Browsing by Subject "Fonetik (talkommunikation)"

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  • Vehkanen, Laura Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Topic avoidance in romantic relationships has not been researched before in Finnish speech communication research, and this study was expected to increase the understanding of a phenomenon that acquires relatively dramatic attributes in everyday conversation. The aim of this study was to describe topic avoidance based on what was told in the interviews, and to describe the beliefs concerning functional or dysfunctional relational communication that can be interpreted from the interviewees' speech when they talk about topic avoidance. The theoretical reference frame of this study consists of the Communication Privacy Management Theory, relational dialectics, and earlier, mostly American research on topic avoidance. Ten Finnish people aged 22-31, who all had previous experience on one or more marital or common-law relationships were interviewed for this study. Additional material for the study was gathered from the interviewees by using the role playing method to describe interactional events where something essential is left unsaid in the context of romantic relationship. The following values were attributed to functional communication in romantic relationships: openness, equality, honesty, trust and positivity. The dialectical nature of the phenomenon being researched is evident in the way that along with openness, the interviewees talked about excessive openness that should occasionally be avoided in the context of relational communication by leaving things unsaid. Topic avoidance was seen both as a conscious strategic communication for managing privacy, and as an uncontrollable force of nature that at its worst destroys the relationship. When topic avoidance is seen as strategic communication, the choice concerning what is left unsaid is made by weighing the following dimensions against each other: risks/ benefits (for self, relationship), protects/ does not protect (self, partner, relationship), burdens/ does not burden (self, partner, relationship), honesty/ dishonesty, responsibility lies with self/ responsibility does not lie with self. Topic avoidance was acceptable if it was used in order to preserve the relationship, as opposed to gaining power in the relationship or causing insecurity for the partner. The acceptability of topic avoidance varied according to whether it differed from lying or not. When the interviewees talk about topic avoidance, their speech can be interpreted to mean that in spite of uncontrollability, communicative choices can be made in relational communication and that skills concerning communication in romantic relationships can be learned.
  • Inkeroinen, Tiia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this study was to research patients with Type 1 diabetes and (of) their experiences and perceptions of supportive communication, as well as (and) social support received from the diabetes doctor and the diabetes nurse. The aim was to understand supportive communication at doctor or diabetes nurse's office, (as well as) what kind of social support for Type 1 diabetes was typically received from doctor or nurse, and (as well as) what kind of support would be desired. In the field of speech communication, interest has been a particular aspect of interaction. Supportive communication is described as verbal or nonverbal communication, which aims to provide assistance or support to another person. At it(')s best, supportive communication can have positive effects on both the physical and psychological well-being of a person. In this study the subjects of the review have been instrumental in regards to emotional support for self-esteem and informational support. In this research, the data was collected interviewing nine people with Type 1 diabetes, five of whom were men and four women. Based on the results of this study, a number of Type 1 diabetes patients have experienced supportive communication and social support from their diabetes doctor and nurse. There are many factors that influence of the possibility to get support. These factors are related to sender, message, recipient or context. This study shows that doctor offers most of the instrumental and informational support. From the nurse, in some situations, it is possible to get the emotional support. Support that patients have been receiving from their doctor or nurse has help related to blood sugar values and in terms of writing a referral to another specialist. Support has also been defined as listening and comforting, or encouragement with disease-related problems. One of the major factors related to social support and supportive communication is that the doctor and the nurse has to be aware of the patient's individuality and the fact that patients want and need different types of support. When interacting with a patient, it is important for the doctor and the nurse to use person-centered messages as much as possible. When person-centered messages are used, the support seems more real and focused. Supportive communication and social support needs from doctor and nurse also vary depending on (related to that) how much support is obtained from elsewhere. Peer group support is important for many Type 1 diabetics and it has at least partly replaced the need for support from diabetes doctor and a nurse. Despite this, many still consider that help from doctor and nurse could be useful.
