Browsing by Subject "Forest bioeconomy business and policy"

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  • Sinisalo, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose: The changing global economy has presented uncertain factors in future development. To keep up with the competition, companies have launched partnership programs. Many organizations seek strategic partners to enhance their positions, create joint business development and marketing opportunities, and that way strengthen their competitiveness. Methods: The objective of this study is to discover the characteristics of a partnership program in a Finnish software company. Quantitative methodology is used to examine how accurately partners can be distinguished from non-partners. Furthermore, this study introduces how customer focus should be incorporated based on a partner portfolio analysis. Also, it suggests how to derive improvements to a partnership program based on a partner portfolio analysis. Results: The main finding of this research is that partners are more profitable from the sales perspective. Their net sales have increased more during the five years, almost all of them have bought again at least once after the first purchase, and all of them increased their net sales when joining the partnership program. In addition, grown marketing and sales costs have led to an increase in partners’ net sales, which correlates with a number of joint marketing activities. This study suggests case company to focus on technology partners the most, as they are the most profitable from both sales and marketing perspectives. Based on the theoretical framework and empirical research results, proposals for further academic research are given in the thesis.
  • Gaddis, Jonathan Andrew (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to explore the economic and operational environment factors that are contributing to the development of the secondhand smartphone market. The secondhand smartphone market is a fascinating subject. The market is relatively young, only coming into existence in the last eighteen years after the introduction of the first smartphones. However, it is in recent years that the market has seen massive growth and is considered to hold a great amount of potential for further growth. The case of secondhand smartphones and its growth are intriguing from a circular economy perspective. The example that smartphones represent for product life extension, added value creation and circular flows of consumption via systems of recycling, refurbishing and reselling offer insight into the potential of circular economy frameworks for other industries and product categories. Seeking to understand what factors are contributing to the secondhand smartphone markets development also offers insights for actors, such as businesses, policy makers and academics. Such research enables the various actors to better understand the dynamics of their operating environment. Essentially, understanding what factors are contributing to the market’s development allows actors to make more informed decisions, to develop sound strategy and to allocate resources. This study was conducted as a combination quantitative and qualitative research. A quantitative approach has allowed for the sampling of a population of industry actors and to measure specific concepts, such as economic factors, via a survey. With the procurement of such data statistical analysis has been applied to understand the frequencies, correlations, and significance of the specific concepts under measurement. A qualitative approach has allowed for a more in-depth understanding and context of the survey results or where the survey results have been minimal. The results show a tendency for the business environment to be populated by companies that are vertically integrated, relatively new enterprises and have relatively small annual revenues. Additionally, the results show several clear factors that are contributing to the secondhand market’s development. The factors highlighted include the following: - The price of wholesale stock is not the main point of supply competition. With other sales terms playing such as available volumes, payment terms and stock quality playing a major role in terms of competition. - The improvement over time in the availability of smartphone devices on the wholesale market. - The strong role of relationships and developing long term partnerships. - The low barriers to entry and ease of acquiring secondhand smartphones on the wholesale market. - The growth in business networks and the need for specialization in business acumen and establishing industry wide standards. - Repairability of new models of smartphones is critical to growth and the protectionist position of OEMs. The finding paints a picture of a business environment that has low barriers to entry, generally localized small players.
  • Lahtinen, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Both the ever-increasing littering problem and climate change mitigation have driven towards to develop more sustainable packaging solutions for food. Thus, a sustainability of a food package is a complex issue and needs careful analysis in order to ensure the paramount, the food safety. The recent research has concentrated to find novel solutions to replace for instance plastics as a packaging material. So far there has been very little data about the used food packaging materials and their volumes, especially in product groups, not only as single items. This thesis analysed the single food items sold in the Finnish supermarkets, by categorising the data into product groups and analysing the obtained product data further. The analysis focused to identify product groups for possible packaging material substitution, especially single-use plastics (SUP). Pre-determined criteria were used to identify the most interesting product groups for further research. The criteria included (i) sufficient volumes, either in packaging material weight in grams or in sales share, (ii) the suitability of the polymer type for recycling, and (iii) the possible impact of the SUP directive. The EU’s SUP directive (Directive (EU) 2019/904) sets several restrictions for the SUP use also in the food packaging industry. Therefore, there is a need to substitute some of the most harmful packaging materials. In most cases the main driver for substitution is the environmental impacts, especially littering and its prevention. This thesis concentrates to find possibilities to diminish the littering problem from the packaging material perspective.
