Browsing by Subject "Finland Swedish"

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  • Nilsson, Jenny; Norrthon, Stefan; Lindström, Jan; Wide, Camilla (2018)
    While greetings are performed in all cultures and open most conversations, previous studies suggest that there are cross-cultural differences between different languages in greeting behavior. But do speakers of different national varieties of the same language organize and perform their greeting behavior in similar ways? In this study, we investigate the sequential organization of greetings in relation to gaze behavior in the two national varieties of Swedish: Sweden Swedish spoken in Sweden and Finland Swedish spoken in Finland. In recent years, the importance of studying pluricentric languages from a pragmatic perspective has been foregrounded, not least within the framework of variational pragmatics. To date, most studies have focused on structural differences between national varieties of pluricentric languages. With this study, we extend the scope of variational pragmatics through adding an interactional, micro perspective to the broader macro analysis typical of this field. For this study, we have analyzed patterns for greetings in 297 videorecorded service encounters, where staff and customers interact at theatre box offices and event booking venues in Sweden and Finland. The study shows that there are similarities and differences in greeting behavior between varieties. There is a strong preference for exchanging reciprocal verbal greetings, one at a time, in both. There is also a similar organization of the greeting sequence, where customer and staff establish mutual gaze prior to the verbal greetings, thus signaling availability for interaction. The duration of mutual gaze and the timing of the greeting, however, differ between the two varieties. We have also conducted a multi modal analysis of gaze behavior in correlation to the greeting. We found that the customers and staff in the Finland Swedish data share mutual gaze before and during the verbal greeting, and often avert gaze after the verbal greetings. However, in the Sweden Swedish data, the participants often avert gaze before the verbal greetings. Our results thus indicate that both similarities and differences in pragmatic routines and bodily behavior exist between the two national varieties of Swedish. The present study on greeting practices in Finland Swedish and Sweden Swedish should contribute to the field of variational pragmatics and to the development of pluricentric theory.
  • Nilsson, Jenny; Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan Krister; Wide, Camilla (2017)
    Swedish is a pluricentric language and has official status in both Sweden and Finland. Until recently, most studies on such languages have focused on differences and similarities in grammar and lexicon, and less on pragmatic variation. We suggest that a pragmatic perspective is of help in understanding the relationship between national varieties, and in this study we investigate greetings in Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish. Previous comparisons of the two varieties suggest that Sweden Swedish is less formal than Finland Swedish, and in this article we problematise the concept of formality and discuss whether formality could explain any differences in the use of greetings. We use three data sets from each of the two countries: videorecorded service encounters from box offices and information desks, recorded focus groups, and experiments. Combined, the data suggest that the Finland-Swedish greeting repertoire is larger than the Sweden-Swedish one, and that Swedish speakers in Finland are therefore more sensitive to social distance than their counterparts in Sweden. At the same time, the study highlights the complexity in the use of greetings, and shows that variables such as gender, age, context and degree of acquaintance all play an important part in the use of greetings in both Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Lindholm, Camilla Christina; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Nilsson, Jenny (John Benjamins, 2017)
    Studies in Language and Social Interaction
    This chapter investigates the use of imperative-formatted directives in Swedish medical consultations. The specific focus of the chapter is the division of labor between straight, non-modulated imperative turns and imperative turns which are modulated with a discourse particle or some other verbal mitigating device. The results show that non-modulated imperative turns are embedded in diagnostic work, nominating subsequent actions in a series. Orientations to projected trajectories of action and the other participant’s expectations are clearly present when modulated imperative turns are produced; they are also frequent in the opening and closing routines of the consultations. Thus, there is a link between routinized and projectable actions and the use of imperatives with a pragmatic modulating element.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny; Wide, Camilla (Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 2021)
    RJ:s skriftserie
    Interaction and Variation in Pluricentric Languages (IVIP) is a research programme which was funded for eight years (2013–2020) by the Swedish research foundation Riksbankens Jubileumsfond for the Advancement of the Humanities and Social Sciences. The programme findings have, to date, resulted in some sixty publications; for details the reader is directed to the list of publications available at the IVIP homepage ( The plan to investigate pluricentricity based on interactions in the national varieties of Swedish evolved partly from an earlier Australian research project on address practices in the pluricentric languages English, French, German and Swedish (Clyne/Norrby/Warren 2009), which had uncovered some interesting pragmatic differences between national varieties of these languages, and partly from the realisation that there was very little research on pluricentricity from an interactional perspective at the time. Accordingly, the main motivation of the research programme was to address this research gap and, more specifically, to contribute to the fuller description of the variation in communicative patterns between the two national varieties of Swedish based on comparable datasets. This book reports the project’s main findings concerning following areas of interest: greeting behavior, forms of address, presenting the reason-for-a-visit, directive actions, assessments, feedback, and thanking. Also topics such as embodiment, non-verbal resources and artefacts in interaction are discussed.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Lindström, Jan; Nilsson, Jenny (2015)
    This article investigates how interpersonal relationships are expressed in medical consultations. In particular, we focus on how modes of address are used in the two national varieties of Swedish: Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish, with the aim to compare the pragmatic routines in the two varieties. Thus the study contributes to the field of variational pragmatics, where national varieties of pluricentric languages are recognised as important research objects. Address practices are analysed in two comparable corpora of video recordings from Sweden and Finland using both a quantitative and a qualitative CA-inspired method. There are several differences between the data sets: the Sweden-Swedish data are characterised by exclusive use of the informal T pronoun (du ‘you’) and an overall higher frequency of direct address compared to the Finland-Swedish data. In some medical consultations in the latter Finland-Swedish data the formal V pronoun (ni) is used. The qualitative analysis confirms these differences and the tendency is that the Sweden-Swedish medical consultations are more informal than the Finland-Swedish ones, which are characterised by more formality and maintenance of social distance between the interlocutors. The different pragmatic orientations at the micro level of communication can also be related to socio-cultural preferences at the macro level in society – the development towards greater informality and intimate language is more pronounced in Sweden than in Finland.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Lindström, Jan; Wide, Camilla; Nilsson, Jenny (University of Helsinki, 2018)
    Nordica Helsingiensia
    I servicesamtal engagerar sig kunden och personalrepresentanten i ett utbyte av information, varor och tjänster: kunden vill köpa något eller få information, personalen begär transaktionella handlingar, såsom betalning. När den andra parten levererat den efterfrågade handlingen kommenteras detta ofta av den mottagande parten med en positiv värderande respons som vad bra, perfekt, utmärkt. Vårt syfte är att undersöka sådana responser i servicesamtal i finlandssvenska och sverigesvenska. Materialet utgörs av en korpus av samtal som spelats in vid teaterkassor och bokningscentraler i olika städer i Sverige (Stockholm, Göteborg, Karlstad) och Finland (Helsingfors, Åbo, Vasa) inom forskningsprogrammet IVIP (Interaktion och variation i pluricentriska språk). Våra iakttagelser pekar på att det finns skillnader mellan finlandssvenska och sverigesvenska i fråga om hur positiva värderande responser uttrycks: mer återhållsamt som bra, fint, kiva (mest finlandssvenska) eller starkt uppgraderat som härligt, kanon, toppen (mest sverigesvenska). I första hand avser vi att undersöka sekvenser som innehåller värderande s.k. tredjedrag (begäran–leverans–respons).Tidigare forskning på engelskt material om s.k. high-grade assessments (t.ex. brilliant, wow, cool, is that so?) har visat att starkt uppgraderade värderingar fungerar som signaler på starkt engagemang, där samtalspartnern visar sin entusiasm, empati, sympati, förvåning eller avsky inför det som talaren säger utan att själv ta över turen (Antaki 2002). Vidare har man pekat på att uppgraderade responssekvenser fungerar som sätt att föra en interaktionell episod till sitt slut (Antaki, Houtkoop-Steenstra & Rapley 2000). Teoretiskt och metodiskt bygger vi på insikter från samtalsanalys, interaktionell lingvistik och variationspragmatik.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Nilsson, Jenny; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla (Presses universitaires de Caen, 2015)
    Les variétés d’une même langue peuvent différer les unes des autres parce que parlées dans différentes zones d’une même aire linguistique. Par exemple, certaines variétés peuvent entretenir entre elles des rapports plus étroits que d’autres, ou bien telle variété peut se trouver en contact avec une langue par laquelle les autres ne seront pas influencées. Ainsi que diverses études en dialectologie et sociolinguistique l’ont montré, une telle variation régionale peut souvent être observée en termes de différences linguistiques formelles concernant la prononciation, le lexique et la grammaire. En outre, les variétés d’une même langue peuvent différer parce que parlées et utilisées dans différents contextes culturels, comme par exemple une langue parlée dans deux pays différents présentant des codes culturels qui leur sont propres. Si la nature de cette variation linguistique n’est pas en premier lieu phonologique, lexicale, syntaxique ou sémantique, on peut la dire pragmatique, c’est-à-dire liée aux usages de la langue en tant qu’outil d’interaction avec des interlocuteurs. Ainsi, une variété pourra par exemple, par rapport à une autre, favoriser l’emploi de formes d’adresse plus formelles. C’est justement ce type de variation pragmatique au sein d’une même langue parlée dans différents pays qui constitue le sujet de notre étude. Notre travail se concentre en effet sur les deux variétés nationales du suédois: celle parlée en Suède (le suédois de Suède) et celle parlée en Finlande (le suédois de Finlande). Dans une première partie, nous dresserons ainsi un aperçu de l’aire linguistique du suédois et de la population svécophone en Finlande, puis nous exposerons certaines caractéristiques formelles du suédois de Finlande. Dans un deuxième point, nous présenterons nos recherches examinant un aspect moins traité de la variation pragmatique, en comparant les formes d’adresse et les moyens de l’éloge et de la critique en suédois de Suède et de Finlande.