  • Ainamo-McDonald, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to technological evolution, our work-culture has become more expert-focused and fast-paced. Work's fast pace and abstract assignments can lead to situations where workers can't evaluate whether their own actions are meeting the expectations. Therefore, the feedback from the other people becomes more important. Feedback enables well-being at the workplace and personal development and therefore can be associated with the work community's- and, finally, the society's operability. The feedback communication at the workplace has been somewhat studied, but also has been criticized for still being one-sided, postpositivist and carried out by the same format. The aim of this study is primarily to produce new, qualitative information about the feedback communication between superiors and their subordinates primarily for the scientific community and secondly for Yleisradio. The first research goal was to describe how subordinates define feedback. The second goal was to understand and describe those perceptions and experiences that subordinates have of their superior's feedback. This thesis was a qualitative case study, and it was carried out for public broadcasting company, Yleisradio. The study was conducted using qualitative methods. The data was collected by interviewing nine (9) employees working in Yleisradio. A semi-structured theme interview was used as a research method and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis method. The interviewees' age ranged from 25 to over 60 years and had been working at Yleisradio from four to over 40 years. Some of the interviewees were manual workers and some were working as content providers. According to the results the employees had many ways of describing feedback. Nine (9) main concepts that employees used to describe feedback were found: 1) All communication, 2) verbal feedback, 3) nonverbal feedback, 4) information sharing, 5) workplace atmosphere, 6) trust and getting work tasks, 7) self evaluation, 8) rewards and 9) silence "i.e. lack of feedback". The interviewees had multiple experiences from their superior's feedback. According to the interviewees, positive feedback was rewarding, increased work motivation and the work community's positive atmosphere. On the other hand, the positive feedback alone is not yet enough and negative feedback is needed as well in order to advance at work. According to the interviewees negative feedback could be divided into constructive and destructive feedback. Constructive feedback was seen as legitimate and work related and didn't get personal. Constructive feedback was created in a dialog and solutions were co-created. Destructive feedback was inappropriate, got too personal and the receiver of the feedback was not listened to. Destructive feedback was also tenuous, no solutions were created and there were no possibilities to improve one's performance or work. Feedback was also experienced as destructive when the person giving feedback was not considered wise or up to date on the situation at hand. The results and conclusions of this study were mostly similar with the previous feedback research. On the other hand the interviewees of this study were describing feedback in more versatile ways than had been described in earlier studies. For example, information sharing has not been part of the concept of feedback in most of the studies. In this thesis the concept of feedback has been extended to be more diverse. Although it must be noted that the data of this study was relatively small and therefore no generalizations can be made based on this study. More research is needed to be conducted on the matter to be able to generalize this study's results to apply to supervisor-subordinate feedback communication in work communities in general.
  • Venesjärvi, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The objective of this study is to examine employees' perceptions of participation in performance appraisal discussions, and to determine the factors that are related to it. Participation in performance appraisal discussions is perceived to influence numerous work-related phenomenona, such as employees' job satisfaction, commitment and productivity. Regardless of the possible positive impacts, the attitudes towards performance appraisal discussions are often negative or indifferent. The purpose of this study is to build knowledge that the target organization may utilize in developing their performance appraisal discussions. The study was conducted using quantitative methods. The data was collected through a questionnaire that could be filled on the Internet. The research was carried out in a large Finnish manufacturing company. The invitation to participate in the study was sent via e-mail to 467 people working in the same unit of the organization. 172 (N=172) employees responded to the survey. The data was analyzed using PAWS 18 -program. According to the results, the employees found that they had participated fairly well in their performance appraisal discussions. The employees also found that they had participated well enough. The perceived effectiveness of the communication and the quality of the leader-member relationship were found to be linked to employees' participation in the performance appraisal discussion. Moreover, the leader-member relationship, the perceived effectiveness of the communication, and participation were perceived to be linked to the satisfaction towards the performance appraisal discussion. According to the results, participation is less significant than the leader-member relationship or communication effectiveness in explaining satisfaction towards the performance appraisal discussions. Based on the results, the employees appreciate an open, equal discussion and the feeling of being heard more than the opportunity to affect different decisions. It is possible, that to improve the attitudes towards performance appraisal discussions, attention must be paid to leader-member relationships and communication. The results of this study describe the perceptions of employees on performance appraisal discussions, participation and leader-member exchange relationships within the target organization. The results can be utilized in developing performance appraisal discussions in the goal organization or other similar organizations.