  • Vainionpää, Jussi-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The right wood raw material should be delivered to the right wood processing mill at the right time, while minimizing costs. In other words, the log demand distributions and quality requirements of mills should be fulfilled. Bucking control tries to solve two problems; what kind of wood assortments to cut from each stand, and what dimensions to cut within each wood assortment. The success of bucking is important, as it is difficult to fix a poor bucking outcome. Modern harvesters collect stem data, from which virtual trees can be created. The bucking of these virtual trees can be simulated with different product instructions and settings. A bucking simulator can be utilized in predicting and optimizing bucking outcome. However, without quality-information of stems a bucking simulator is overly optimistic. Stem quality-information utilized in previous studies has been laborious to collect, and there has been little validation of log distributions simulated with stem quality-information. The object of this study was to determine whether a method, where stem quality-information is derived from harvester-collected stem and log data, could be utilized to improve the accuracy of simulated wood assortment recoveries and distributions. The study focused on Metsä Fibre’s sawmill in Vilppula and clear-cut stands. The usability of the method in bucking control and wood procurement in Finland was of central interest. Results were examined based on the theoretical framework of the study, which outlined the significance of the results to business operations. The bucking of real stems registered by harvesters was simulated with real quality-information derived from harvester-collected data, predicted quality-information derived from the previously mentioned quality data, and without any quality-information. The bucking outcomes were compared to real bucking outcomes registered by harvesters. The focus was on validating the real quality-information derived from harvester-collected data, while the predicted quality-information worked as an example. Without quality-information the simulated total log distribution and the real total log distribution had a match of 84.2 % (butt log: 86.4 %; top and middle log: 80.8 %). With the real quality-information this percentage increased by 2.9 percentile points (butt log: 2.4 pp; top and middle log: 2.4 pp). With the predicted quality-information the percentage increased by 1.6 percentile points (butt log: 1.4 pp; top and middle log: 2.7 pp). The relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were 19.0 % (42.6 m³) and 24.6 % (55.1 m³) with no quality-information. With the real quality-information the relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were -0.4 % (-1.0 m³) and 4.1 % (9.1 m³). With the predicted quality-information the relative bias and the RMSE of the simulated log recovery were 2.0 % (4.4 m³) and 12.3 % (27.6 m³). The real quality-information was derived from data that was cost-effectively collected by harvesters. Quality-information derived from harvester-collected data enables the consideration of complex dimensional and qualitative requirements, and the derivation of quality-information predictions, in a situation where clear quality-sections of stems can’t be defined.
  • Kummunsalo, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Hiilinielujen kasvattaminen on olennainen osa ilmastonmuutoksen hillintää. Kasvavan metsän rooli tunnustetaan tärkeäksi, mutta myös metsistä tapahtuvaan hiilen vapautumiseen on kiinnitettävä huomiota. Yksi keino hiilinielujen vahvistamiseen on kompensaatiojärjestelmä metsänomistajille. Hiilensidonnan lisäämiseen tähtäävä kannustin tarjoaa potentiaalisen instrumentin ilmastonmuutoksen hillintään metsäsektorilla. Tässä tutkimuksessa kartoitettiin hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmien piirteitä ja metsänomistajien preferenssejä liittyä hiilensidonnasta maksettavaan järjestelmään kvantitatiivisen kyselyn ja tilastollisen mallinnuksen avulla. Metsänomistajille lähetettiin sähköinen kysely, jossa esiteltiin taustakysymyksien lisäksi yhdeksän vaihtoehtoista hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmää. Jokainen järjestelmä koostui neljästä ominaispiirteistä eli attribuutista, joista jokaisesta oli määritetty kolme vaihtoehtoista tasoa. Kyselyssä käytettiin paras-huonoin valintakoemenetelmää, jossa vastaaja valitsee esitetystä profiilista parhaimman sekä huonoimman vaihtoehdon. Kyselyn tuloksista aineistoon hyväksyttiin 1399 vastausta, joista mallinnettiin vaikutuskertoimet jokaiselle esitetylle attribuutin tasolle. Vaikutuskertoimet kuvastavat metsänomistajien preferenssejä ja niiden avulla voitiin järjestää attribuutit ja niiden tasot vaikuttavuusjärjestykseen. Hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmien ominaispiirteitä ovat kompensaation järjestäjätaho, kompensaatiosta saatava taloudellinen hyvitys, ohjelmakauden ennenaikaisen irtisanoutumisen sanktio ja sopimuksen tai ohjelmakauden sitoutumisaika. Tulokset osoittavat, että metsänomistajien mielestä kielteisimpiä ominaisuuksia olivat sitoutumisaika ja irtisanomissanktio, joskin sanktion suuruudella ei ollut merkittävää vaikutusta koettuun hyötyyn. Tärkeimpänä ominaisuutena nähtiin hehtaarikohtainen hyvitys, joka vaikutti eniten metsänomistajien kokemaan hyötyyn. Vastausaineiston mukaan metsänomistajat haluavat hiilikompensaatiojärjestelmän järjestäjäksi mieluiten voittoa tavoittelemattoman organisaation.
