Browsing by Subject "FinnGen"

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  • Preussner, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Y chromosome has an essential role in the genetic sex determination in humans and other mammals. It contains a male-specific region (MSY) which escapes recombination and is inherited exclusively through the male line. The genetic variations inherited together on the MSY can be used in classifying Y chromosomes into haplogroups. Y-chromosomal haplogroups are highly informative of genetic ancestry, thus Y chromosomes have been widely used in tracing human population history. However, given the peculiar biology and analytical challenges specific to the Y chromosome, the chromosome is routinely excluded from genetic association studies. Consequently, potential impacts of Y-chromosomal variation on complex disease remain largely uncharacterized. Lately the access to large-scale biobank data has enabled to extend the Y-chromosomal genetic association studies. A recent UK Biobank study suggested links between Y-chromosomal haplogroup I1 and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the British population, but this result has not been validated in other datasets. Since Finland harbours a notable frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup I1, the relationship between haplogroup I1 and CAD can further be inferred in the Finnish population using data from the FinnGen project. The first aim of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of Y-chromosomal haplogroups in Finland and characterize their geographical distributions using genotyping array data from the FinnGen project. The second aim was to assess the role between Finnish Y-chromosomal haplogroups and coronary artery disease (CAD) by logistic regression. This thesis characterized the Y-chromosomal haplogroups in Finland for 24 160 males and evaluated the association between Y-chromosomal haplogroups and CAD in Finland. The dataset used in this study was extensive, providing an opportunity to study the Y-chromosomal variation geographically in Finland and its role in complex disease more accurately compared to previous studies. The geographical distribution of the Y-chromosomal haplogroups was characterized on 20 birth regions, and between eastern and western areas of Finland. Consistent with previous studies, the results demonstrated that two major Finnish Y-chromosomal haplogroup lineages, N1c1 and I1, displayed differing distributions within regions, especially between eastern and western Finland. Results from logistic regression analysis between CAD and Y-chromosomal haplogroups suggested no significant association between haplogroup I1 and CAD. Instead, the major Finnish Y-chromosomal haplogroup N1c1 displayed a decreased risk for CAD in the association analysis when compared against other haplogroups. Moreover, this thesis also demonstrated that the association results were not straightforwardly comparable between populations. For instance, haplogroup I1 displayed a decreased risk for CAD in the FinnGen dataset when compared against haplogroup R1b, whereas the same association was reported as risk increasing for CAD in the UK Biobank. Overall, this thesis demonstrates the possibility to study the genetics of Y chromosome using data from the FinnGen project, and highlights the value of including this part of the genome in the future complex disease studies.
  • Patyra, Konrad; Makkonen, Kristiina; Haanpää, Maria; Karppinen, Sinikka; Viikari, Liisa; Toppari, Jorma; Reeve, Mary Pat; Kero, Jukka (2021)
    Background Central hypothyroidism (CeH) is a rare condition affecting approximately 1:16 000- 100 000 individuals. Congenital forms can harm normal development if not detected and treated promptly. Clinical and biochemical diagnosis, especially of isolated CeH, can be challenging. Cases are not usually detected in neonatal screening, which, in most countries, is focused on detection of the more prevalent primary hypothyroidism. Until now, five genetic causes for isolated CeH have been identified. Here we aimed to identify the genetic cause in two brothers with impaired growth diagnosed with CeH at the age of 5 years. We further evaluated the candidate gene variants in a large genetic database. Methods Clinical and biochemical characterization together with targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify the genetic cause in a family of two brothers presenting with CeH. Screening of insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) variants was carried out in the FinnGen database. Results A novel monoallelic frameshift mutation c.1712_1713insT, p.Gly572Trp fs*32 in the X-linked IRS4 gene was identified by NGS analysis in both affected males and confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Their mother was an unaffected carrier. In addition to the declined growth at presentation, central hypothyroidism and blunted TRH test, no other phenotypic alterations were found. Diagnostic tests included head MRI, thyroid imaging, bone age, and laboratory tests for thyroid autoantibodies, glucose, insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Examination of the IRS4 locus in FinnGen (R5) database revealed the strongest associations to a rare Finnish haplotype associated with thyroid disorders (p = 1.3e-7) and hypothyroidism (p = 8.3e-7). Conclusions Here, we identified a novel frameshift mutation in an X-linked IRS4 gene in two brothers with isolated CeH. Furthermore, we demonstrate an association of IRS4 gene locus to a general thyroid disease risk in the FinnGen database. Our findings confirm the role of IRS4 in isolated central hypothyroidism.