Browsing by Subject "Fish"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Acharjee, Mrityunjoy; Hoque, Rezaul; Shreya, Shawda Shafiq; Tabassum, Nafisa; Acharjee, Mahima Ranjan; Rezanujjaman, Md; Rahman, Moshfiqur; Al Amin, Shilu; Mahmud, Md Rayhan (2021)
    Background: The ability of many bacteria to adhere on the host surfaces and forming biofilms has major implications in a wide variety of industries including the food industry, where biofilms may create a persistent source of contamination. In the same environmental condition, the multiple bacterial species can closely interact with each other and may easily enhance their drug resistance capability, which finally increases the multidrug resistant (MDR) attribute of the species. Objective: The present study examined whether the mixed-species biofilm possesses any impact on the enhancement of the antibiotic resistance of the planktonic or single-cell bacterial isolates present in the fish samples. Methods: In this regard, Cyprinus rubrofuscus (Koi), Heteropneustes fossilis (Shing) and Mystus vittatus (Tengra) fishes were collected and subjected to form an in vitro biofilm by shaking condition into the wise bath. The drug-resistant pattern was determined by the Kirby Bauer technique. Results: All the samples exhibited a huge array (up to 10(7) cfu/ml or g) of bacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The isolates from both the bulk samples and their corresponding biofilms were subjected to antibiogram assay using antibiotics such as Ampicillin (10 mu g), Erythromycin (15 mu g), Streptomycin (STP 10 mu g), Oxacillin (10 mu g), Nalidixic acid (30 mu g). Before biofilm formation, few of the isolates were found to be sensitive and few were resistant against the antibiotics. But when the species were isolated from the biofilm the sensitive one acquired drug resistance and resistant strain unveiled more resistance towards the same antibiotics. The present study revealed extensive bacterial contamination in fish samples among those some were resistant against the supplied drugs. Conclusion: After the formation of multi-species biofilm, the isolates became more resistant against the same drugs that is alarming for consumers and major obstacles to maintain sustainable health. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
  • Damerau, Annelie; Kakko, Tanja; Tian, Ye; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Sandell, Mari; Hopia, Anu; Yang, Baoru (2020)
    A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.
  • Kozak, Natalia; Ahonen, Salla A.; Keva, Ossi; ostbye, Kjartan; Taipale, Sami J.; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2021)
    Subarctic lakes are getting warmer and more productive due to the joint effects of climate change and intensive land-use practices (e.g. forest clear-cutting and peatland ditching), processes that potentially increase leaching of peat- and soil-stored mercury into lake ecosystems. We sampled biotic communities from primary producers (algae) to top consumers (piscivorous fish), in 19 subarctic lakes situated on a latitudinal (69.0-66.5 degrees N), climatic (+3.2 degrees C temperature and +30% precipitation from north to south) and catchment land-use (pristine to intensive forestry areas) gradient. We first tested how the joint effects of climate and productivity influence mercury biomagnification in food webs focusing on the trophic magnification slope (TMS) and mercury baseline (THg baseline) level, both derived from linear regression between total mercury (log10THg) and organism trophic level (TL). We examined a suite of environmental and biotic variables thought to explain THg baseline and TMS with stepwise generalized multiple regression models. Finally, we assessed how climate and lake productivity affect the THg content of top predators in subarctic lakes. We found biomagnification of mercury in all studied lakes, but with variable TMS and THg baseline values. In stepwise multiple regression models, TMS was best explained by negative relationships with food chain length, climate-productivity gradient, catchment properties, and elemental C:N ratio of the top predator (full model R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). The model examining variation in THg baseline values included the same variables with positive relationships (R2 = 0.69, p = 0.014). Mass standardized THg content of a common top predator (1 kg northern pike, Esox lucius) increased towards warmer and more productive lakes. Results indicate that increasing eutrophication via forestry-related land-use activities increase the THg levels at the base of the food web and in top predators, suggesting that the sources of nutrients and mercury should be considered in future bioaccumulation and biomagnification studies. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Herczeg, Gabor; Gonda, Maria Abigel; Balazs, Gergely; Noreikiene, Kristina; Merila, Juha (2015)
    Background: Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and birds, most parts of a fish's brain continue to undergo neurogenesis throughout adulthood, making lifelong plasticity in brain size possible. We tested whether maturing adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reared in a stimulus-poor environment exhibited brain plasticity in response to environmental enrichment, and whether these responses were sex-specific, thus altering the degree of sexual size dimorphism in the brain. Results: Relative sizes of total brain and bulbus olfactorius showed sex-specific responses to treatment: males developed larger brains but smaller bulbi olfactorii than females in the enriched treatment. Hence, the degree of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relative brain size and the relative size of the bulbus olfactorius was found to be environment-dependent. Furthermore, the enriched treatment induced development of smaller tecta optica in both sexes. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that adult fish can alter the size of their brain (or brain regions) in response to environmental stimuli, and these responses can be sex-specific. Hence, the degree of SSD in brain size can be environment-dependent, and our results hint at the possibility of a large plastic component to SSD in stickleback brains. Apart from contributing to our understanding of the processes shaping and explaining variation in brain size and the size of different brain regions in the wild, the results show that provision of structural complexity in captive environments can influence brain development. Assuming that the observed plasticity influences fish behaviour, these findings may also have relevance for fish stocking, both for economical and conservational purposes.
