Browsing by Subject "Fertility"

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  • Kareskoski, Maria; Venhoranta, Heli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Katila, Terttu (2019)
    Artificial insemination (AI) with cooled stallion semen has increased markedly during the last decades in all countries, but fertility is often lower than when fresh semen or natural mating is used. The objective of this study was to examine field data (1634,cycles 523 Standardbred (SB) mares, 575 Finnhorse (FH) mares, and 90 stallions) using multivariable logistic regression for factors influencing the pregnancy rate (PR) after Al with cooled transported semen from SB and FH stallions. The PR per cycle for the material was 47%: Finnhorses 42% and Standardbreds 53%. When assessed with multivariable logistic regression analyses with a generalized linear mixed model, variables that affected the PR were breed, the number of inseminated estrus cycles, the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMOT) in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment, and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination. In Standardbreds, variables that increased the per cycle PR were the number of Al per estrus cycle (multiple inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one insemination), the number of inseminated cycles, and PMOT in the AI dose at the time of insemination. In Finnhorses, the number of Al per estrus cycle (two and three inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one), the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and in the Al dose, and PMOT in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment increased the per cycle PR. Non-significant factors for the whole material included the type of artificial vagina (open-ended or closed), transport time, place of Al (stud farm or home stable), insemination done by veterinarian or technician, weekday, month, age of the mare (all age classes combined), age of the stallion, ejaculate parameters (sperm concentration, total number of sperm), and insemination dose parameters (volume proportion of seminal plasma, sperm concentration, PMOT, total number of sperm). In conclusion, breed, breeding opportunity in more than one cycle, more than one insemination/estrus, PMOT of the ejaculate/AI dose and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination are important for the outcome of inseminations with cooled semen. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Jacob, Louis; Weber, Katherina; Sechet, Ingeborg; Macharey, Georg; Kostev, Karel; Ziller, Volker (2016)
    To analyze the impact of caesarean section (CS) on fertility and time to pregnancy in German gynecological practices. Women initially diagnosed for the first time with a vaginal delivery (VD) or CS between 2000 and 2013 were identified by 227 gynecologists in the IMS Disease Analyzer database. They were included if they were aged between 16 and 40 years, and were not previously diagnosed with female sterility. The two main outcomes were the first-time diagnosis of female sterility and the time between the first delivery and the next pregnancy within 10 years. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to predict these outcomes on the basis of patient characteristics. 6483 patients were included in the CS group and 6483 in the VD group. Mean age was 30.6 years and the proportion of individuals with private health insurance amounted to 9.0 %. Within 10 years of the index date, 19.5 % of women who delivered by CS and 18.3 % of women who delivered vaginally were diagnosed with sterility (p value = 0.0148). CS and polycystic ovary syndrome significantly increased the risk of sterility. Within 10 years of the index date, 57.9 % of women who underwent a CS and 64.0 % of women who delivered vaginally were pregnant for the second time (p value <0.001). CS, polycystic ovary syndrome, and the deterioration of menstrual cycle significantly decreased the chance of becoming pregnant a second time. CS is associated with an increased risk of sterility and a decreased number of subsequent pregnancies in Germany.
