Browsing by Subject "Forest bioeconomy business and policy"

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  • Aaltio, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Rakennusteollisuuden suuret päästöt, alati nouseva ympäristötietoisuus ja tavoitteet kohti hiilineutraaliutta yhdessä väestönkasvun kanssa ajavat rakennusteollisuutta vääjäämättä keskelle muutosta. Puukerrostalojen on nähty toimivan yhtenä ratkaisuna tämän muutoksen edesauttamiseksi. Puukerrostalohankkeiden ekosysteemiin liittyvillä toimijoilla onkin täten mahdollisuus yhdessä toimien löytää uusia rakennusalan innovaatioita, joilla vastata koko alan kohtaamiin ulkopuolelta tuleviin muutostekijöihin, jotka osaltaan luovat painetta niin sisäisesti kuin ulkoisesti. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli saada parempi käsitys liiketoimintaekosysteemikonseptin soveltuvuudesta puukerrostalohankkeisiin ja miten hanketoiminta tukee ekosysteemin toimintaa. Ensimmäisellä tutkimuskysymyksellä pyrittiin saamaan vastauksia yhteistyöstä ja viestinnästä. Toinen tutkimuskysymys käsitteli puukerrostalohankkeissa mukana olleiden toimijoiden ympäristötietoisuutta. Tutkimus toteutettiin tekemällä 10 teemahaastattelua, jotka liittyivät kolmeen eri puukerrostalokohteeseen, jotka sijaitsivat Suomessa eri paikkakunnilla. Tutkimuksen tuloksena havaittiin, että näiden kolmen puukerrostalohankkeen liiketoimintaekosysteemit muodostavat useiden eri toimijoiden verkostoja, jotka toimivat ekosysteemin eri tasoilla yhteisenä päämääränään tuottaa laadukasta ja ympäristöystävällistä rakentamista, joka osaltaan lisää maamme hiilivarastojen määrää. Tätä edellyttää toimijoiden välinen yhteistyö, jossa viestintä koettiin pääsääntöisesti sujuvaksi. Toisaalta haasteita oli havaittavissa keskinäisessä kommunikoinnissa ja toimintatapojen yhteensovittamisessa, johtuen työskentelystä uuden asian äärellä. Aikataulutus, tutut toimijat sekä materiaalitoimittaja vaikuttivat positiivisesti hankkeen lopputulokseen. Hiilijalanjälki ja -kädenjälki laskelmiin toivottiin yhteneväisiä laskentatapoja, jotta vertailtavuus lisääntyisi. Hankkeissa tunnistettiin rakennusten potentiaali hiilivarastona ja puukerrostalohankkeiden ympäristömerkitys nähtiin suurena. Hankkeessa mukana olleet toimijat kokivat, että tarvittaisiin asennemuutosta niin kuluttajien kuin rakennusteollisuuden osalta, jotta puukerrostalohankkeiden määrää saataisiin nostettua. Nähtävissä oli haastateltujen taholta pohdintaa siitä, ovatko yritykset tarpeeksi laajasti omaksuneet ympäristöajattelun ja tullaanko asetettuihin vastuullisuustavoitteisiin pääsemään niin yrityksissä kuin laajemmalti rakennusteollisuuden puolelta. Tästä huolimatta puukerrostalorakentaminen nähtiin positiivisena asiana, jonka myötä on mahdollisuus ottaa askel kohti nykyrakentamista kestävämpää tilaa ja siten olla osana suurempaa, yhteistä muutosta, johon pääseminen edellyttää toimialat ylittävän yhteistyön laajentumista. Tämä kuitenkin vaatisi rakennuskäytäntöjen muuttamista ja rohkeutta tehdä asioita uudella tavalla sekä avoimempaa yhteistyötä eri toimijoiden keskuudessa.
  • Sinisalo, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose: The changing global economy has presented uncertain factors in future development. To keep up with the competition, companies have launched partnership programs. Many organizations seek strategic partners to enhance their positions, create joint business development and marketing opportunities, and that way strengthen their competitiveness. Methods: The objective of this study is to discover the characteristics of a partnership program in a Finnish software company. Quantitative methodology is used to examine how accurately partners can be distinguished from non-partners. Furthermore, this study introduces how customer focus should be incorporated based on a partner portfolio analysis. Also, it suggests how to derive improvements to a partnership program based on a partner portfolio analysis. Results: The main finding of this research is that partners are more profitable from the sales perspective. Their net sales have increased more during the five years, almost all of them have bought again at least once after the first purchase, and all of them increased their net sales when joining the partnership program. In addition, grown marketing and sales costs have led to an increase in partners’ net sales, which correlates with a number of joint marketing activities. This study suggests case company to focus on technology partners the most, as they are the most profitable from both sales and marketing perspectives. Based on the theoretical framework and empirical research results, proposals for further academic research are given in the thesis.