  • Lammi, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The value of wood production of forest property is based on the net present value of future cash flows. In practice, the value of the forest property can be determined by future cash flows, replacement cost or market price. When the valuation is based on the probable market value of the forest property on the free market, the valuation should be based on market information according to the International Valuation Standards. In Finland, the main forest property valuation methods are summation approach, income approach and market approach. Market information can be considered in income and market approaches as required by the International Valuation Standards. The market approach is based on comparison, where different descriptive and explanatory predictors that affect the transaction price are being compared. Income approach is based on the discounted net present value of future cash flows from forest. The market approach will lead directly to the likely market value if there are enough representative transactions. The income approach leads to the likely market value if the discount rate is derived from market information. In this case, the income approach is called market-based income approach. The aim of this study is to determine how usable market approach is for valuation of forest properties. In this study different price models are created with large transaction price statistics, containing over 4 500 forest property transactions between years 2017–2020, which includes average forest inventory data transaction-wise. Price models explain the variation between price per hectare by region with average forest inventory data. The price models are compared to marked-based income approach with most recent transactions due to transactions price statistics used in this study (n=158). To calculate the marked-based income approach for different forest properties, open forest data were acquired from Finnish Forest Centre and internal rates of return were calculated transaction-wise. The market-based income approach was calculated with IPTIM Assets -software provided by Simosol. According to the results of this study, it was found that the market approach could explain the variation of price per hectare well, but the results of price models remained quite inaccurate by root mean square error. When determinants were added, model-specific explanation rates increased, and the accuracy of the models improved. The most comprehensive model included region, volume (m3/ha), proportion of seeding stands on forest land (ha), log percentage (%) and year as determinants for price per hectare. The most comprehensive model had an explanation rate of 88,1 %, RMSE of 686 €/ha and RMSE % of 19,5 %. For the calculation of market-based income approach, internal rates of return were calculated. The average internal rate of return was 4,2 % and the median was 2,4 %. Treatment and the net present values of forest properties were optimized with average internal rate of return. The open forest data caused significant uncertainty in comparison of different approaches. The market approach appeared to be more accurate than the market-based income approach according to RMSE and RMSE %. The results of the comparison can only be considered as indicative due to relatively small sample size. According to this study, the market approach is usable for determining the market value of forest properties, but due to contingency on the forest property market, the results of models were relatively inaccurate. In the future combination of open forest data and transactions price statistics would improve the use of market approach and market-based income approach.
  • Sarasto, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pro gradu-avhandlingens tema var preliminärt organisatorisk miljöansvarig kommunicering inom sociala medier. Hur man eventuellt kunde mäta/kvantifiera miljöansvariga kommuniceringens olika identifierbara kriterier och mängden av dessa kriterier fungerade som huvudmålsättningen till avhandlingen. Avhandlingen baserar sig på en utveckling av en kriteriebaserad kvantifierbar metod. Kriterierna som metoden strävar efter att kvantifiera är identifierbara inom miljöansvarighetsrelaterade publikationer i sociala medier. Med kriterierna som metoden strävar efter att kunna identifiera och kvantifiera är ändamålet att kunna skapa en tydligare helhetsbild av organisatoriska prioriteringar inom miljöansvarig kommunicering i sociala medier. De slutliga kvantifierade mängderna av de olika kriterierna är också jämförbara mellan olika företag, man kan med andra ord sammanställa olika företags mängder av olika identifierbara kriterier och jämföra dem sinsemellan. Kriterierna som identifieras och kvantifieras i metodutvecklingen var resultat av en fokusgruppdiskussion där målsättningen var att diskutera om miljöansvarighet och dess kommunicering i sociala medier och hur man eventuellt kunde tolka nivån av pålitligheten i olika miljöansvarighetsrelaterade publikationer i sociala medier. Från diskussionens valdes ut fem kriterier som kan identifieras och kvantifieras i olika publikationer. Data där de olika kriterierna identifierades var tre olika skogsföretags miljörelaterade publikationer i olika sociala media kanaler under år 2019. När publikationerna granskades igenom var målsättningen att identifiera olika kriterier och sammanställa dem och jämföra dem sinsemellan företagen. Resultaten presenteras kriteriespecifikt 1-5 från året 2019. Kriterierna innehöll också olika specifika dimensioner som strävade efter att ge ytterligare information av kriterierna och deras detaljer. Kriterierna identifierades och kvantifierades relativt ofta i de olika publikationerna. Resultaten av de olika kriterierna och dess dimensioner hade relativt mycket avvikelse och skillnad sinsemellan. Resultaten varierade också mellan de olika företagen. Slutsatsen av metoden var att man med hjälp av de kvantifierade kriterierna fick en jämförbar helhetsbild av prioriteringar inom miljöansvarig kommunicering i sociala medier. För att kunna tydligare identifiera pålitligheten av miljöansvarighet konstaterades det slutligen att man i fortsatta studier kunde koncentrera mer på vad som inte publiceras i sociala medier, s.k. selektivt avslöjande.