  • Kolehmainen, Salli (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the communication of Finnish anti-immigration politicians, especially their representations of immigrants. Previous studies have shown that the self-named "immigration critics" have played an important part in making stigmatizing and derogatory talk about immigrants seem more acceptable. The theoretical framework of this study was built on Smith's (2007a) model of stigma communication. Stigmatizing messages consist of marks to recognize and categorize people, labels to distinguish people as a separate social entity, cues of responsibility to imply blame, and implications of peril linking people to physical or social dangers. The aim of the study was to find out if these contents can be found in anti-immigration discourse. The data were drawn from six blogs written by True Finn candidates who got elected in 2011 Parliamentary election. The data also contains the Sour Election Manifesto (Nuiva vaalimanifesti) signed by them. The main method in analyzing the data was theory-driven qualitative content analysis. Methods of rhetorical discourse analysis were used as a complementary analysis in reviewing the strategies of this communication. The results show that the strongest mark was affixed to the groups that have the lowest positions in the prevailing ethnic hierarchy. Muslims and people of African origin were marked most strongly, but marking was for most part indirect. The marked were labeled as culturally backward and strongly separated from "us". Responsibility was linked with the immigration itself: it was implied that the labeled people had only left their country in search of an easy life. Prejudice was claimed to be caused by the immigrants' own actions. Presenting the immigrants as both physical and moral threat to the Finnish community was the most dominant stigma message and it was used to justify stigmatization. Immigrants were presented as a homogeneous mass (part of label), but there were also claims that they should be seen and judged only as individuals. This color-blindness makes it possible for the stigmatizers to never actually face their victims, because they are not seen as members of a stigmatized group on an interpersonal level. It is also very hard for the stigmatized to change the stigma in these circumstances. The model of stigma communication proved out to be an effective tool for qualitative interpretation in this context. Further study should investigate the receiving end of these stigma messages, in this case it could mean studying the comments or the readers of political anti-immigration blogs.
  • Vazquez Harkivi Os Vazquez Garza, Mily (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. Communication is a basic human activity, and one that is also crucial for business. For those communicating with international audiences, lack of knowledge regarding how people communicate across cultures might create misunderstandings and in the worst case, conflicts. The research purpose of this thesis was to identify cultural discourses about nature and the environment that would illustrate deeply held values and beliefs about nature. The theoretical approach utilised in the thesis was Cultural Discourse Theory. This approach originates from the Ethnography of Communication tradition and contemplates not only the linguistic aspects of discourse, but also the context in which discourse is produced, utilised and maintained. Previous research has shown that communication is cultural and that both culture and communication can influence the way nature is constructed. The research question is aimed to identify beliefs and values about nature, personhood, and relationships hold by seven Finnish professionals of the environment working in the forest company UPM. Methods. The research material was collected through seven semi-structured interviews conducted in Finnish language and translated to English. The interviews were recorded digitally and lasted approximately one hour. To ensure confidentiality, the participants were given aliases and their real names were not disclosed publicly. The research participants reviewed the excerpts of text in the original language (vernacular Finnish) and also reviewed the translations to English language. The material was displayed in both Finnish and English language and analysed applying the Cultural Discourse Analysis (CuDA) method. The CuDa method proposed five analytical tools through which the research data could be analysed: dwelling, relations, feelings, action and identity. In this thesis the data was examined in light of the tools or themes of dwelling, relations, identity, and in some cases that of action. Results and conclusions. The research results indicate that three main discourses are present in the discourse of environmental professionals about nature. For the participants nature was a place to relax and calm down, to be with themselves and to maintain a sense of continuity. The values related to these discourses were peace, privacy, autonomy, identity, spirituality, and continuity as a way to preserve what is valued. The main value hold by the participants is that of continuation or sustainability. Further research could build upon the notion of sustainability as a cultural discourse. Research related to other business areas could be useful to understand how a deeply held value about nature like sustainability is common across businesses/industries.