  • Tharmalingam, Melissa D.; Matilionyte, Gabriele; Wallace, William H. B.; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Oliver, Elizabeth; Goriely, Anne; Lane, Sheila; Guo, Jingtao; Cairns, Bradley; Jorgensen, Anne; Allen, Caroline M.; Lopes, Federica; Anderson, Richard A.; Spears, Norah; Mitchell, Rod T. (2020)
    Background Clinical studies indicate chemotherapy agents used in childhood cancer treatment regimens may impact future fertility. However, effects of individual agents on prepubertal human testis, necessary to identify later risk, have not been determined. The study aimed to investigate the impact of cisplatin, commonly used in childhood cancer, on immature (foetal and prepubertal) human testicular tissues. Comparison was made with carboplatin, which is used as an alternative to cisplatin in order to reduce toxicity in healthy tissues. Methods We developed an organotypic culture system combined with xenografting to determine the effect of clinically-relevant exposure to platinum-based chemotherapeutics on human testis. Human foetal and prepubertal testicular tissues were cultured and exposed to cisplatin, carboplatin or vehicle for 24 h, followed by 24-240 h in culture or long-term xenografting. Survival, proliferation and apoptosis of prepubertal germ stem cell populations (gonocytes and spermatogonia), critical for sperm production in adulthood, were quantified. Results Cisplatin exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the total number of germ cells (- 44%, p <0.0001) in human foetal testis, which involved an initial loss of gonocytes followed by a significant reduction in spermatogonia. This coincided with a reduction (- 70%, p <0.05) in germ cell proliferation. Cisplatin exposure resulted in similar effects on total germ cell number (including spermatogonial stem cells) in prepubertal human testicular tissues, demonstrating direct relevance to childhood cancer patients. Xenografting of cisplatin-exposed human foetal testicular tissue demonstrated that germ cell loss (- 42%, p <0.01) persisted at 12 weeks. Comparison between exposures to human-relevant concentrations of cisplatin and carboplatin revealed a very similar degree of germ cell loss at 240 h post-exposure. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of direct effects of chemotherapy exposure on germ cell populations in human foetal and prepubertal testis, demonstrating platinum-induced loss of all germ cell populations, and similar effects of cisplatin or carboplatin. Furthermore, these experimental approaches can be used to determine the effects of established and novel cancer therapies on the developing testis that will inform fertility counselling and development of strategies to preserve fertility in children with cancer.
  • Rintala, Risto J. (2016)
    Persistent cloaca remains a challenge for pediatric surgeons and urologists. Reconstructive surgery of cloacal malformations aims to repair the anorectum, urinary tract, and genital organs, and achieve fecal and urinary continence as well as functional genital tract capable for sexual activity and pregnancy. Unfortunately, even in most experienced hands these goals are not always accomplished. The endpoint of the functional development of bowel, urinary, and genital functions is the completion of patient's growth and sexual maturity. It is unlikely that there will be any significant functional improvement beyond these time points. About half of the patients with cloaca attain fecal and urinary continence after their growth period. The remaining half stay clean or dry by adjunctive measures such as bowel management by enemas or ACE channel, and continent urinary diversion or intermittent catheterization. Problems related to genital organs such as obstructed menstruations, amenorrhea, and introitus stenosis are common and often require secondary surgery. Encouragingly, most adolescent and adult patients are capable of sexual life despite often complex vaginal primary and secondary reconstructions. Also, cloacal malformation does not preclude pregnancies, although they still are quite rare. Pregnant patients with cloaca require special care and follow-up to guarantee uncomplicated pregnancy and preservation of anorectal and urinary functions. Cesarean section is recommended for cloaca patients. The self-reported quality of life of cloaca patients appears to be comparable to that of female patients with less complex anorectal malformations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Taskinen, Seppo; Mäkelä, Eija; Raivio, Taneli (2020)
