributing to its reintegration into the food chain.
  • Wang, Yaqin; Sorvali, Päivi; Laitila, Arja; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Coda, Rossana; Katina, Kati (2018)
    The incorporation of faba bean flour into wheat-based products is a sustainable way to obtain protein-enriched food items. However, developing breads with a higher content of faba bean flour is challenging due to the poor textural/sensory properties of the final product. A potential solution is to use hydrocolloids as structuring agents to increase the viscoelastic properties of the composite bread. Microbial dextran is a natural hydrocolloid which can be used as a bread texture improver either as a pure food ingredient or by in situ production during sourdough fermentation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of dextran produced in situ by Weissella confusa VTT E-143403 (E3403) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 in faba bean sourdoughs on the quality of wheat bread supplemented with 43% faba bean sourdough. The impact of dextran on the rheological properties of dough and textural properties of the final bread were evaluated. Dextran formed by W. confusa and L. pseudomesenteroides reached a level of 5.2 and 3.6% (flour basis), respectively. Incorporation of faba bean sourdough containing dextran synthesized by W. confusa improved the dough viscoelastic properties, and also increased the specific volume (similar to 21%) and reduced crumb hardness (similar to 12%) of the final bread, compared to control breads. Similar positive effects were not obtained with sourdough containing dextran from L. pseudomesenteroides, probably due to its higher acidity. Dextran synthesized in situ by W. confusa is a promising clean label hydrocolloid option to improve the quality of wheat bread enriched with faba bean flour.
  • Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Juvonen, Riikka; Kössö, Tuija; Truchado, Pilar; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita Alice; Leppänen, Tiina; Moilanen, Eeva; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja (2015)
  • Xu, Yan; Coda, Rossana; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Laitila, Arja; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija (2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of in situ produced exopolysaccharides (EPS) on the rheological and textural properties of fava bean protein concentrate (FPC). EPS (dextrans) were produced from sucrose by two lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The acidification, rheology, and texture of FPC pastes fermented with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Weissella confusa VTT E-143403 (E3403) were compared. A clear improvement in rheological and textural parameters was observed in sucrose-added pastes after fermentation, especially with W. confusa VTT E3403. Only moderate proteolysis of fava bean protein during fermentation was observed. The microstructure of the protein in FPC pastes, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, revealed a less continuous and denser structure in EPS-abundant pastes. The beneficial structure formed during EPS-producing fermentation could not be mimicked by simply mixing FPC, isolated dextran, lactic acid, and acetic acid with water. These results emphasize the benefits of in situ produced EPS in connection with the LAB fermentation of legume protein-rich foods. Fermentation with EPS-producing LAB is a cost-effective and clean-labeled technology to obtain tailored textures, and it can further enhance the usability of legumes in novel foods.
  • Xu, Yan; Wang, Yaqin; Coda, Rossana; Säde, Elina; Tuomainen, Päivi; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati (2017)
    Fava bean flour is regarded as a potential plant-based protein source, but the addition of it at high concentration is restricted by its poor texture-improving ability and by anti-nutritional factors (ANF). Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are regarded as good texture modifiers. In this study, fava bean flour was fermented with Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. with or without sucrose addition, in order to evaluate their potential in EPS production. The contents of free sugars, organic acids, mannitol and EPS in all fermented fava bean doughs were measured. Rheological properties of sucrose-enriched doughs, including viscosity flow curves, hysteresis loop and dynamic oscillatory sweep curves, were measured after fermentation. As one of the ANF, the degradation of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) was also studied by analyzing RFO profiles of different doughs. Quantification of EPS revealed the potential of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 in EPS production, and the rheological analysis showed that the polymers produced by this strain has the highest thickening and gelling capability. Furthermore, the viscous fava bean doughs containing plant proteins and synthesized in situ EPS may have a potential application in the food industry and fulfill consumers' increasing demands for "clean labels" and plant-originated food materials. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Özel, B; Simsek, Ömer; Akcelik, M; Saris, Per Erik Joakim (2018)
    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis that has been approved by the Food Drug Administration for utilization as a GRAS status food additive. Nisin can inhibit spore germination and demonstrates antimicrobial activity against Listeria, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus species. Under some circumstances, it plays an immune modulator role and has a selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells, although it is notable that the high production cost of nisin-a result of the low nisin production yield of producer strains-is an important factor restricting intensive use. In recent years, production of nisin has been significantly improved through genetic modifications to nisin producer strains and through innovative applications in the fermentation process. Recently, 15,400 IU ml-1 nisin production has been achieved in L. lactis cells following genetic modifications by eliminating the factors that negatively affect nisin biosynthesis or by increasing the cell density of the producing strains in the fermentation medium. In this review, innovative approaches related to cell and fermentation systems aimed at increasing nisin production are discussed and interpreted, with a view to increasing industrial nisin production.