  • Smeds, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study the Finnish concept of esiintyminen (appearance, presenting, performance; in Speech Communication: public speaking) in the field of Speech Communication in Finland.The subjects of experiment are the concept of esiintyminen in the literature of Speech Communication and Performance Studies (the concept of performance), and the conceptions of Finnish presentation skills educators. The purpose of this study is to expose the perspectives form which esiintyminen is presented and understood in the discipline and the field of Speech Communication, and to bring forward new aspects for the theoretical examination of esiintyminen. In the Finnish research of Speech Communication esiintyminen has not been studied from a conceptual point of view before. Methodologically the study consists of a literature review and phenomenographic interviews. In the literature review the Finnish research literature on esiintyminen in the discipline of Speech Communication and the literature of Performance Studies were examined. For the empirical data, seven Finnish presentation skills educations from the field of communication were interviewed in 2012. The empirical data was analysed phenomenographically. Based on the literature review esiintyminen is defined and explored as public speaking in the Finnish literature of Speech Communication. The concept can still be explored from a broader perspective from the standpoint of Performance Studies literature. In Performance Studies esiintyminen (performance, performing) is defined for instance as a way to explore all human behavior. The phenomenographic out come space consists of three main categories: the actualization of esiintyminen, the normative nature of esiintyminen and the indefinable nature of esiintyminen. Among the interviewees Esiintyminen was seen as a part of everyday life instead of actualising only in public speaking situations. Some normative characters were related to esiintyminen, such as the quality of esiintyminen and evaluation. Esiintyminen was considered hard to define, and the interviewees emphasized their subjective points of view while defining esiintyminen. As a conclusion this study presents that a broader and a narrower view of esiintyminen can be distinguished in the field of Speech Communication in Finland. This study suggests the normative nature of communication as one possible way to define the actualization of esiintyminen from a broader perspective.
  • Niinivaara, Janne (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Purposes of the study The purpose of this study is to understand phenomenologically the experience of the communication anxiety among university students during speech communication special course. In addition, the purpose of the study is to discuss how the speech communication teachers can deal with the communication anxiety of the students. Anxiety among university students has been noted as a problem for their studies and future career. Within the branch of communication studies the communication anxiety has been conceptualized in many ways, and it's been highly noted field of study for decades. The aim of this study is to understand the communication anxiety as an experience: How is the experience formed, and how does it change during special course? In addition, this thesis views how speech communication teachers understand students experience of communication anxiety when trying to influence the experience pedagogically. Method For the purposes of this study six university students and four university teachers were interviewed. All interviewees participated a special course as a student or a teacher. In addition, 21 learning assignments written by students at the end of the special course were analyzed. The thesis pursues a phenomenological research approach. The data collected were analyzed by phenomenological method. Results and conclusions The experience of anxiety narrated by students was considered to be an experience of being an outsider. The experience lived changed during the special course. The certain communication situations that earlier had aroused anxiety, were considered not to isolate the student from the others any more. The results indicated that the teacher of the special course cannot understand the experience of anxiety lived by the student. However, via the communication of the student group and by his/her own teacher role, the teacher is able to influence the experience. Both the students and the teacher are able to build an approval of the experience of communication anxiety within the special course. The experience of communication anxiety lived in a special course is a layered phenomenon related to peer support, self-approval and pedagogical decision making.
  • Kervinen, Henriette (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    A family member's excessive use of alcohol or drugs is a stressful and tragic situation which affects the whole family. Depending on the research method it has been estimated that there are between 18 000 to 30 000 drug users in Finland, and hence tens of thousands of friends and relatives who are affected by the situation. Previous research on substance abuse or dependence has concentrated either on the addict or to situations where the addicted family member is the parent. There has been significantly less research that has focused on the other members of the family who are affected by the substance misuse. The aim of this thesis was to examine what kind of competing discourses are present in a parent-child relationship when the child is or has been a drug user and how this competition manifests in the parents' speech. This study is grounded in Baxter's (2011) theory of competing discourses. According to this theoretical view, personal relationships are constructed and produced in interaction. The interaction between the parties of a relationship is filled with competing discourses by which the parties negotiate meaning together. The data of the study consists of individual and pair interviews with 11 mothers of drug users. The interviewees were recruited via two organizations which arrange peer support groups in the Helsinki area. The data was analyzed with Baxter's (2011) contrapuntal analysis method I identified the following pairs of competing discourses as the most relevant:1) the familiar child vs. the strange drug addict, 2) controlling vs. adjusting to distance and 3) openness vs. closedness. These three pairs of competing discourses seemed to be the most significant in the talk of the parents while they were describing their relationship with the child who has a drug addiction. In parents' talk different identities were constructed to their child in the interplay of the discourses of a familiar child and the strange drug user. In the discourses on controlling vs. adapting to distance the parents produced different kinds of meaning for example for "good parenting" versus "bad parenting". Also questions of parents' and child's autonomy were brought up in the competition of the discourses linked to distance and its management. Openness and closedness also alternated in the parents' stories. Through the interplay of openness and closedness the parents produced meanings for good communication in families as being open and honest. This view on "good" family communication as openness is congruent with the culturally dominant idea of "good" communication in families. Parents' talk also reflected the general discourses repeated in the media and society about drugs, drug users and addiction.