    Purpose: To evaluate short-term testicular outcome after torsion in children. Methods: Fifty-four children and adolescents were evaluated after 6 months of the operation for testicular torsion. Testicular volume was measured and circulating Inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels were checked. Results: Delay from the onset of symptoms to surgery was shorter in the orchidopexy group (n = 47), than in the orchiectomy group (n = 7, p = 0.001). In the orchidopexy group, the median volume of the affected testis was 83% (IQR 43-104) of the contralateral testis (p = 0.002). The plasma hormone levels in orchidopexy and orchiectomy groups were: 148 ng/l (IQR 108-208) vs. 129 ng/l (IQR, 123-138, p = 0.269) for Inhibin B; 4.5 IU/L (IQR2.6-6.9) vs. 11.7 IU/L (IQR 4.3-12.8, p = 0.037) for FSH; 2.9 IU/L (IQR 1.3-3.7) vs. 4.8 (IQR 3.0-5.6, p = 0.066) for LH; and 13.6 nM(IQR 6.5-18.0) vs. 14.5 nM(IQR 6.7-15.9, p = 0.834) for testosterone. The association between FSH, LH as well as testosterone levels was most clear with the volume of the contralateral testis (Rho = 0.574, p <0.001, Rho = 0.621, p = 0.001 and Rho 0.718, p <0.001 respectively). Conclusions: Testicular function is mainly dependent on the volume of contralateral testicle after testicular torsion. However, testis preserving surgery tends to maintain better function than orchiectomy. Type of study: Retrospective review. (c) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ylävuo, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Endometrioosissa kohdun limakalvon kaltainen kudos kasvaa kohdun ulkopuolella. Tautia sairastaa noin 10 % hedelmällisessä iässä olevista naisista. Endometrioosi on yleisin lapsettomuutta aiheuttava tauti naisilla, sillä joka toinen lapsettomuudesta kärsivä nainen sairastaa endometrioosia. Tutkimuksen aineiston muodostavat Naistentautien ja synnytysten klinikkaryhmässä HYKS:ssa vuosina 2004-2012 rektovaginaalisen endometrioosin vuoksi leikatut potilaat. Tutkimus käsittää 128 fertiili-ikäistä naista, joille on tehty suoliresektio rektovaginaalisen endometrioosin vuoksi ja kohtu on tallella. Tietoja kerättiin kotiin lähetettävän kyselytutkimuksen ja sairaskertomusten avulla. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää leikkausta edeltävää ja sen jälkeistä fertiliteettiä sekä mahdollista infertiliteettiä ja sen hoitoja, sillä aiemmin endometrioosipotilaiden leikkaushoidon jälkeistä fertiliteettiä ja lapsettomuushoitoja ei ole laajemmin tutkittu Suomessa. Tulosten mukaan suoliendometrioosipotilaille tehdään paljon lapsettomuushoitoja, mutta monet tulevat endometrioosista huolimatta raskaaksi. Kuitenkin vain vähän alle puolet suoliendometrioosipotilaista tulee raskaaksi spontaanisti. Suoliresektio näyttäisi parantavan raskaaksi tulemisen mahdollisuutta naisilla, joilla on löydetty endometrioosipesäkkeitä suolesta.
  • Demir, And; Hero, Matti; Alfthan, Henrik; Passioni, Amro; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan (2022)
    Objectives In our earlier study, we separated three different molecular forms of urinary LH-ir (U-LH-ir) by gel filtration and identified them by immunoassay in urine from regularly menstruating women on periovulatory days. U-LH-ir is composed of intact luteinizing hormone (LH), its free beta-subunit (LH beta), and the core fragment of LH beta (LH beta cf), the latter two establishing the non-intact portion of LH-ir. The aim was to determine whether timing of ovulation can be improved by detecting different molecular forms of U-LH-ir in women of reproductive age. Methods We determined intact and total U-LH-ir in 14 regularly menstruating women on consecutive periovulatory days during the menstrual cycle. Non-intact LH-ir was calculated as the arithmetic difference between total and intact LH-ir. In addition, LH-ir was determined in both serum and urine from four of the women throughout the menstrual cycle. Results During the LH surge, U-LH-ir consisted mainly of intact LH and presented with an abrupt increase. Intact U-LH-ir dropped rapidly within 1 day after the surge, reaching baseline levels at the end of the luteal phase. In contrast, LH beta cf in urine increased further 1 day after the surge. After this, most of the U-LH-ir consisted of LH beta cf and it remained strongly elevated (over fivefold compared to intact LH) for the first 3 days after the LH surge, moderately elevated (over threefold) thereafter until day + 5, and mildly elevated until day + 7. Conclusions Total and non-intact LH-ir are potential add-on characteristics which can be utilized in ovulation predictor kits to measure LH-ir in urine beyond the LH surge during a broader time frame, thereby paving the way for more precise prediction of the timing of ovulation than that obtained with currently available products.