  • De Keyzer, Els L. R.; De Corte, Zoe; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Kmentova, Nikol; Mulimbwa, Theophile N'Sibula; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vangestel, Carl; Mulungula, Pascal Masilya; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Vanhove, Maarten P. M. (2019)
    BackgroundClupeid fisheries in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) provide food for millions of people in one of the world's poorest regions. Due to climate change and overfishing, the clupeid stocks of Lake Tanganyika are declining. We investigate the population structure of the Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae, using for the first time a genomic approach on this species. This is an important step towards knowing if the species should be managed separately or as a single stock. Population structure is important for fisheries management, yet understudied for many African freshwater species. We hypothesize that distinct stocks of S. tanganicae could be present due to the large size of the lake (isolation by distance), limnological variation (adaptive evolution), or past separation of the lake (historical subdivision). On the other hand, high mobility of the species and lack of obvious migration barriers might have resulted in a homogenous population.ResultsWe performed a population genetic study on wild-caught S. tanganicae through a combination of mitochondrial genotyping (96 individuals) and RAD sequencing (83 individuals). Samples were collected at five locations along a north-south axis of Lake Tanganyika. The mtDNA data had low global FST and, visualised in a haplotype network, did not show phylogeographic structure. RAD sequencing yielded a panel of 3504 SNPs, with low genetic differentiation (F-ST=0.0054; 95% CI: 0.0046-0.0066). PCoA, fineRADstructure and global F-ST suggest a near-panmictic population. Two distinct groups are apparent in these analyses (F-ST=0.1338 95% CI: 0.1239,0.1445), which do not correspond to sampling locations. Autocorrelation analysis showed a slight increase in genetic difference with increasing distance. No outlier loci were detected in the RADseq data.ConclusionOur results show at most very weak geographical structuring of the stock and do not provide evidence for genetic adaptation to historical or environmental differences over a north-south axis. Based on these results, we advise to manage the stock as one population, integrating one management strategy over the four riparian countries. These results are a first comprehensive study on the population structure of these important fisheries target species, and can guide fisheries management.
  • De Keyzer, Els L R; De Corte, Zoë; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Calboli, Federico C F; Kmentová, Nikol; N’Sibula Mulimbwa, Théophile; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vangestel, Carl; Mulungula, Pascal M; Volckaert, Filip A M; Vanhove, Maarten P M (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Clupeid fisheries in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) provide food for millions of people in one of the world’s poorest regions. Due to climate change and overfishing, the clupeid stocks of Lake Tanganyika are declining. We investigate the population structure of the Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae, using for the first time a genomic approach on this species. This is an important step towards knowing if the species should be managed separately or as a single stock. Population structure is important for fisheries management, yet understudied for many African freshwater species. We hypothesize that distinct stocks of S. tanganicae could be present due to the large size of the lake (isolation by distance), limnological variation (adaptive evolution), or past separation of the lake (historical subdivision). On the other hand, high mobility of the species and lack of obvious migration barriers might have resulted in a homogenous population. Results We performed a population genetic study on wild-caught S. tanganicae through a combination of mitochondrial genotyping (96 individuals) and RAD sequencing (83 individuals). Samples were collected at five locations along a north-south axis of Lake Tanganyika. The mtDNA data had low global FST and, visualised in a haplotype network, did not show phylogeographic structure. RAD sequencing yielded a panel of 3504 SNPs, with low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.0054; 95% CI: 0.0046–0.0066). PCoA, fineRADstructure and global FST suggest a near-panmictic population. Two distinct groups are apparent in these analyses (FST = 0.1338 95% CI: 0.1239,0.1445), which do not correspond to sampling locations. Autocorrelation analysis showed a slight increase in genetic difference with increasing distance. No outlier loci were detected in the RADseq data. Conclusion Our results show at most very weak geographical structuring of the stock and do not provide evidence for genetic adaptation to historical or environmental differences over a north-south axis. Based on these results, we advise to manage the stock as one population, integrating one management strategy over the four riparian countries. These results are a first comprehensive study on the population structure of these important fisheries target species, and can guide fisheries management.