  • Yrjölä, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study examines forest owners’ views on the profitability of forestry and their economic objectives. The aim is to find out how forest owners determine and evaluate profitability, and how the methods differ from those used by business enterprises. In addition to profitability perceptions, the study examines forest owners’ willingness to store carbon in their forests. The data for the study were collected by semi-structured interviews, which were undertaken with nine forest owners in spring 2019. The interviewees had participated in a training program called Metsänomistajan Talouskoulu that provides the forest owners with an opportunity to develop one’s understanding in forest management. Also, as the aim was to examine forest owners’ attitudes towards a hypothetical carbon offset program, the forest owners were asked to state their willingness to accept (WTA) presented in a questionnaire form. The results show that forest owners display diverse attitudes and the views on profitability differ from one owner to another. Even though the forest owners are familiar with different profitability assessment methods, utilizing them in one’s actions is relatively rare. While forest owners are generally interested in biodiversity protection, more information regarding carbon sequestration programs is still needed. According to the results, the actual participation rate would depend on factors such as the protocol requirements and the compensation amount. As a whole, majority of forest owners require financial incentives in order to participate in carbon sequestration programs.
  • Aho, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract This work was done at R&D Center of Kemira Oy in Espoo. Paper machines are open systems which are impossible to keep sterile. Paper machines offer favourable conditions for microbial growth. Microbiological problems in paper industry have been reported for years and expanding the production facilities and recycling of process waters have increased microbial growth. Microorganisms cause a lot of problems in paper machines and contaminatios can lead to huge economical loses. Biofilms can block filters and nozzles. Biofilms cause production breakdowns. The quality of produced paper is deteriorated, produced paper can have holes and discalourations. Sometimes the paper machine has to be stopped. Biofilms also increase the corrosion of machinery. Biocides are commonly used to control the formation of biofilms. Biocides are dosed with process waters and they are not specific to biofilm forming bacteria. Biofilms tolerate biocides better than planktonic bacteria and the biofilm problem has not been able to solve. There are a lot of different microbes found on paper making processes. Paper machines can contain viruses, bacteria, syanobacteria, molds, yeasts, algae ja protozoa. Paper machines environment and location, temperature, pH, raw materials and other additives have impact on the composition of microbe population. Kemira has a targeted-release biocide product on the market. Polymeric micelles protect biocidal active agents from degradation while it has been delivered to the targeted surfaces. Global patent has been applied for this targeted-release technology. Target of this work was to develop a cheaper version of this product having same targeted effects and better storage stability In this work the stability, efficacy against planktonic cells and against biofilm were tested. qPCR and sequencing were used to test the effect of the biocide to microbe population.
  • Kuronen, Tiia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Every company receives customer complaints and negative customer feedback. With functional customer complaint management and service recovery processes, it is possible to restore customers’ satisfaction and loyalty towards the company, enhance the self-efficacy of the staff and improve service processes of the company. Objective of this study was to find out, how recovery process is recognized, how it is utilized, and which are the main needs of development. In this study, current customer complaint process is examined through service recovery theory highlighting the role of process recovery and employee recovery. The effect of current customer complaint process on customer experience is also discussed. The research material of this study was collected in summer 2020 by questionnaire. Questionnaire was sent by e-mail to personnel who handle customer complaints in their tasks. The questionnaire was sent to 323 person and 85 approved responses were received. The response rate was 26 %. Research method in this thesis is quantitative analysis. Based on the results, the customer complaint process could be utilized further. Better distribution of responsibility, recognizing the importance of customer complaint and service blueprints will improve the quality of the customer complaint process. Furthermore, customer complaint process should be more straightforward and continuous training for personnel should be added. Employees have high motivation to restore customer satisfaction and secure good customer experience. Further study is needed to clarify the customers’ view of customer experience of customer complaint process.