  • Einiö, Elina; Goisis, Alice; Myrskylä, Mikko (2019)
    Becoming a father, particularly for the first time, is a central transition in men's lives, and whether this transition takes place early or later in life may have important ramifications on the whole later life course. Previous research has shown that men who father their first child early in life have poorer later-life health than men who postpone having children. However, it is not known how selection by cognitive ability and other childhood characteristics confound the association between the timing of fatherhood and later-life health, or how the association is changing over time as parenthood is postponed to an older age. We investigate the association between men's age at the birth of their first child and midlife self-rated health in two British cohorts born in 1958 and 1970. The study employs logit models. Relative to men who had their first child when they were between 25 and 29 years old, men who had their first child before the age of 20 have the poorest health, followed by men who had a child when they were 20-24 years old. This result was observed in both cohorts. Childhood cognitive ability, which previous research has not analyzed, strongly contributed to this association, and to a greater extent than other childhood characteristics. For the 1970 cohort, those who became fathers at age 35 or older had the best health. This advantage was not found for the 1958 cohort. These findings suggest that the relationship between young age at fatherhood and midlife health is strongly confounded by cognitive ability, and that in recent cohorts a new pattern of advantage among older fathers has emerged.
  • Koskela-Koivisto, Tiina (2018)
    Lihavuuteen liittyvät hormonaaliset muutokset, erityisesti insuliiniresistenssi, vaikuttavat sekä naisten että miesten lisääntymisterveyteen. Jo 5 %:n painonpudotus voi parantaa merkittävästi hedelmällisyyttä ja pienentää raskaudenaikaisia riskejä. Pysyvät elämäntapamuutokset näyttävät vaikuttavan merkittävästi myös tulevien jälkeläisten terveyteen epigeneettisten mekanismien ja ympäristövaikutusten kautta. Perusterveydenhuolto on keskeisessä asemassa lihavuuden ehkäisyssä ja varhaisessa hoidossa.Tarvitaan moniammatillista yhteistyötä ja toimivia hoitoketjuja.
  • Einiö, Elina; Hiltunen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Korhonen, Kaarina (2020)
    Background: Men's age at first birth may negatively or positively affect alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, although little evidence is available. Methods: We used register data of over 22,000 brothers to analyze the associations between age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality from the age of 35 until the age of 60 or 72. We employed conventional Cox models and inter-sibling models, which allowed adjustment for unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared by brothers. Results: The findings show that men's age at first birth was inversely associated with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, independent of unobserved characteristics shared by brothers and of observed demographic confounders. Men who had their first child late at 35-45 years experienced lower alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.75) than men who had their first child at 25-29. Men who had their first child before age 20 had the highest morbidity and mortality among all fathers (HR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.09, 1.69), followed by men who had their child at 20-24 (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.25). Conclusions: The results imply that the inverse association between men's age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is not driven by familial characteristics.
  • Mäkelä, Eija P.; Roine, Risto P.; Taskinen, Seppo (2020)
    Introduction Spermatic cord torsion (SCT) may lead to organ loss and can potentially influence fertility. Long-term effects of SCT are not fully investigated. Objective The purpose was to evaluate paternity rates in adults who have had SCT in childhood and to compare the results to those of a control population. The secondary purposes were to compare paternity rates after testis-preserving surgery with those after orchiectomy and to evaluate erectile function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Study design Questionnaires concerning paternity, erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]-5 questionnaire), and HRQoL (15D questionnaire) were mailed to 74 men who had been treated for SCT and to 92 controls treated for testicular appendage torsion in 1977-1995 and who were currently older than 30 years. Results Thirty-five of the 74 (47%) patients with SCT and 58 of the 92 (63%) controls responded. A same-aged control was selected for each patient with SCT. The median age at investigation was 41 (interquatile range [IQR]: 36 to 46) years in the SCT group and 41 (IQR: 38 to 46) years in the control group (p = 0.81). The paternity rate was 23 of 35 (66%) in the SCT group and 26 of 34 (76%) in the control group (p = 0.43). Nine percent of patients and controls suffered from infertility. Of the 30- to 50-year-old patients with SCT, 9 of 16 (56%) had children after orchiectomy, and 13 of 16 (81%), after detorsion (p = 0.25). Significant or moderate erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5 total score Discussion Paternity, erectile function, or HRQoL was not impaired in the general level in the patients with SCT in comparison with controls. Both the modes of treatment, orchiectomy or detorsion, had no significant impact on the results. However, the results cannot be generalized to the individual level. The limitations were a small sample size and inability to investigate maternal factors to the paternity. However, the results are encouraging for the patients and families. Conclusion Paternity rate and HRQoL were similar in patients with SCT and controls. The type of surgery (orchiectomy vs. detorsion) did not affect paternity rates statistically. Moderate or significant erectile dysfunction was rare in both groups.
  • Poczai, Péter; Santiago-Blay, Jorge (2021)
    The knowledge of the history of a subject stimulates understanding. As we study how other people have made scientific breakthroughs, we develop the breadth of imagination that would inspire us to make new discoveries of our own. This perspective certainly applies to the teaching of genetics as hallmarked by the pea experiments of Mendel. Common questions students have in reading Mendel's paper for the first time is how it compares to other botanical, agricultural, and biological texts from the early and mid-nineteenth centuries; and, more precisely, how Mendel's approach to, and terminology for debating, topics of heredity compare to those of his contemporaries? Unfortunately, textbooks are often unavailing in answering such questions. It is very common to find an introduction about heredity in genetic textbooks covering Mendel without mentions of preceding breeding experiments carried out in his alma mater. This does not help students to understand how Mendel came to ask the questions he did, why he did, or why he planned his pea studies the way he did. Furthermore, the standard textbook "sketch" of genetics does not allow students to consider how discoveries could have been framed and inspired so differently in various parts of the world within a single historical time. In our review we provide an extended overview bridging this gap by showing how different streams of ideas lead to the eventual foundation of particulate inheritance as a scientific discipline. We close our narrative with investigations on the origins of animal and plant breeding in Central Europe prior to Mendel in Koszeg and Brno, where vigorous debates touched on basic issues of heredity from the early eighteenth-century eventually reaching a pinnacle coining the basic questions: What is inherited and how is it passed on from one generation to another?
  • Söderström-Anttila, Viveca (2018)
    Monella on ylioptimistinen kuva hedelmöityshoitojen tehokkuudesta.
  • Ahinko, Katja; Peltonen, Reetta (2020)
  • Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Tiitinen, Aila (2016)
    Systeemisissä sidekudossairauksissa hedelmällisyyteen, sikiöön ja raskauteen vaikuttavat sairauden ­aiheuttamat elinmuutokset, taudin aktiivisuus sekä hoitoon käytetyt lääkitykset. Systeemiset sidekudossairaudet voivat lisätä keskenmenon, sikiön pienipainoisuuden ja ennenaikaisen ­synnytyksen riskiä. Tyypillisesti Sjögrenin oireyhtymään liittyviä sikiön sydämen johtumishäiriöitä aiheuttavia vasta-aineita voi esiintyä myös muissa sidekudossairauksissa. Systeemisiin sidekudossairauksiin voi liittyä myös tukoksille altistavia fosfolipidivasta-aineita. Systeemistä sidekudossairautta sairastavan naisen raskauden suunnittelu ja seuranta tulee keskittää keskus- tai yliopistosairaaloihin.