  • Lyytikäinen, Enna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Condom use negotiation in casual sex relationships is a topic that has not been studied in Finnish speech communication research. This study aimed to explore the negotiation strategies used in casual sex relationships among 20–30 years old young adults and examine the factors impacting these strategies and the negation as an interactional event. The theoretical reference frame consists of mostly American condom use negotiation studies, Finnish sex and sexuality research and the Goals-Plans-Action theory that was designed to explain the process by which influence messages are produced. The data was collected by interviewing fifteen 22–28 years old Finnish women and men who had all experienced at least one casual sex relationship. The interviews were conducted on internet chat platforms. The data was analyzed qualitatively using data-driven and theory-guided content analysis. The informants described a great amount of various condom negotiation strategies. These strategies were divided to strategies associated with the nature of communication and strategies associated with the content of communication. The previous were further categorized to considerate, self-centered, avoiding and open strategies. The latter were divided to condom-related and physical consequence-related strategies. The factors influencing the negotiation event and impacting the negotiation strategies were situational factors (e.g. alcohol intoxication), individual factors (e.g. significance of personal experience) and partner related factors (e.g. familiarity of partner). The results were in most part similar to the knowledge presented by the earlier research. Nevertheless some substantive differences were found, e.g. differences in arguments enhancing condom use and gender differences in using alternate negotiation strategies. It was concluded that communication in casual sex relationships differs from communication in more committed relationships. In addition, results gained in American studies cannot be directly applied to Finnish speech culture. On the grounds of this study it would be beneficial to pay more attention to teaching condom negotiation skills in Finnish sex education if the goal is to increase condom use in casual sex relationships.
  • Masanti, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. Communication is cultural when the patterns of symbolic action and meaning are deeply felt, commonly intelligible and widely accessible. The cultural features, beliefs and values of the speech community can be examined through an important cultural term. The practices that reflect and build the social reality are described in the tradition of Ethnography of communication. In this master's thesis research the speech of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a construction company was examined. The aim was to find cultural meanings that the speech reveals by analyzing the linguistic features of the community. The purpose was to examine what the linguistic features tell about the common beliefs and values and the meanings of CSR. The idea was to examine a cultural term that has not been examined earlier in the tradition of Ethnography of communication. Methods. The research material included 9 semi-structured thematic interviews that were collected from a Finnish construction company. There were 12 interviewees taking part in in the research. Three of the interviews were couple and six were single interviews. The interviews lasted 20–60 minutes. The material reached included some texts from the company's Internet page as well. The research material was analyzed with the Cultural discourse analysis. The cultural features were examined with five discursive hubs that were used as analytical tools. These hubs were dwelling, relations, feelings, action and identity. The analysis consisted of five phases: theoretical, descriptive, interpretive, comparative and critical. Results and conclusions. Two cultural discourses were found in the speech community: open discourse and caring. The interviewees experienced that the meaning of CSR was sharing the good and the bad with the stakeholders. The participants felt that discourse of caring meant acting responsible. Caring and open discourse were important actions in the community. The perceptions about CSR reflected the factors of social responsibility according to CSR research. Based on the cultural premises of the cultural discourses of this study the participants evaluated each other as flexible, open and honest. They were expected to take care of the objectives of their work and the wellbeing of their colleagues. The daily interaction between the participants was experienced to strenghten the features of openness and honesty.
  • Sivula, Sampo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Social anxiety has been widely studied, and it has been established to be a common phenomena. However, there are not studies on anxiety in media interviews or among researchers. Interview in radio or television is a special interaction situation. Firstly, it is a bilateral conversation, which still has an audience. Secondly, media interview often is a rare situation for the interviewee. On the one hand, researcher's media performance is a part of the societal interaction of universities. On the other hand, it is a personal communication situation of the researcher. Presumably people experience anxiety also in this kind of situations. This thesis approaches anxiety as a subjective experience. The aim is to describe and understand anxiety experienced by researchers, who are interviewed in media as professionals. The data of this qualitative research consisted of nine focused interviews. The interviewees were people of different ages and at different stages of career. They had a researcher's education, and they worked as researchers in either university or other research institution. A media interview record was listened or watched during each interview providing a stimulus to the interviewee. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Descriptions of anxiety were categorized based on the reported appearance and defined object of anxiety. The results of this study show the many types of anxiety experienced by the interviewed researchers. The most important reported aspect of anxiety was the experience of changes in concentration. It was interesting, that one interviewee could experience anxiety as having both the increasing and the decreasing influence on concentration. In addition, according to interviewees, anxiety appeared as physical sensations, changes in action, and emotions. Interviewees experienced, that one reason for the anxiety was their lack of competence. They were, for example, uncertain of their expertise. Another reason for the anxiety were some situational factors. In order to reduce or control anxiety, it could be useful for researchers to get communications training. Important competence in media interviews includes, for example, the skills to popularize and to understand the logic of media. In the future, it is advisable to examine more deeply the interaction between researcher and journalist. Another subject of further investigation would be the anxiety experienced in media by other groups of people.
  • Saarenmaa, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aims The aim for this cross-cultural study was to increase understanding of today's modern relationships by researching the nature of the friends with benefits relationships (FWBRs). The FWBRs are an example of a current type of phenomenon in interpersonal relationships and a new area of investigation in the field of Interpersonal Communication Studies. The FWBR is identified as a friendship where the participants also have sex. The phenomenon was defined and explained through both Finnish and American informants' real life experiences. The research followed the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition with the goal of creating meaning and probing particular features of this kind of relationship. Previous academic research on FWBRs has only concentrated on studying American undergraduate college-students and has mostly been done with quantitative surveys. Unlike the existing academic literature, this study aimed to explore older adults outside of the college surroundings by conducting research with qualitative methods. Methods Half-structured theme interviews were used as a method to gain a deeper understanding of the informants' thoughts, attitudes and experiences. Altogether, 21 interviews were collected for this study. 10 interviews were done in Helsinki, Finland and 11 were done in San Francisco, USA. The participants were heterosexual men and women, aged 24-54. The data was analyzed holistically using the hermeneutical phenomenological approach, combined with qualitative content analysis. Results and Conclusions The FWBR was researched as a complex and ill-defined phenomenon. Certain recurring communication patterns and relationship features were observed to be particular to FWBRs. The biggest differences were observed between different age groups, rather than between the different cultures or genders. The informants agreed that the phenomenon is becoming more acknowledged and popular, and that it should be discussed more openly. FWBRs were seen mainly as experimental relationships that are part of being youth. However, they were observed also as meaningful relationships among older adults. The informants' experiences with FWBRs were mainly positive. However, the participants did not desire to have casual sex. Rather, they were looking for a deeper connection and the possibility for a romantic relationship.
  • Pöyhönen, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Onni Savola was a key person in the development of the art of poetry reading in Finland from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Although he was often regarded as the first professional elocutionist in Finland, there was not much written about him in the literature. The aim of the thesis is to find out in what ways the career of Onni Savola as an elocutionist develops, and reflect that on his influence as a pioneer of the Finnish art of poetry reading and elocution. The aim was also to clarify the influence of Onni Savola on to the Finnish literature of recitation and the history of Finnish speech science. According to earlier research literature, the poetry reading and the recitation share the same roots in the history of Finnish speech science. The thesis is biographical and its context is the history of the art of poetry reading as well as the Finnish literature of the recitation. The data consist of official documents, press, biographies, memoirs, photos and approximately 20 pages of Onni Savola's autobiography. In addition the letters sent and received by Onni Savola as well as memoirs and interviews by Onni Savola himself and the people who has written about him were used. The data is from 1870's to 2000's. In his literature, Onni Savola had a profile in helping other elementary teachers working in the field of poetry reading as well as in authoring of books and teacher guides. When comparing Savola and his fellow teachers in terms of material production, he was a forerunner in his pedagogy with an emphasis on students' own interpretation and voice. He was also the first elocutionist who widely offered his services to many people in the field. The career of Onni Savola is a textbook example of the shift in the traditions of poetry reading in Finland from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Yet, his main achievements are in teaching of poetry reading. One can say Onni Savola had a remarkable influence on derivation and the development of the traditions of theatre and academic poetry reading.