  • Huhtamäki, Martina; Lindström, Jan; Londen, Anne-Marie (2020)
    This study examines other-repetitions in Finland Swedish talk-in-interaction: their sequential trajectories, prosodic design, and lexicogrammatical features. The key objective is to explore how prosody can contribute to the action conveyed by a repetition turn, that is, whether it deals with a problem of hearing or understanding, a problem of expectation, or just registers receipt of information. The analysis shows that large and upgraded prosodic features (higher onset, wider pitch span than the previous turn) co-occur with repair- and expectation-oriented repetitions, whereas small, downgraded prosody (lower onset, narrower pitch span than the previous turn) is characteristic of registering. However, the distinguishing strength of prosody is mostly gradient (rather than discrete), and because of this, other concomitant cues, most notably the speakers’ epistemic positions in relation to the repeated item, are also of importance for ascribing a certain pragmatic function to a repetition.
  • Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Nilsson, Jenny; Lindström, Jan (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Pragmatics and Beyond New Series
    This chapter investigates social positioning through the use (or non-use) of address pronouns in Finland-Swedish and Sweden-Swedish service encounters recorded at theatre and event booking venues in Finland and Sweden. The results demonstrate some compelling variation in address practices which can be attributed to participant roles (customer or staff), national variety (Finland-Swedish or Sweden-Swedish), age (younger or older speaker and addressee) and situational factors, such as type of venue and type of transaction, as well as micro-situational aspects which occur during the course of the interaction (complications, problems or topics treated as sensitive). The study highlights that different forms of address cannot be associated a priori with a certain level of formality, but should be interpreted in their micro and macro contexts in order to understand existing cultural norms for appropriate address.
  • Grönstrand, Heidi (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 15
    Self-translation, which is when an author translates his or her own texts and the outcome is two (or more) distinct works speaking to two (or more) different audiences, provides a useful insight into transnationalism and border-crossings, which are phenomena that operate outside the national, monolingual paradigm. Self-translation is regarded as a kind of border-zone activity that reorganises the relationships between languages and literary traditions, challenging the monolingual assumptions of the literary institution and literary history writing, which have been important in the construction of the modern nation-state. This is also the case in Finland where the literary institution and traditions have been defined by language despite the fact that Finland has two official languages, Finnish and Swedish. By looking more closely at the self-translations of two Finnish authors, Kersti Bergroth (1886–1975) and Henrik Tikkanen (1924–1984), and the strategies that are used in their texts in order to engage simultaneously in two languages, cultural spheres, and literary traditions, I discuss self-translation as an interpretive task that attempts to negotiate complex cultural equations that are subject to the changing fortunes of time and place. The analysis focuses on texts by Bergroth and Tikkanen that depict war, on their intersections and overlaps, showing that self-translations link Finnish and Swedish-speaking language groups and literary traditions.
  • Lindström, Jan; Lindström Tiedemann, Therese (University of Vaasa, 2018)
    Vaasan yliopiston tutkimuksia
    "Nog" is a common clausal adverbial or modal particle in Swedish. The word had historically a meaning of ‘enough’, but has developed into an epistemic marker of subjective certainty which can also be used intersubjectively, for example, to ask for the hearer’s consent. In this article we investigate how the particle was used around the turn of the last century in correspondence between the Finland-Swedish art collector Paul Sinebrychoff and various people in Sweden from whom he bought art pieces. Our study shows that there are no referential uses (corresponding to ‘enough’) in the material, even though we can still find them today (as we show in examples from dramatic dialogue from the 1990s in the corpus Svensk Dramadialog). We have mainly found subjective modal uses, and we see that there are slightly more intersubjective uses in the Finland-Swedish letters. However, we claim that this is not likely to be due to a difference in the varieties; rather, this is the result of the participation framework. It is the Finland-Swedish art collector who is seeking agreement, concessions and services from his addressees, and this outward orientation shades into the functions of nog in his letter writing.