  • Pietarinen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Bioeconomy is expected to play a key role in achieving resource-efficient, sustainable societies globally. With its vast forest resources, Finland aims at being a global forerunner of forest-based bioeconomy, which is ought to result in increased welfare of Finnish citizens, while being ecologically sustainable. Given these expectations, it is important to understand the relationship between Finnish forestry and sustainability. The aim of this master’s thesis is to provide an analysis on how the concept of sustainability is framed and translated in Finnish forest policies. Two research questions were drawn: 1. How is sustainability framed and understood in the Finnish forest policies? and 2. How the “Spirit of Rio” is transferred into the existing legislation? In this context, “the Spirit of Rio”, originating from the Rio Conference held in 1992, means the ambition to take care of environmental issues with a bottom-up approach with the participation of groups that are most affected by the decisions. Discourse analysis was chosen as approach as it can reveal meanings within texts. The analysis followed Backstränd and Lövbrand (2006) and investigated specific elements of environmental discourses (ecological modernization, green governmentality and critical civic environmentalism) in the analysis of selected national forest policy documents. ATLAS.ti software was used in analyzing and processing the research data. A code book was developed in order to help in structuring the analysis and the material was coded in four different levels, starting from the broadest topics and proceeding to less visible details. The research results indicate, that although the language used in the policies refers widely to sustainability, the consideration of ecological aspects of sustainability is weak and rhetoric whereas economic values have a dominant role, and are defined and translated towards action and practices. The Spirit of Rio was addressed in the analyzed policies in the form of co-operation of stakeholders and a participative writing process. However, the importance noticeably decreased over time. The research findings demonstrate, that in the analyzed policies the “brand” of sustainability is to some extent used as a marketing tool and hence risks to legitimize an industry friendly agenda with bioeconomy acting as an opportunity to commercialize natural resources. This thesis aims to provide relevant reflections to policymakers and the forest sector on whether and to which extent sustainability has been included in the Finnish forest policies. Understanding sustainability framings and dominant discourses in the past and present forest policy documents will help to inform ongoing and future forest policy revisions. Revealing the dominant discourse increases transparency and can start a process towards problem solving.
  • Biksons, Roberts (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to describe the main European Union Emission Trading System`s (EU ETS) aspects that affect carbon abatement investments and the way in which they influence investment decision making of the participating companies. Furthermore, trading phase III was analysed and compared to the previous phases in order to forecast possible carbon abatement investment trends for phase IV. The study consists of the collection of data from 9 EU ETS companies using semi-structured interviews. The questions were structured in four (compliance, protection against carbon leakage, carbon price and allowance allocation methods) sections based on extensive literature review of previous studies. According to the results, most companies considered the EU ETS as an important policy tool that encourages carbon abatement investments; however the system has also created certain difficulties: entering trading phase IV, companies are facing significant administrative burden, regulatory uncertainty and unfair competition caused by direct and indirect carbon costs and therefore increasing the risk of carbon leakage. All the above lower the companies’ ability of investing in carbon abatement. To tackle this problem more protective mechanisms should be introduced, including more flexible free allowance allocation. Taking into account the research limitations, respectively the low response rate (3,5%) and the lack of representation of certain industries, further investigation would be necessary for more definitive results, which would in turn help develop concrete policy proposals.
  • Staff, Domna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Corporate responsibility has become an increasingly important objective, and its role as a part of company’s strategy has enhanced. The discussions around the topic have heated and failure to take responsibility into account can be very detrimental to the company’s reputation. Company’s accountability has been guided by regulatory means. There have been regulations in place for a longer period both in Europe and the United States, but in the emerging markets the interest around the topic is also constantly growing. The aim of the thesis was to investigate how companies’ stock prices react when they are either added to or removed from the responsibility index in the emerging markets in 2013-2020. The index under study was the Dow Jones Sustainability Emerging Markets Index (DJSI Emerging Markets), which selects annually approximately 80 best companies from the emerging markets according to RobecoSAM’s ESG criteria. In addition, the study examined whether the reactions had changed in the subsequent period 2016–2020 compared to the previous period 2013–2015. The research material was collected from the S&P Global website and, in terms of share prices, from the Orbis and Yahoo Finance databases. Data analysis was performed with R and Microsoft Excel software. