Browsing by Subject "Food"

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  • Järviö, Natasha; Maljanen, Netta-Leena; Kobayashi, Yumi; Ryynänen, Toni; Tuomisto, Hanna (2021)
    Novel food production technologies are being developed to address the challenges of securing sustainable and healthy nutrition for the growing global population. This study assessed the environmental impacts of microbial protein (MP) produced by autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB). Data was collected from a company currently producing MP using HOB (hereafter simply referred to as MP) on a small-scale. Earlier studies have performed an environmental assessment of MP on a theoretical basis but no study yet has used empirical data. An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) with a cradle-to-gate approach was used to quantify global warming potential (GWP), land use, freshwater and marine eutrophication potential, water scarcity, human (non-)carcinogenic toxicity, and the cumulative energy demand (CED) of MP production in Finland. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed to assess uncertainties. The impacts of alternative production options and locations were explored. The impacts were compared with animal- and plant-based protein sources for human consumption as well as protein sources for feed. The results showed that electricity consumption had the highest contribution to environmental impacts. Therefore, the source of energy had a substantial impact on the results. MP production using hydropower as an energy source yielded 87.5% lower GWP compared to using the average Finnish electricity mix. In comparison with animal-based protein sources for food production, MP had 53-100% lower environmental impacts depending on the reference product and the source of energy assumed for MP production. When compared with plant-based protein sources for food production, MP had lower land and water use requirements, and eutrophication potential but GWP was reduced only if low-emission energy sources were used. Compared to protein sources for feed production, MP production often resulted in lower environmental impact for GWP (FHE), land use, and eutrophication and acidification potential, but generally caused high water scarcity and required more energy.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Peltola, Taru; Salo, Marja; Furman, Eeva (2019)
    The critical role of everyday practices in climate change mitigation has placed experimental approaches at the top of the environmental policy agenda. In this paper we discuss the value of behavioural approaches, practice theories, pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking with respect to experimentation. Whereas the first two have been much discussed within sustainability science and transition research, the notions of pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking radically broaden the scope of experimental research and its contribution to sustainable everyday practices. Pragmatism brings to the fore the need to coordinate multiple practices and understandings of good eating, as these may clash in practice. Through this lens, the value of experimental research lies in revealing frictions that need to be resolved, or tinkered, in practice. Speculative experimentation, in turn, refers to the power of experiments to challenge the experimental setting itself and force thinking about new possibilities and avenues. We investigate the value of all four approaches in relation to our experiments with sustainable eating in the Finnish and Nordic context. Our elaboration justifies the need to broaden the conception of experimental research in order to capture the multiplicity of sustainable eating. Hence, we call for attentive, speculative experimental research aimed not only at testing solutions for sustainable everyday practice, but also at reflecting on the practice of experimentation itself.
  • Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang; Wicklund, Anu; Skurnik, Mikael (2018)
    Yersinia enterocolitica, the primary cause of yersiniosis, is one of the most important foodborne pathogens globally and is associated with the consumption of raw contaminated pork. In the current study, four virulent bacteriophages (phages), one of Podoviridae (fHe-Yen3-01) and three of Myoviridae (fHe-Yen9-01, fHe-Yen9-02, and fHe-Yen9-03), capable of infecting Y. enterocolitica were isolated and characterized. fHe-Yen9-01 had the broadest host range (61.3% of strains, 65/106). It demonstrated a latent period of 35 min and a burst size of 33 plague-forming units/cell, and was found to have a genome of 167,773 bp with 34.79% GC content. To evaluate the effectiveness of phage fHe-Yen9-01 against Y. enterocolitica 0:9 strain Ruokola/71, we designed an experimental model of the food market environment. Phage treatment after bacterial inoculation of food samples, including raw pork (4 degrees C, 72 h), ready-to-eat pork (26 degrees C, 12 h), and milk (4 degrees C, 72 h), prevented bacterial growth throughout the experiments, with counts decreasing by 1-3 logs from the original levels of 2-4 x 10(3) CFU/g or ml. Similarly, when artificially contaminated kitchen utensils, such as wooden and plastic cutting boards and knives, and artificial hands, were treated with phages for 2 h, bacterial growth was effectively inhibited, with counts decreasing by 1-2 logs from the original levels of ca 10(4) CFU/cm(2) or ml. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful application of phages for the control of Y. enterocolitica growth in food and on kitchen utensils.
  • Laakso, Senja (2017)
    Food wastage is a growing environmental, financial, and social problem: as much as one-third of all food is thrown away. Simultaneously, malnutrition is a huge problem globally, and many people even in developed countries are unable to provide for their basic needs. A lot of attention is paid to food waste prevention in the industry, retail sector, and households, whereas the role of the food service sector (such as restaurants and canteens providing food in schools, hospitals, and workplaces) has thus far been understudied. This article uses a practice theoretical approach to study a leftover lunch service first tested in Jyvaskyla in 2013. It describe how the experiment was organized, how the service has spread around Finland, and how the leftover lunch has become a routine that outlines the course of the day of the diners. These findings are used to illustrate the insights of the service for both environmental and social sustainability, and to situate the service in the field of food waste prevention and food redistribution in Finland.
  • Syvänne, Mikko; Strandberg, Timo (2018)
  • Curro, Costanza (2020)
    This article investigates the making of personhood through conspicuous hospitality practices in the Republic of Georgia, focusing on how this process has underpinned moral boundary drawing in Georgia’s recent history – from the late Soviet era, through the 1990s, to the years following the Rose Revolution in 2003. Largely perceived and defined as tradition by local people and external observers, hospitality is a powerful device to organise social relationships and exchanges in the community. Excess is a fundamental feature of hospitality practices: people spend many hours around the table displaying, offering and consuming plenty of food and alcoholic drinks and engaging in conspicuous bodily gestures and speech. Analysing literary and media sources and data collected through participant observation and follow-up interviews, the article explores the way in which shifting moral boundaries drawn upon hospitality practices have transformed domination and counter-domination patterns in Georgian society. From a unifying marker of Georgians’ positive distinctiveness vis-a-vis other people, hospitality’s excesses became a token of increasing socio-economic inequality. The analysis contributes to the understanding of consumption, especially in its excessive aspects, as a fundamental element in the making of individual and collective personhood, which, in turn, shapes boundaries of exclusion and inclusion within and across smaller and larger communities.
  • Vauterin, Aleksis (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Many European citizens have growing concerns over climate change. This seems to go together with the debate about the impact of consumers’ personal dietary choices on climate change. Novel food protein sources are entering the European food market to replace or compensate meat protein sources. One protein food alternative are insect-based proteins. However, there is limited research as to how choices of alternative insect-based protein products may influence consumers’ carbon footprints. This study explores the potential of insect protein to reduce the carbon footprint associated with European food consumption. Three scenarios were formed to identify and describe options for reducing current levels of carbon footprints associated with the consumption of conventionally produced chicken meat. In the scenarios, soybean meal-based feeds used in conventional chicken production are replaced with insect-based feeds, and chicken products are replaced with protein food products from insects. Further, two different insect feeding sources are considered and compared to each other. A number of existing global warming potential values from a variety of Life Cycle Assessment studies focusing on chicken and insect production were collected to create a database for use in the scenario analyses. The database was utilised to assess the global warming impact of producing alternative insect protein on the carbon footprint of European food consumption. The results from the three scenarios indicate that the carbon footprint of food consumption can be reduced by replacing conventionally produced chicken meat with insect-based protein food products. However, insect-based protein products would have a positive impact on the carbon footprint only if the insects that are produced for use in feed or food are farmed with low-value side streams. Currently, the shift to an increased use of side streams in insect-based food production faces regulatory challenges in Europe. In the light of European efforts to encourage sustainable food alternatives, and considering the environmental benefits insects could offer as alternative proteins over options of conventional protein sources, there is a need for continued research on the environmental sustainability of insect eating and insect feeding, as well as the safety and regulatory issues related to the use of insect protein in food consumption.
  • Luomala, Harri; Puska, Petteri; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Kurki, Sami (2020)
    Status considerations have recently been linked to prosocial behaviors. This research shows that even everyday consumer behaviors such as favoring organic foods serve as prosocial status signaling. Key ideas from the continuum model of consumer impression formation and the theories of costly signaling and symbolic consumption are synthetized to make sense of this phenomenon. Two web-surveys (Ns = 187, 259) and a field study (N = 336) following experimental designs are conducted. This approach allows the analysis of both the more and less conscious reactions of consumers. Study 1 shows that the image of consumers favoring organic product versions is marked by characteristics consistent with prosocial status signaling. Study 2 replicates these findings with another sample and a wider range of products and demonstrate that observers’ conservative values influence the image formed of organic food users. Study 3 establishes that similar image effects also emerge through a less conscious formation process and that they extend to how organic food users are socially treated. This research advances the current understanding concerning the interlinkages between organic food usage, prosocial status signaling, consumer impressions and reputation management. Substantively, the studies provide novel compelling empirical evidence for the ability of non-luxurious everyday consumer behaviors to qualify as prosocial status signaling. Conceptually, the integration of evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives represents a major contribution. More specifically, this research yields new understanding as regards the role of individual variation in sensing and interpreting status symbols.
  • Trestrail, John; Paul, Jomon; Maloni, Michael (2009)
    International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management
  • Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick Lothrop (CABI, 2017)
    Grain legumes currently cover less than 2% of European arable area, and estimates of forage legume coverage are little greater. Imported legume protein, however, is an important livestock feed additive. This chapter introduces the varied roles of legumes in cropping systems and in food and feed value chains.
  • ARIA Grp; Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M.; Iaccarino, Guido; Haahtela, Tari; Zuberbier, Torsten (2020)
    Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M; Iaccarino, Guido; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; Haahtela, Tari; Anto, Aram; Akdis, Cezmi A; Blain, Hubert; Canonica, G. W; Cardona, Victoria; Cruz, Alvaro A; Illario, Maddalena; Ivancevich, Juan C; Jutel, Marek; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Laune, Daniel; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Mullol, Joaquim; Papadopoulos, Nikos G; Pfaar, Oliver; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Valiulis, Arunas; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Zuberbier, Torsten (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.
  • Lehtovirta, Mikko (2018)
  • Hokkanen, Heikki M. T.; Menzler-Hokkanen, Ingeborg; Hokkanen, Suvi R. K. (2018)
  • Lehtovirta, Mikko (2018)
    Yhteistyö on opettanut minulle lääkärinä nöyryyttä.