  • Salo, Martti (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims The aims of this thesis were to examine the audience feedback given during the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics regarding ice hockey commentator Kaj Kunnas. Yle received an unprecedented amount of feedback about Kunnas via e-mail. Sports commentators have a significant role in sports broadcasting considering the viewing experience of spectators. The aim of this study was to form a view of the issues about Kunnas that existed in the audience feedback. Methods The thesis was conducted as a qualitative study. The original data was collected from the entire mass of audience feedback regarding all sports commentators in the Yle TV broadcasts during the Sochi Winter Olympics. The final research data that was used in the thesis consisted of 213 critical and reasoned, individual feedback that focused on the sports commentating of Kaj Kunnas. The 213 individual feedbacks were analyzed with an inductive content analysis method, using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program. Results and conclusions The results consisted of five subjects that described the themes within the critical audience feedback regarding Kaj Kunnas. The subjects are: 1. Speech and voice control, 2. Spoken language, 3. Knowledge about ice hockey, 4. Concentration, 5. Individual personality. These topics reflect the expectations of the public considering ice hockey broadcasts. They also reflect how the commentator should take account of the public viewpoint. The results of this study can be applied to the field of education, as well as a basis for further studies.
  • Säles, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The Finnish legislation states that foster parents have an obligation of non-disclosure. This Master's Thesis discusses the conceptions and experiences foster parents have regarding the role of the obligation of non-disclosure in interaction. The study was carried out by the in-depth interviews of six foster parents during the year 2012. Before the interviews foster parents kept a small-scale interaction diary the purpose of which was to prepare foster parents for the forthcoming interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed and compressed into one main theme (the interest/need of the child ) and two sub themes (challenges of the obligation of non-disclosure and the means of interaction). The conceptions and experiences foster parents had on the obligation of non disclosure and the ways by which foster parents executed the obligation of non-disclosure or managed private information was presented with Communication Privacy Management Theory. Attachment Theory was also utilized in the interpretation of the conceptions and experiences of the foster parents. In this study executing the obligation of non-disclosure presented itself as an active managing of private information by the foster parents, the purpose of which was to take care of foster child's interests and needs. Foster parents strived for sensitive responsiveness in spite of the obligation of non-disclosure. Disclosure as well as non-disclosure of private information was seen as protecting the child depending on the situation. Foster parents viewed that the obligation of non-disclosure should primarily protect foster children. In the foster parent's point of view too strict interpretation of the obligation of non-disclosure had opposite effects on foster children's well-being. Most of the interviewees disclosed thoughts and feelings on fostering with their close friends or relatives because they felt they received support needed in fostering from these relationships. The interpretations that authorities have on the obligation of non-disclosure and the instructions given to the foster parents should be defined in order to insure foster parent's possibilities for executing sensitive interaction needed in taking care of foster children and their needs. The foster parent's views on the obligation of non-disclosure should be researched further. In order to receive a full picture on the phenomenon the views of the foster children and social services authorities should also be researched.