  • Erkkilä, Arja T.; Manninen, Suvi; Fredrikson, Linda; Bhalke, Monika; Holopainen, Minna; Ruuth, Maija; Lankinen, Maria; Käkelä, Reijo; Öörni, Katariina; Schwab, Ursula S. (2021)
    Background: There is little knowledge on the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on the LDL lipidome and aggregation of LDL particles. Objective: We examined if consumption of Camelina sativa oil (CSO) as a source of ALA, fatty fish (FF) as a source of n-3 LCPUFA and lean fish (LF) as a source of fish protein affect the lipidome of LDL as compared to a control diet. Methods: Participants with impaired glucose tolerance (39 women and 40 men) were randomized to 4 study groups (CSO providing 10 g/d ALA, FF and LF [both 4 fish meals/wk] and control limiting their fish and ALA intake) in a 12-week, parallel trial. Diets were instructed and dietary fats were provided to the participants. The lipidome of LDL particles isolated from samples collected at baseline and after intervention was analyzed with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: In the CSO group, the relative concentrations of saturated and monounsaturated cholesteryl ester species in LDL decreased and the species with ALA increased. In the FF group, LDL phosphatidylcholine (PC) species containing n-3 LCPUFA increased. There was a significant positive correlation between the change in total sphingomyelin and change in LDL aggregation, while total PC and triunsaturated PC species were inversely associated with LDL aggregation when all the study participants were included in the analysis. Conclusion: Dietary intake of CSO and FF modifies the LDL lipidome to contain more polyunsaturated and less saturated lipid species. The LDL surface lipids are associated with LDL aggregation. (c) 2021 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
  • Sanchez-Hernandez, Javier; Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2021)
    A mechanistic understanding of how environmental change affects trophic ecology of fish at the individual and population level remains elusive. To address this, we conducted a space-for-time approach incorporating environmental gradients (temperature, precipitation and nutrients), lake morphometry (visibility, depth and area), fish communities (richness, competition and predation), prey availability (richness and density) and feeding (population niche breadth and individual trophic specialisation) for 15 native fish taxa belonging to different thermal guilds from 35 subarctic lakes along a marked climate-productivity gradient corresponding to future climate change predictions. We revealed significant and contrasting responses from two generalist species that are abundant and widely distributed in the region. The cold-water adapted European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) reduced individual specialisation in warmer and more productive lakes. Conversely, the cool-water adapted Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) showed increased levels of individual specialism along climate-productivity gradient. Although whitefish and perch differed in the way they consumed prey along the climate-productivity gradient, they both switched from consumption of zooplankton in cooler, less productive lakes, to macrozoobenthos in warmer, more productive lakes. Species with specialist benthic or pelagic feeding did not show significant changes in trophic ecology along the gradient. We conclude that generalist consumers, such as warmer adapted perch, have clear advantages over colder and clear-water specialised species or morphs through their capacity to undergo reciprocal benthic-pelagic switches in feeding associated with environmental change. The capacity to show trophic flexibility in warmer and more productive lakes is likely a key trait for species dominance in future communities of high latitudes under climate change.
  • Traore, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traore, Alfred S.; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa (2015)
    Background: This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Results: Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. Conclusion: This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.
  • Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Hartikainen, Samuel; Näkki, Pinja; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi (2018)
    Experimental studies have shown how microplastics are taken up by various aquatic organisms. Most of these studies have been carried out with small ( 200 μm and ABS > 100 μm) in comparison to primary microplastic beads (90 μm). Our results show that fragments of secondary plastics may end up in the food web but only in small amounts, and that the size of the fragments more than their shape is a crucial nominator influencing the numbers of plastics ingested. Future research aiming to resolve the effects of microplastics in the ecosystems should concentrate on environmentally relevant plastics and concentrations.
  • Weigel, Benjamin; Bonsdorff, Erik (2018)
    Increasing environmental pressures and human impacts are reshaping community structures and species interactions throughout all trophic levels. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of species communities contain key ecological information on why prey species appear attractive to predators but are rarely applied when exploring predator-prey (PP) relationships. Expanding our knowledge on how changing prey communities can alter the food resource suitability (RS) for predators is vital for understanding PP dynamics in changing ecosystems. Detailed predator diet data are commonly restricted to commercially important species and often not available over long temporal scales. To find out whether structural changes of prey communities impact the food RS for predator communities over space and time, we apply a novel framework to describe and interpret changes in predator diet-suitability based on predation-relevant traits of prey. We use information on described feeding links from the literature to compile the prey spectrum for each predator and subsequently translate the prey-species into a prey-trait spectrum. For each predator, we then calculate a frequency-based prey-trait affinity score and relate it to the available food resource pool, the community weighted means of prey traits, resulting in a prey-suitability measure. We aim to reveal whether a described multi-decadal change in the community structure of zoobenthos had an impact on the food suitability for the benthic-feeding fish in a coastal system of the Baltic Sea. We assess the direction of change in resource quality from the perspective of benthic-feeding fish and describe predator-specific responses to examine which species are likely to profit or be disadvantaged by changes in their prey spectrum. Furthermore, we test the relationship between functional diversity of prey communities and food suitability for predators, and whether predation linkage-structures are affected through prey community-changes. Our results show that changes in zoobenthic communities had a positive effect on the food suitability for most benthic-feeding fish, implying more suitable food resources. Species-specific responses of predators suggest varying plasticity to cope with prey assemblages of different trait compositions. Additionally, the functional diversity of zoobenthos had a positive effect on the food suitability for predator fish. The changing trait compositions of prey influenced the PP linkage-structure, indicating varying specialisation of benthic feeding fish towards available food resources. Our findings suggest that changing morphological characteristics of prey can impact food RS features for its predators. This approach enables long-term evaluation of prey quality characteristics where no detailed diet data is available and allows for cross-system comparison as it is not relying on taxonomic identities per se.