  • Björklöf, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, Nordica, 2017)
    Nordica Helsingiensia
    In the focus of this article are Swedish loanwords in the western subgroup of the coastal dialect of the Estonian north-eastern coastal dialects. The article is based on the material collected for the dictionary of Estonian dialects. The material studied consists of 225 words, which occur in all three or only two of the parishes (Jõelähtme, Kuusalu, Haljala) of the dialectal area. Half of the words are loanwords from neighbouring languages around the Baltic Sea. Most of the loanwords are borrowed from Finnish, the second biggest group being Swedish loanwords. A part of the latter originate from the Swedish dialects in Finland and some from other varieties of Swedish. Some words with a Swedish origin have probably been borrowed via Finnish. There are also loanwords that may have been borrowed either via Finnish or straight from Swedish dialects in Finland. In the studied Estonian regional dialect there are local derivations of the Swedish loanwords, hybrid compound words consisting of a Swedish loanword and an Estonian word, accompanied by one possible loan translation. Some of the loanwords are adapted to the phonological system of the receiving dialect: as a result of language contacts there are word-initial consonant clusters – a feature not typical for Finnic languages. Initial-syllable secondary diphtongs are a typical feature which the Finnish contact has supported, and they occur also in Swedish loanwords (as well as in the dialect’s own words). Semantically the Swedish loanwords include almost exclusively maritime vocabulary. All of the Finland-Swedish source words are known in the dialects of Eastern Nyland in Finland and some even only there. The data supports the concept of close contacts between Estonians and Finns, but at the same time it shows that the Finns were not only Finnish-speaking but also Swedish-speaking. Twelve entirely new loan etymologies are given and three prior etymologies are rectified.
  • Lindström, Jan; Norrby, Catrin; Wide, Camilla; Nilsson, Jenny (2019)
    This study examines positive low- and high-grade assessments in service encounters between customers and salespersons conducted in Swedish and recorded in Sweden and Finland. The assessments occur in a regular sequential pattern as third-turn moves that complete request-delivery sequences, longer coherent requesting sections, or request sequences in a pre-closing context. The positive valence of the assessments coheres with the satisfactory outcome of task completion, but their function is primarily pragmatic, used for segmenting the flow of task-oriented institutional interaction. The assessments stand as lexical TCUs, and their delivery is characterized by downgraded prosody and the speaker's embodied shift away from the other. The analysis reveals distributional differences in the interactional practice: Customers produce task-completing assessments more often than the salespersons, and high-grade assessments are more frequent in the data from Sweden than from Finland. The data are in Sweden Swedish and Finland Swedish with English translations.
  • Lindström, Jan Krister; Wide, Camilla (Göteborg University, 2017)
    Göteborgsstudier i nordisk språkvetenskap
    I det här bidraget koncentrerar vi oss på inledningssekvenser i servicesamtal på svenska som spelats in vid biljettkassor på teatrar, arenor och kulturcenter i Sverige och Finland. Vi fokuserar specifikt ärendepresentationer, dvs. hur kunderna formulerar orsaken till sitt besök. Typiska ärenden i materialet utgörs av inköp av biljetter eller avhämtning av på förhand bokade biljetter. Våra frågeställningar gäller utformningen av ärendepresentationer: vilken variation finns det i den grammatiska formen av den här typen av social handling, vilka pragmatiska markörer förekommer i den, i vilken mån är variationen förknippad med ärendets art eller varieteten (sverigesvenska, finlandssvenska)? I vårt material kan vi observera en rätt stor variation i hur kunderna formulerar sitt ärende: från korthuggna, frasformade yttranden (Matchen ikväll) till satsformade deklarativa eller interrogativa yttranden med eller utan modala element (Ja skulle komma å lösa ut två biljetter; Har du några biljetter kvar på måndag?). Kundernas turer kan även innehålla pragmatiska markörer av typen du (Sverige), hördu (Finland), va (Sverige), dedär (Finland). Vidare kan turen där ärendet presenteras föregås av en förklarande försekvens eller följas av en eftersekvens i samma syfte. Undersökningsmaterialet omfattar ca 300 videoinspelade sverigesvenska och finlandssvenska servicesamtal från 2013–14. Materialet har insamlats inom forskningsprogrammet Interaktion och variation i pluricentriska språk (IVIP), som undersöker språkliga och interaktionella praktiker i sverigesvenska och finlandssvenska (se t.ex. Norrby m.fl. 2015). Metodiskt anknyter vår analys till variationspragmatik och interaktionell lingvistik (Schneider & Barron 2008, Couper-Kuhlen & Selting 2001).
  • Mezhevich, Olga (Nordica Helsingiensia (NH), 2018)
    Svenskan i Finland 17 (konferenspublikation)