  • Lyytinen, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In the field of communication research, the academic literature on adaptation has examined the individual activities and abilities, as well as the relationship between adaptation and interaction. In addition, there has been research on adaptation as a communicative phenomenon where other people also affect the adaptation process. The aim of this study was to investigate the discourses on adaptation of Finns who lived abroad and what kind of adaptation they reproduce in the interviews. The research question was "What kind of adaptation is produced in the speech by Finnish who have lived abroad?". In this way, the aim was to gain better understanding of the phenomenon of adaptation. The study was conducted with qualitative methods by doing focused interviews. There were eight interviewees and the interviews lasted for 7 hours and 55 minutes in total. Recorded material was transcribed and there was 130 pages of transcribed text. The data was analyzed by methods of analytical discourse analysis and the focus of the analysis was on identifying the discursive structure, variations in the talk and the positions of the interviewees. As a result there were three discourses: individual adaptation discourses included active individual discourse and passive individual discourse, and the collectivistic adaptation discourse included the active community discourse. The active individual discourse emphasized the meaning of individuals' active action for adaptation. The passive individual discourse highlighted the meaning of individual qualities and characteristics of the persona for adaptation. The active community discourse emphasized interaction with others as a prerequisite for adaptation. As a conclusion, the study suggests that the versatility of adaptation discourses should be recognized and taken into account both in the societal conversation and in the field of adaptation research.
  • Aalto, Valpuri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of the thesis is to describe and understand how job applicants try to control their impression management during a video job interview. Video job interview is rather a new phenomenon which has not yet been studied in the field of speech communication, and there is hardly any previous studies. Another central theme in this thesis is impression management which has been studied in disciplines such as economics and psychology. The thesis concentrates on how job applicants prepare for impression management and what kinds of assertive tactics they use during a video job interview. Also, nonverbal communication during assertive tactics is studied. The data consisted of eight (8) semi-structured interviews and observations of interviewees' video data. All the interviewees had participated in a video job interview in 2015. The data was analyzed using grounded theory and deductive content analysis. The first method was used in the analysis of preparation for impression management and the latter in the analysis of assertive tactics. According to the results, job applicants' preparation for impression management consisted of message planning and orientation. Taking notes and rehearsing were emphasized in message planning. Different emotions were central in orientation. The interviewees used five different assertive tactics during the video job interviews. The tactics were 1) enhancement 2) self-promotion 3) fit-with-organization 4) personal stories and 5) overcoming obstacles. The most used tactic was enhancement. The interviewees maintained eye contact to webcam and smiled a little during assertive tactics. Based on this research, impression management is seen as a process which starts already when the job applicant starts to prepare for the video job interview. Unlike previous research, interviewees did not use self-promotion tactic very much. Video job interview seems to resemble more of a public speaking than an interview. Further research could be conducted for examining on how culture or gender affects the use of impression management tactics in a video job interview.
  • Harjula, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Nowadays it is impossible to deny the importance of organizational communication and business strategy. During recent years it has been understood, that these two areas are strongly linked together it is impossible to fulfill a strategy without communication. Also research in these fields has developed into the same direction. It has been widely acknowledged, that strategy implementation and organizational communication are an important part of all employees work particularly in expert organizations. However, there is only little research of strategy communication from employee perspective. This master's thesis explores employee views on strategy and strategy communication in an expert organization. The research area is approached through two research questions. The first explores employee views on strategy communication meetings, special events that were held in spring 2009. The second research question surveys the strategy knowledge and understanding of the employees as well as their attitude to the strategy. Also willingness to work according the company values is studied. The study is done using a survey method: a questionnaire is tailored to the needs of the organization. Both structured statements and open questions are included in the survey. The gathered data is analyzed using statistical and qualitative methods. The target organization is an expert company operating in five countries. The survey was sent to company's Swedish employees in June 2009. As a result a data with 313 responses(44.4 % of employees in the country) was gathered. As the result of this study the strategy communication meetings can be regarded as successful events. Thanks to this, also strategy knowledge and understanding of personnel showed quite good levels. A positive attitude towards the strategy and the values was also noticed. In the analysis besides the overall views, also views of different respondent groups were compared. In statistical tests it was noticed that managers and persons involved in the strategy process knew and understood the strategy better than average. Ages and working units also had some influences to the views. The results of the study reinforce the strong link between strategy and communication in the target organization special communication meetings have been a way to create strategy knowledge, understanding and positive attitudes towards the strategy. Also the strong role of top and middle management is emphasized in the study. Common strategy communication problems were found as well. Employees were proved to be interested in the strategy and willing to work according the company values in their work. Communication will be essential also in the implementation phase a central requisite for success is to understand communication as a way to implement strategy.