  • Pulkkinen, Marjo; Coda, Rossana; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Varis, Jutta; Katina, Kati; Piironen, Vieno (2019)
    Vicine and convicine may be removed from faba bean by hydrolysis to the corresponding aglycones, divicine and isouramil. For total elimination of their toxicity, further degradation of the aglycones should be shown. The aim of the study was to investigate hydrolysis of vicine and convicine using the enzymatic activity in faba bean in flour suspensions and selected lactic acid bacteria used as starters for faba bean fermentation. In addition, the effect of acidity on the stability of vicine and convicine was investigated. Sourdoughs were used in a baking process to obtain breads as final products. Vicine, convicine, and their aglycones were analyzed using reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection (RP-HPLC-UV). Incubation of the suspensions showed rather small vicine and convicine losses. Acidity itself did not cause losses under the conditions studied, apart from that of convicine at low pH. In sourdough fermentation with strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus, losses of vicine and convicine were dependent on the fermentation temperature and the β-glucosidase activity of the starter. Compared to fermentation at 20 °C, more intense acidification at 25 °C resulted in decrease of vicine up to 85% and convicine up to 47%. Levels of vicine and convicine in breads were comparable to levels in sourdoughs. Furthermore, the aglycones were not detected from breads.
  • Tamene, Aynadis; Kariluoto, Susanna; Baye, Kaleab; Humblot, Christele (2019)
    Injera is an Ethiopian fermented flatbread preferably made from whole grain cereal (tef). Tef it is increasingly used to produce gluten-free pasta and bread, but the folate content of teff and products made from it remains unknown. Given that folate deficiencies lead to several health disorders, the aim of this study was to quantify folate in each of the three main steps of traditional processing of tef injera. Total folate contents of tef flour, fermented batter and injera were determined through microbiological assays using Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469). Folate content of tef flour was 8.7 mu g/100 g of dry matter content, which is in the same range as the richest cereals like oats. The increase in folate content due to fermentation was highly variable (60-148%). Cooking always led to folate losses, with a maximum of 52.8%. Altogether, injera processing increased folate retention between 38.0 and 121.8%. Folate content of injera was 14.3 mu g/100 g on fresh weight-basis. Tef injera can contribute up to 10% of the recommended nutrient intake of folate for children aged 1-3 and women of reproductive age. Although the folate content of teff is already high, future studies should focus on optimizing the folate content of injera.
  • Perri, Giuseppe; Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo; Celano , Giuseppe; Ampollini, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria (2021)
    Exopolysaccharides produced in situ by lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation are recognized as bread texture improvers. In this study, the suitability of whole and sprouted lentil flours, added with 25% on flour weight sucrose for dextran formation by selected strains during sourdough fermentation, was evaluated. The dextran synthesized in situ by Weissella confusa SLA4 was 9.2 and 9.7% w/w flour weight in lentil and sprouted lentil sourdoughs, respectively. Wheat bread supplemented with 30% w/w sourdough showed increased specific volume and decreased crumb hardness and staling rate, compared to the control wheat bread. Incorporation of sourdoughs improved the nutritional value of wheat bread, leading to increased total and soluble fibers content, and the aroma profile. The integrated biotechnological approach, based on sourdough fermentation and germination, is a potential clean-label strategy to obtain high-fibers content foods with tailored texture, and it can further enhance the use of legumes in novel foods.
  • Wang, Yaqin; Trani, Antonio; Knaapila, Antti; Hietala, Sami; Coda, Rossana; Katina, Kati; Maina, Ndegwa Henry (2020)
    This study evaluated the effects of dextran produced in situ by Weissella confusa A16 on the flavour and texture perception of wholegrain sorghum bread containing 50% of wheat flour. Descriptive sensory profiling revealed that sorghum sourdough bread containing in situ produced dextran (0.56% bread weight) was more elastic, foldable, moist, cohesive, soft, flexible, and smooth compared to control sorghum sourdough or native sorghum breads (p 
  • Bationo, Fabrice; Humblot, Christele; Songre-Ouattara, Laurencia T.; Hama-Ba, Fatoumata; Le Merrer, Manon; Chapron, Morgane; Kariluoto, Susanna; Hemery, Youna M. (2020)
    Cereal-based fermented foods (CBFF) are frequently consumed by young children in West-Africa. Seven CBFF types (gelatinized doughs, porridges, dumplings, and fritters, made from corn, sorghum or pearl millet) were produced according to the commonly used methods in traditional production units in Burkina Faso. Their total folate content, analyzed using a microbiological method, was between 1.8 and 31.3 mu g/100 g fresh weight. Folate degradation occurred at several steps during the cereal grain processing into CBFF, for instance during debranning (-51%), soaking (-20% to -49%) and wet-milling (-39% to -59%). Conversely, fermentation increased the folate content of some CBFF (+ 9 to + 27%). Folate bioaccessibility, assessed using a static in vitro digestion model, ranged from 23% to 81%. The bioaccessible folate content was influenced by the total folate content, the food matrix structure, and folate stability. CBFF contribution to the reference folate intake for young children was at most 23%. This work generated new information on the influence of traditional processing on the vitamin B9 content of CBFF, and the first data on folate bioaccessibility in West African CBFF.