  • Gaddis, Jonathan Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to explore the economic and operational environment factors that are contributing to the development of the secondhand smartphone market. The secondhand smartphone market is a fascinating subject. The market is relatively young, only coming into existence in the last eighteen years after the introduction of the first smartphones. However, it is in recent years that the market has seen massive growth and is considered to hold a great amount of potential for further growth. The case of secondhand smartphones and its growth are intriguing from a circular economy perspective. The example that smartphones represent for product life extension, added value creation and circular flows of consumption via systems of recycling, refurbishing and reselling offer insight into the potential of circular economy frameworks for other industries and product categories. Seeking to understand what factors are contributing to the secondhand smartphone markets development also offers insights for actors, such as businesses, policy makers and academics. Such research enables the various actors to better understand the dynamics of their operating environment. Essentially, understanding what factors are contributing to the market’s development allows actors to make more informed decisions, to develop sound strategy and to allocate resources. This study was conducted as a combination quantitative and qualitative research. A quantitative approach has allowed for the sampling of a population of industry actors and to measure specific concepts, such as economic factors, via a survey. With the procurement of such data statistical analysis has been applied to understand the frequencies, correlations, and significance of the specific concepts under measurement. A qualitative approach has allowed for a more in-depth understanding and context of the survey results or where the survey results have been minimal. The results show a tendency for the business environment to be populated by companies that are vertically integrated, relatively new enterprises and have relatively small annual revenues. Additionally, the results show several clear factors that are contributing to the secondhand market’s development. The factors highlighted include the following: - The price of wholesale stock is not the main point of supply competition. With other sales terms playing such as available volumes, payment terms and stock quality playing a major role in terms of competition. - The improvement over time in the availability of smartphone devices on the wholesale market. - The strong role of relationships and developing long term partnerships. - The low barriers to entry and ease of acquiring secondhand smartphones on the wholesale market. - The growth in business networks and the need for specialization in business acumen and establishing industry wide standards. - Repairability of new models of smartphones is critical to growth and the protectionist position of OEMs. The finding paints a picture of a business environment that has low barriers to entry, generally localized small players.
  • Lahtinen, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Both the ever-increasing littering problem and climate change mitigation have driven towards to develop more sustainable packaging solutions for food. Thus, a sustainability of a food package is a complex issue and needs careful analysis in order to ensure the paramount, the food safety. The recent research has concentrated to find novel solutions to replace for instance plastics as a packaging material. So far there has been very little data about the used food packaging materials and their volumes, especially in product groups, not only as single items. This thesis analysed the single food items sold in the Finnish supermarkets, by categorising the data into product groups and analysing the obtained product data further. The analysis focused to identify product groups for possible packaging material substitution, especially single-use plastics (SUP). Pre-determined criteria were used to identify the most interesting product groups for further research. The criteria included (i) sufficient volumes, either in packaging material weight in grams or in sales share, (ii) the suitability of the polymer type for recycling, and (iii) the possible impact of the SUP directive. The EU’s SUP directive (Directive (EU) 2019/904) sets several restrictions for the SUP use also in the food packaging industry. Therefore, there is a need to substitute some of the most harmful packaging materials. In most cases the main driver for substitution is the environmental impacts, especially littering and its prevention. This thesis concentrates to find possibilities to diminish the littering problem from the packaging material perspective.
  • Vainionpää, Jussi-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The right wood raw material should be delivered to the right wood processing mill at the right time, while minimizing costs. In other words, the log demand distributions and quality requirements of mills should be fulfilled. Bucking control tries to solve two problems; what kind of wood assortments to cut from each stand, and what dimensions to cut within each wood assortment. The success of bucking is important, as it is difficult to fix a poor bucking outcome. Modern harvesters collect stem data, from which virtual trees can be created. The bucking of these virtual trees can be simulated with different product instructions and settings. A bucking simulator can be utilized in predicting and optimizing bucking outcome. However, without quality-information of stems a bucking simulator is overly optimistic. Stem quality-information utilized in previous studies has been laborious to collect, and there has been little validation of log distributions simulated with stem quality-information. The object of this study was to determine whether a method, where stem quality-information is derived from harvester-collected stem and log data, could be utilized to improve the accuracy of simulated wood assortment recoveries and distributions. The study focused on Metsä Fibre’s sawmill in Vilppula and clear-cut stands. The usability of the method in bucking control and wood procurement in Finland was of central interest. Results were examined based on the theoretical framework of the study, which outlined the significance of the results to business operations. The bucking of real stems registered by harvesters was simulated with real quality-information derived from harvester-collected data, predicted quality-information derived from the previously mentioned quality data, and without any quality-information. The bucking outcomes were compared to real bucking outcomes registered by harvesters. The focus was on validating the real quality-information derived from harvester-collected data, while the predicted quality-information worked as an example. Without quality-information the simulated total log distribution and the real total log distribution had a match of 84.2 % (butt log: 86.4 %; top and middle log: 80.8 %). With the real quality-information this percentage increased by 2.9 percentile points (butt log: 2.4 pp; top and middle log: 2.4 pp). With the predicted quality-information the percentage increased by 1.6 percentile points (butt log: 1.4 pp; top and middle log: 2.7 pp). The relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were 19.0 % (42.6 m³) and 24.6 % (55.1 m³) with no quality-information. With the real quality-information the relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were -0.4 % (-1.0 m³) and 4.1 % (9.1 m³). With the predicted quality-information the relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were 2.0 % (4.4 m³) and 12.3 % (27.6 m³). The real quality-information was derived from data that was cost-effectively collected by harvesters. Quality-information derived from harvester-collected data enables the consideration of complex dimensional and qualitative requirements, and the derivation of quality-information predictions, in a situation where clear quality-sections of stems can’t be defined.
  • Ylönen, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Metsä Group lanseerasi vuonna 2021 uuden harvennusten raakapuun hinnoittelumenetelmän. Järeysrunko-hinta tarkoittaa, että harvennettavat puut ostetaan kokonaisina runkoina. Koko rungolle maksetaan sama kuutiohinta ja metsäomistajan saama hinta määräytyy poistettavien puiden keskijäreyden mukaan. Runkojen katkonta ei vaikuta metsänomistajan saamaan puukauppatuloon, mutta Metsä Group voi katkoa rungot markkinatilanteen vaatimilla mitoilla. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, että saako Metsä Group taloudellista etua uudesta harvennusten hinnoittelumallista. Taloudellisen edun selvittämiseksi kartoitettiin puutavaralajihinnoittelun sekä järeysrunkohinnoittelun välisiä korjuunkuluja, täsmällisemmin hakkuukoneen tuottamia kuluja. Hakkuukoneen taksoitus perustuu poistettavan puuston keskijäreyteen. Tutkimuksessa käytetty valtakunnallinen harvennushakkuiden aineisto saatiin Metsä Groupilta ja se ajoittui 1.4.2021-29.3.2022 väliselle ajalle. Tutkittavaa aineistoa oli puutavaralajihinnoiteltujen puiden osalta --- kuutiometriä ja järeysrunkohinnoiteltujen puiden --- kuutiometriä, joka kattoi koko Suomen. Tutkimuksessa analysoitiin hakkuukoneesta muodostuneita kuluja hinnoittelumuodoittain koko Suomen osalta, johon sisältyivät neljätoista hankintapiiriä ja niiden sisältämät neljänkymmentä hankintaryhmää. Aineistossa olivat mukana yleisimmät puutavaralajit hinnoittelumuodoittain. Aluksi kartoitettiin kuitupuun ja tukin aiheuttamat hakkuukoneen kulut alueittain, joita verrattiin keskenään hinnoittelumuodoittain sekä selvitettiin, että selittikö mahdolliset järeyserot kulueroja. Eri hinnoittelumuotojen väliset hakkuukoneen kuluerot laskettiin ja raportoitiin jokaiselle hankintapiirille. Lopuksi selvitettiin keskiarvosta johdettavan keskihajonnan avulla, että vaikuttaako järeyteen perustuva puunhinnoittelu hakkuukoneen lopullisiin kuluihin. Hakkuukoneen suuremman kulun selittäväksi tekijäksi muodostui puutavaralajikauppojen osalta poistuman keskijäreyden virhearvio ja pienempi poistuman keskijäreys. Harvennusten poistuvan puuston keskijäreyden arviointivirhe oli järeyden suhteen suurempi kuin toteutunut. Tällöin hakkuukoneen kulu arvioitiin metsähakkuusopimuksen solmimisen yhteydessä pienemmäksi kuin se toteutuessaan oli. Järeysrunkohinnoittelussa vastaavanlaista poistuman keskijäreyden arviointivirheen aiheuttamaa kulua ei esiintynyt. Tutkimuksessa kartoitettiin harvennusten poistuman keskijäreyden arviointivirheelle rahallinen arvo alueittain, kuitupuun ja tukin osalta hakkuukoneen kuluille. Metsä Groupilla on tavoitteena lisätä järeysrunkohinnoittelua systemaattisesti kymmeneen prosenttiin harvennusten osalta. Kun kymmenen prosentin tavoite täyttyy Metsä Group saa taloudellista etua --- €. Metsä Groupin olisi suotavaa lisätä valtakunnassa uutta hinnoittelumenetelmää harvennuksilla ja korvata sillä useammin käytettyä puutavaralajihinnoittelua. Järeysrunkohinnoittelu tuo etua etenkin kuitupuun osalta hakkuukoneen kuluissa, koska korjuun hinta oli suurempi ja järeyden arviointivirheet olivat suhteessa suuremmat kuin tukin korjuussa.
  • Autio, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Finland is the world's seventh largest producer of softwood timber and the fourth largest exporter. Three-quarters of the approximately 12 million cubic meters of sawn timber produced annually are exported to more than 60 countries. The total annual value of exports in 2021 was approximately EUR 2.8 billion. Finnish sawmills are the backbone of the Finnish economy, but at the same time they are part of a global operating environment whose movements, directly or indirectly, affect product demand and prices, industry profitability, operating conditions, forest raw material prices, Finnish employment, Finland's GDP and society's well-being. This study was conducted as a collective case study. The aim of was to identify global weak signals that could be interpreted to anticipate short-term movements in the global sawn timber market. Also, the aim was to retrospectively identify potential events that have previously triggered or have been a driving force behind market developments and to provide sawmill operators a tool to anticipate these movements, prepare for possible events and support strategic planning. The research question of the thesis was the following: Are there identifiable similar signals or series of events that have had congruent effects on the development of the global sawn timber market in the 21st century? The purpose of the auxiliary research question was to deepen the understanding of the operating environment and the impact mechanisms of change. The auxiliary research question sought to establish whether the effects have been direct or indirect. The methods of future studies and business environment research are used in this research. The key elements in the study are PESTEL framework, scenario method and the future table. The study builds on previous future studies and the use of scenario methods, providing a perspective on a relatively little-studied industry. The study was conducted as an explanatory extensive case study. The research material consisted of industry and customs statistics for selected periods and semi-structured qualitative thematic interviews. Finnish long-term professionals in the export and trade of sawn timber, influencers from the domestic and foreign policy scene in the 21st century, and professionals in the economic and social sciences were selected for interviews. The interview material was themed and a future table describing the industry was built on the basis of it. Three different scenarios utilizing the narrative were formed from the future table. The research question was approached with the help of the PESTEL tool. It was used to map the phenomena shaping the global sawn timber market. Several different factors affecting the market were found. The study also showed that weak signals can be found in the context of the global timber trade. With regard to the auxiliary research question, all the weak signals observed in the research have had indirect effects on the operations of Finnish sawmills in a global context. The study showed that weak signals could be found in the operating environment of the global sawn timber market and that their effects on Finnish companies have been indirect. Since weak signals have occurred in the past, it is entirely expected that they are found now and, in the future, too. In order to succeed in a fast-paced and complex operating environment, it would be advisable for sawmills to build internal processes for a more diverse observation of the operating environment. The results of this study and the future table can be used in companies' strategy work and as a basis for their own scenarios.
  • Kummunsalo, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Hiilinielujen kasvattaminen on olennainen osa ilmastonmuutoksen hillintää. Kasvavan metsän rooli tunnustetaan tärkeäksi, mutta myös metsistä tapahtuvaan hiilen vapautumiseen on kiinnitettävä huomiota. Yksi keino hiilinielujen vahvistamiseen on kompensaatiojärjestelmä metsänomistajille. Hiilensidonnan lisäämiseen tähtäävä kannustin tarjoaa potentiaalisen instrumentin ilmastonmuutoksen hillintään metsäsektorilla. Tässä tutkimuksessa kartoitettiin hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmien piirteitä ja metsänomistajien preferenssejä liittyä hiilensidonnasta maksettavaan järjestelmään kvantitatiivisen kyselyn ja tilastollisen mallinnuksen avulla. Metsänomistajille lähetettiin sähköinen kysely, jossa esiteltiin taustakysymyksien lisäksi yhdeksän vaihtoehtoista hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmää. Jokainen järjestelmä koostui neljästä ominaispiirteistä eli attribuutista, joista jokaisesta oli määritetty kolme vaihtoehtoista tasoa. Kyselyssä käytettiin paras-huonoin valintakoemenetelmää, jossa vastaaja valitsee esitetystä profiilista parhaimman sekä huonoimman vaihtoehdon. Kyselyn tuloksista aineistoon hyväksyttiin 1399 vastausta, joista mallinnettiin vaikutuskertoimet jokaiselle esitetylle attribuutin tasolle. Vaikutuskertoimet kuvastavat metsänomistajien preferenssejä ja niiden avulla voitiin järjestää attribuutit ja niiden tasot vaikuttavuusjärjestykseen. Hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmien ominaispiirteitä ovat kompensaation järjestäjätaho, kompensaatiosta saatava taloudellinen hyvitys, ohjelmakauden ennenaikaisen irtisanoutumisen sanktio ja sopimuksen tai ohjelmakauden sitoutumisaika. Tulokset osoittavat, että metsänomistajien mielestä kielteisimpiä ominaisuuksia olivat sitoutumisaika ja irtisanomissanktio, joskin sanktion suuruudella ei ollut merkittävää vaikutusta koettuun hyötyyn. Tärkeimpänä ominaisuutena nähtiin hehtaarikohtainen hyvitys, joka vaikutti eniten metsänomistajien kokemaan hyötyyn. Vastausaineiston mukaan metsänomistajat haluavat hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmän järjestäjäksi mieluiten voittoa tavoittelemattoman organisaation.
  • Lammi, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The value of wood production of forest property is based on the net present value of future cash flows. In practice, the value of the forest property can be determined by future cash flows, replacement cost or market price. When the valuation is based on the probable market value of the forest property on the free market, the valuation should be based on market information according to the International Valuation Standards. In Finland, the main forest property valuation methods are summation approach, income approach and market approach. Market information can be considered in income and market approaches as required by the International Valuation Standards. The market approach is based on comparison, where different descriptive and explanatory predictors that affect the transaction price are being compared. Income approach is based on the discounted net present value of future cash flows from forest. The market approach will lead directly to the likely market value if there are enough representative transactions. The income approach leads to the likely market value if the discount rate is derived from market information. In this case, the income approach is called market-based income approach. The aim of this study is to determine how usable market approach is for valuation of forest properties. In this study different price models are created with large transaction price statistics, containing over 4 500 forest property transactions between years 2017–2020, which includes average forest inventory data transaction-wise. Price models explain the variation between price per hectare by region with average forest inventory data. The price models are compared to marked-based income approach with most recent transactions due to transactions price statistics used in this study (n=158). To calculate the marked-based income approach for different forest properties, open forest data were acquired from Finnish Forest Centre and internal rates of return were calculated transaction-wise. The market-based income approach was calculated with IPTIM Assets -software provided by Simosol. According to the results of this study, it was found that the market approach could explain the variation of price per hectare well, but the results of price models remained quite inaccurate by root mean square error. When determinants were added, model-specific explanation rates increased, and the accuracy of the models improved. The most comprehensive model included region, volume (m3/ha), proportion of seeding stands on forest land (ha), log percentage (%) and year as determinants for price per hectare. The most comprehensive model had an explanation rate of 88,1 %, RMSE of 686 €/ha and RMSE % of 19,5 %. For the calculation of market-based income approach, internal rates of return were calculated. The average internal rate of return was 4,2 % and the median was 2,4 %. Treatment and the net present values of forest properties were optimized with average internal rate of return. The open forest data caused significant uncertainty in comparison of different approaches. The market approach appeared to be more accurate than the market-based income approach according to RMSE and RMSE %. The results of the comparison can only be considered as indicative due to relatively small sample size. According to this study, the market approach is usable for determining the market value of forest properties, but due to contingency on the forest property market, the results of models were relatively inaccurate. In the future combination of open forest data and transactions price statistics would improve the use of market approach and market-based income approach.
  • Sarasto, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pro gradu-avhandlingens tema var preliminärt organisatorisk miljöansvarig kommunicering inom sociala medier. Hur man eventuellt kunde mäta/kvantifiera miljöansvariga kommuniceringens olika identifierbara kriterier och mängden av dessa kriterier fungerade som huvudmålsättningen till avhandlingen. Avhandlingen baserar sig på en utveckling av en kriteriebaserad kvantifierbar metod. Kriterierna som metoden strävar efter att kvantifiera är identifierbara inom miljöansvarighetsrelaterade publikationer i sociala medier. Med kriterierna som metoden strävar efter att kunna identifiera och kvantifiera är ändamålet att kunna skapa en tydligare helhetsbild av organisatoriska prioriteringar inom miljöansvarig kommunicering i sociala medier. De slutliga kvantifierade mängderna av de olika kriterierna är också jämförbara mellan olika företag, man kan med andra ord sammanställa olika företags mängder av olika identifierbara kriterier och jämföra dem sinsemellan. Kriterierna som identifieras och kvantifieras i metodutvecklingen var resultat av en fokusgruppdiskussion där målsättningen var att diskutera om miljöansvarighet och dess kommunicering i sociala medier och hur man eventuellt kunde tolka nivån av pålitligheten i olika miljöansvarighetsrelaterade publikationer i sociala medier. Från diskussionens valdes ut fem kriterier som kan identifieras och kvantifieras i olika publikationer. Data där de olika kriterierna identifierades var tre olika skogsföretags miljörelaterade publikationer i olika sociala media kanaler under år 2019. När publikationerna granskades igenom var målsättningen att identifiera olika kriterier och sammanställa dem och jämföra dem sinsemellan företagen. Resultaten presenteras kriteriespecifikt 1-5 från året 2019. Kriterierna innehöll också olika specifika dimensioner som strävade efter att ge ytterligare information av kriterierna och deras detaljer. Kriterierna identifierades och kvantifierades relativt ofta i de olika publikationerna. Resultaten av de olika kriterierna och dess dimensioner hade relativt mycket avvikelse och skillnad sinsemellan. Resultaten varierade också mellan de olika företagen. Slutsatsen av metoden var att man med hjälp av de kvantifierade kriterierna fick en jämförbar helhetsbild av prioriteringar inom miljöansvarig kommunicering i sociala medier. För att kunna tydligare identifiera pålitligheten av miljöansvarighet konstaterades det slutligen att man i fortsatta studier kunde koncentrera mer på vad som inte publiceras i sociala medier, s.k. selektivt avslöjande.
  • Lehtola, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to provide economical arguments for agriculture company to replace current wood chip heating by wood pellet heating. The study provides clear economical calculations for both options of heating investments and compares usage features to support upcoming investment decision. This study will examine wood chips and wood pellets as biofuels and presents needed heating systems. Profitability calculations of both heating investments are done by net present value, internal rate of return and return of investment. Sensitivity analysis is done based on the most critical factors for investments like changes of investment rate and cost of raw material. Solar energy will be processed only by theoretically. Both investment options are using the same heating equipment, so significant expenses between heating options are consist of cost of heating materials. Results of investment calculations advise the company to continue heating with wood chips. This study was done from the actual need of the agriculture company regarding profitable heating investment.
  • Veskoniemi, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    My master`s thesis is a comparative study in which I study the role of the forest in classical and modern literature – similarities and differences. The sub-questions focus on the forest as a place, symbol, and allegory. As material, I use four Finnish fiction works; two of them represent classic literature and two represent modern literature. The works are: Seitsemän veljestä (1870) by Aleksis Kivi, Havukka-ahon ajattelija (1952) by Veikko Huovinen, Uniin piirretty polku (2009) by Helena Waris and Kultarinta (2014) by Anni Kytömäki. The theoretical starting point is ecocriticism, which means the representation of human and non-human relationships. The work also features material ecocriticism, which focuses on non-human agency and the liveliness of matter. The research method is close reading, where the work is analyzed in detail and systematically with the help of text samples. Regarding the results, in Kultarinta (2014) the concern about the destruction of the biosphere was the most visible. The different attitudes related to climate change can be seen in the forest relationships of the main characters. For example, in Seitsemän veljestä (1870), the forest is more the scene of events and an adventure environment. On the other hand, already in Havukka-ahon ajattelija (1952), the forest is equated with the fate of the nation.
  • Veistola, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) on globaali kansalaisjärjestö, joka myöntää sertifikaatin kestävän metsänhoidon periaatteiden mukaisesti hoidetuille metsille. Sertifioinnin perusajatus on lisätä puupohjaisten ympäristömerkittyjen tuotteiden menekkiä markkinoilla, jolloin kasvaneilla tuotoilla kompensoidaan sertifioinnin kustannukset. FSC-sertifiointia tutkitaan yksityisenä hallintotapana, jonka ekologinen vaikuttavuus syntyy sen ylittäessä vaatimustasoltaan vallitsevan metsänhoitotavan minimivaatimukset talousmetsien luonnonhoidolle. 2010-luvulta alkaen FSC-sertifioinnin osuus yksityismetsänomistajien metsissä on ollut hitaassa kasvussa Suomessa. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia FSC-sertifioinnin liittymisprosessia ja kuvata suomalaisten yksityisten metsänomistajien kokemuksia FSC-sertifioinnin vaikutuksista metsänhoitoon sekä tunnistaa sertifioinnin kehityskohteita. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvalitatiivisena teemahaastattelututkimuksena, jonka empiirinen aineisto kerättiin puhelinhaastatteluilla pääkaupunkiseudulla asuvilta FSC-sertifiointiin kuuluvilta etämetsänomistajilta kesäkuussa 2021. Analyysimenetelmänä käytettiinkin sisällönanalyysiä sekä temaattista analyysiä. Tulosten mukaan metsänomistajien FSC-sertifiointiin liittyminen tapahtuu puunhankinta-organisaatioiden markkinoinnin tuloksena metsäammattilaisen suosituksesta. Metsäyhtiöiden ryhmäsertifikaatit mahdollistavat FSC-sertifioinnin. Erityisesti hoitosopimuksiin kuuluvia suurtilallisia houkutellaan aktiivisesti liittymään FSC-sertifiointiryhmiin. Yleisesti ottaen FSC-sertifiointi ei näyttänyt järjestelmään liittymiseen myötä muuttaneen voimakkaasti vastaajien aiempia metsänhoitotapoja, vaan sen rooli oli verifioida kriteerit täyttävää metsänhoitoa. Haastatteluaineiston perusteella Suomessa sertifiointihalukkuuteen vaikuttaviksi ulkoisiksi motiviaatiotekijöiksi tunnistettiin pienet hyödyt puukaupassa sekä myös epäsuoraksi hyödyksi parantunut suhde metsäyhtiöön. Sertifioinnin vaatimista suojelualueista ja luonnonhoidosta syntyvät taloudelliset kustannukset voidaan välttää metsäsuunnittelun keinoin hyödyntämällä vesistöjen suojavyöhykkeitä tai aineellisten tuotto-odotusten ulkopuolella olevia sertifikaatin kriteerit täyttäviä kohteita suojelualuevaatimuksen täyttämiseen. Aineettomia arvoja korostavat vastaajat eivät myöskään suhtautuneet edellytettyyn suojeluun tai luonnonhoitoon kustannuksena. On myös huomattava ettei suomalaisilla metsänomistajilla ole joihinkin kansainvälisiin tutkimuksiin verrattuna raaka-aineen tarjoajana signalointitarvetta markkinoille, vaan paineet raaka-aineen kestävyyden osoittamiseksi ovat puupohjaisten tuotteiden tuottajilla. Sisäisten motivaatiotekijöiden osalta tavoitteet luonnonhoitoon metsissä olivat vastaajilla syntyneet korkeasta tietotasosta ja aktiivisesta harrastuneisuudesta metsien käyttöä kohtaan. FSC-sertifiointi on helpottanut vastaajia tekemään aineettomista metsänhoidon tavoitteista näkyviä. Lisäksi sertifiointi toimi myös puukaupassa koko toimitusketjun tuntemana vastuullisuustavoitteita sisältävänä metsänhallintajärjestelmänä, joka osaltaan helpotti vastaajien ympäristötavoitteiden mukaista metsänhoitoa. FSC-sertifiointia voidaan metsänomistajanäkökulmasta kehittää käytännön tasolla sekä järjestelmätasolla. Käytännön tasolla järjestelmän kannustetaan olevan vähemmän byrokraattisempi ja hintapreemion korkeampi. Järjestelmätasolla FSC-sertifioinnin legitimiteetti metsänomistajien näkökulmasta parantuisi lisäämällä vaikutusmahdollisuuksia järjestelmään ja kriteeristön sisältöön.
  • Yrjölä, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study examines forest owners’ views on the profitability of forestry and their economic objectives. The aim is to find out how forest owners determine and evaluate profitability, and how the methods differ from those used by business enterprises. In addition to profitability perceptions, the study examines forest owners’ willingness to store carbon in their forests. The data for the study were collected by semi-structured interviews, which were undertaken with nine forest owners in spring 2019. The interviewees had participated in a training program called Metsänomistajan Talouskoulu that provides the forest owners with an opportunity to develop one’s understanding in forest management. Also, as the aim was to examine forest owners’ attitudes towards a hypothetical carbon offset program, the forest owners were asked to state their willingness to accept (WTA) presented in a questionnaire form. The results show that forest owners display diverse attitudes and the views on profitability differ from one owner to another. Even though the forest owners are familiar with different profitability assessment methods, utilizing them in one’s actions is relatively rare. While forest owners are generally interested in biodiversity protection, more information regarding carbon sequestration programs is still needed. According to the results, the actual participation rate would depend on factors such as the protocol requirements and the compensation amount. As a whole, majority of forest owners require financial incentives in order to participate in carbon sequestration programs.
  • Salminen, Inna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Diminishing biodiversity, and biodiversity loss as an environmental crisis, are becoming more and more prominent in the public discussion. In Finland, biodiversity and forests are inevitably intertwined. Historical use of forests and forestry have resulted in conflicts that influence the social context where the interrelationship between biodiversity and forestry is discussed. Finnish forests are defined through multiple, competing values and goals, which have led to polarization of political discussions about forests. Media have an essential role representing these different viewpoints and shaping general opinion. This study examines what kind of frames are used in the media, when discussing biodiversity and forestry, and what kind of existing forest discourses can be identified by the help of frames. Research data consist of 55 articles from Yle, 80 articles from Helsingin Sanomat and 65 articles from Maaseudun Tulevaisuus that have all been collected 1.1.2020−31.5.2021 and that discuss biodiversity and forestry. Research methods used were frame analysis and complementary content analysis. In the analysis, both issue specific frames and general news frames were identified. Issue specific frames suggest to the reader, how and what to think about biodiversity and forestry, what kind of relationship they have, what the relation can result in, and how possible controversies can be solved. Five different issue specific frames were identified: A frame that sees forestry as a threat to biodiversity, a frame that suggests nature conservation as a solution to biodiversity loss, a frame that considers biodiversity loss as a complex problem, a frame that suggests biodiversity conservation has negative impacts, and a frame arguing that integrating biodiversity preservation and forestry is possible. Integration frame was further divided into optimistic, critical, and continuous-cover forestry as a solution subframes. The integration frame was applied most often but the use of frames varied notably between different media outlets. Besides issue specific frames, journalistic texts were organized with general news frames, of which conflict frame was the most frequent one. Media frames fortified, built, as well as challenged, and evaluated existing forest discourses. In conclusion, the diversity of frames will uphold the inflammatory voices in forest discussion but also consolidate the voices of underdogs by questioning the current forestry practices and by relocating the focus from forestry into the societal consequences biodiversity loss will inflict.
  • Tiainen, Josefiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The importance of corporate social responsibility has been increasing among organizations and society. In addition to companies, the requirement of responsibility also applies to the activities of organizations. Responsibility has become a basic requirement and a prerequisite for an organization’s operations to be profitable, sustainable and acceptable. A socially responsible organization operates in a sustainable manner and considers the expectations of its stakeholders in its activities. Today, responsibility involves a great number of conflicting expectations and requirements. The stakeholders are essential in implementing responsibility and further developing organizational activities and operations. The focus of this thesis is to examine responsibility in the activities of the Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners (MTK). The target is to observe the attitudes of forest owners regarding MTK’s responsibility. Thus, the purpose of the study is to find out how the members see the responsibility of MTK and to examine how MTK meets the expectations of its members. A survey carried out in the study provided valuable information for the development of the organization’s responsibility work and their lobbying work. The thesis is a quantitative research. The empirical data was collected as a Webropol survey from MTK forest owners in March and April 2021. The survey was sent to a total of 1000 forest owners and 201 answers were received. The response rate of the study was around 20 %. The SPSS statistic software was used in the analysis of the study. According to the results, the forest owners were satisfied with MTK’s objectives of responsibility and sustainability targets. The organization was seen as an expert and as a competent actor contributing to the vitality of rural areas. In particular, MTK was seen as a responsible organization regarding environmental values. According to the results, forest owners felt that activities promoting responsibility are important. In the objectives of forest ownership, the members emphasized the objectives of recreational use more than the economic objectives. Forest owners felt that activities that promote the growth and health of forests, the prevention of forest damage, the protection of water and the rights of forest owners were extremely important. In the future, MTK should focus on developing its visibility. In its responsibility work, MTK should pay increasing attention to its interaction with its stakeholders. This is also indicated by the fact that only one third of the respondents replied that they knew MTK’s activities well. The objectives requiring the most development are responding to feedback, allowing members to influence decision-making and listening to members’ needs.
  • Aho, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract This work was done at R&D Center of Kemira Oy in Espoo. Paper machines are open systems which are impossible to keep sterile. Paper machines offer favourable conditions for microbial growth. Microbiological problems in paper industry have been reported for years and expanding the production facilities and recycling of process waters have increased microbial growth. Microorganisms cause a lot of problems in paper machines and contaminatios can lead to huge economical loses. Biofilms can block filters and nozzles. Biofilms cause production breakdowns. The quality of produced paper is deteriorated, produced paper can have holes and discalourations. Sometimes the paper machine has to be stopped. Biofilms also increase the corrosion of machinery. Biocides are commonly used to control the formation of biofilms. Biocides are dosed with process waters and they are not specific to biofilm forming bacteria. Biofilms tolerate biocides better than planktonic bacteria and the biofilm problem has not been able to solve. There are a lot of different microbes found on paper making processes. Paper machines can contain viruses, bacteria, syanobacteria, molds, yeasts, algae ja protozoa. Paper machines environment and location, temperature, pH, raw materials and other additives have impact on the composition of microbe population. Kemira has a targeted-release biocide product on the market. Polymeric micelles protect biocidal active agents from degradation while it has been delivered to the targeted surfaces. Global patent has been applied for this targeted-release technology. Target of this work was to develop a cheaper version of this product having same targeted effects and better storage stability In this work the stability, efficacy against planktonic cells and against biofilm were tested. qPCR and sequencing were used to test the effect of the biocide to microbe population.
  • Santalahti, Tanya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Carbon neutral agriculture plays a key role in climate change mitigation. However, Finnish farmers are struggling with the impacts of climate change and the profitability crisis. This study aims at providing market insight on potential sources of income for Finnish farmers in carbon neutral agriculture by 2030. However, this thesis does not focus on the question whether carbon neutral agriculture is achievable. The role of policy instruments is also investigated to determine whether they facilitate or prevent changes. The thesis is commissioned by Envitecpolis Oy. Six experts from the agriculture field were interviewed and the data were analysed with theory-driven content analysis. The analysis is based on the future signals sense-making framework (FSSF) that focuses on the weak signals, drivers and trends found in the data. Each theme includes two categories; the nonlinear and linear paths of change. In addition, policy instruments were divided into promoters and disrupters of change. The relevant weak signals identified are innovations, the formation of premium markets, the adoption of paludiculture, novel and existing market mechanisms for carbon neutral practices, the substitution of materials and energy in production, digitalization, the increasing requirements for producers by food industry and by consumers and lastly, strengthened cooperation between actors in agriculture. The drivers of change, such as climate change, knowledge and advances in technology, significantly influence the adoption of these weak signals. However, various trends function as blockers of change whilst some trends are inevitable large change processes. In light of the results, weak signals of potential sources of income are not likely to become mainstream by 2030. However, existing or emerging issues may play a key role in providing additional income for farmers. National agriculture policy and the EU Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) are complex schemes that are gradually emphasizing climate issues. However, these policies fail to incentivize farmers to adopt practices for carbon neutral agriculture. Recommendations for future research include the cost-effectiveness of climate change mitigation measures and a follow-up on the sources of income for farmers in 2030.
  • Rosa, Sabrina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Forests are highly valued for the wide range of ecosystem services they provide and are increasingly expected to play a role in providing solutions to both rural development and global challenges. In countries where forest ownership structure is characterized by a high share of private ownership, non-industrial, private forest owners eventually determine the type and extent of management of a large part of national forest resources. In Italy, where this is the case, the potential of forests remains largely unexploited, and the alleged lack of active management even threatens to increase forest vulnerability. In this context, the new Italian Forest Strategy aims to untap the forests’ potential and enhance the delivery of their services by promoting an active, sustainable management, but is faced with the challenge of reviving the interest of private owners in managing their land. Despite being implicitly entrusted with the responsibility of stewardship of forest resources, the Italian forest owner is still a mysterious figure, due to data scarcity, and is mostly absent from the political and economic scene. Characterizing forest owners, understanding their values, objectives, and other factors affecting their behavior is crucial to develop appropriate and effective policy instruments that will sensitize and incentivize them to “own” their land in the way that society would expect of them. This work contributes to filling the data gap on Italian forest owners by presenting a case study from a region of the western Alps, the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley. By the way of a structured questionnaire and in-depth semi-structured interviews, we investigated how forest owners perceived forest management and the role they played, could play, or would be willing to play in forest stewardship. The results show that forest owners unanimously believe that forests need to be managed, a term which they mostly associate to maintenance, intended as taking care of the forests in order to keep it healthy and prosperous. However, they still hold a rather traditional view of forest uses, in which social and societal functions of forests are rarely addressed or related to owner’s responsibility. Also, they do not perceive the forest as economically valuable, and the current lack of economic sustainability of forest operations is driving forest abandonment, which indicates that economic factors are a driving force for stewardship decisions. Five stewardship types, ranging on a gradient of low to high stewardship behavior, characterize the Aosta Valley forest owners: the oblivious and self-willed stewards (types that emerged from participants’ narratives), and the wishful, dutiful, and committed steward types (types represented by the participants). The wishful and dutiful types offer two targets of interest for policy intervention: the first is longing for a greater role in forest stewardship but needs guidance to act, and the second, whose stewardship behavior is driven by their moral norms towards their heritage, could be motivated to extend their existing range of action or diversify the ecosystem services they foster. Overall, we found that forest owners displayed willingness to increase their stewardship behavior but lacked the capacity to take on this responsibility alone in the current context. Raising stewardship levels will require regional forest authorities to engage more deeply with private owners and their forests, as well as strong supporting policies that should not neglect financial incentives in the difficult context of mountain forestry but should also aim to revalorize the forests and forest sectors, including the non-wood sector, which can help tackling the challenge of ensuring the societal outcomes of forest stewardship.
  • Salenius, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Ympäristötietoisuuden seurauksena syntyneet kansainväliset ja kansalliset tavoitteet päästövähennyksille näkyvät voimakkaasti niin yksityisyritysten kuin julkisten toimijoiden toiminnassa. Koska asumisen suorat tai välilliset päästöt muodostavat yhden maailman suurimmista päästölähteistä, ovat kaupungit päätyneet asettamaan kunnianhimoisia tavoitteita alueidensa rakentamisen sekä asumisen päästövähennyksiin liittyen. Väestönkasvusta ja kaupungistumisesta seurannut tarve maa-alan varaamiseen rakentamisen ja asumisen käyttöön on kasvattanut entisestään keskustelua ympäristölle ystävällisempien rakentamisen tapojen käyttämiseksi, minkä takia kaupungit pyrkivät hyödyntämään monipuolista keinovalikoimaansa osoittaakseen asemansa edellyttämää kykyä ja halua toimia ympäristön hyväksi. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia puisen korjaus- ja lisäkerrosrakentamisen tunnettuutta kaupunkiorganisaatioissa, sekä saada vastaus näiden rakentamisen tapojen merkityksestä kaupunkien ilmastotekoina. Tutkimuksen toisen pääkysymyksen avulla pyrittiin tunnistamaan kaupunkien keinovalikoimaa edellä yksilöityjen puurakentamisen muotojen edistämiseksi, sekä tunnistamaan haasteita tämän keinovalikoiman toteuttamisessa. Tutkimus koostui kahdeksasta teemahaastattelusta, joissa rakentamisen ja rakentamisen ympäristökysymysten parissa työskentelevät asiantuntijat neljästä eri kaupungista kertoivat näkemyksiään kaupunkien toiminnasta. Teemahaastatteluiden tukena tutkimuksessa tutkittiin kaupunkien strategiapapereita ja rakentamiseen liittyviä keskeisiä asiakirjoja, jotka auttoivat luomaan kokonaiskuvan puisen korjaus- ja lisäkerrosrakentamisen tavoitteiden ja tavoitteisiin tähtäävien toimenpiteiden välillä. Tutkimuksen tuloksena havaittiin yleinen positiivinen suhtautuminen puun käyttöön korjaus- ja täydennysrakentamisen materiaalina, sekä näiden rakennustapojen yleinen tunnettuus. Positiivisesta imagostaan huolimatta puisen korjaus- ja lisäkerrosrakentamisen roolit kaupunkien hiilineutraalius- ja ilmastotavoitteissa osoittautuivat marginaalisiksi, johtuen suurelta osin kaupunkien suppeista keinoista vaikuttaa rakennusten ja asuntojen omistajien päätöksiin. Merkittävimmäksi kaupunkien keinoksi edistää lisäkerrosrakentamista nähtiin sen mahdollistaminen kaavoituksessa, vaikka myös kustannusvaikuttamisella ja maankäytön maksuilla on mahdollisuus vaikuttaa asumisen tiivistymiseen. Hidasteena puisen korjaus- ja lisäkerrosrakentamisen yleistymiselle tutkimuksessa korostuivat myös rakentamisen konservatiiviset tavat, asunnon omistajien tiedonpuute, puumateriaalin kustannukset ja tuotto- / kustannuslaskennan haastavuus, sekä muiden päästövähennystoimien priorisointi. Positiivisen imagonsa ja ominaisuuksiensa takia puisella korjaus- ja lisäkerrosrakentamisella voidaan nähdä olevan merkittävää potentiaalia tulevaisuuden ratkaisuissa, mutta vielä tällä hetkellä kaupungit keskittävät resurssejaan muihin energiatehokkuuden ratkaisuihin, sekä liikenteen ja energiantuotannon päästövähennyksiin, joiden tulokset ovat nopeammin havaittavissa ja vertailtavissa tämänhetkisten ympäristövaikutusarviointityökalujen avulla.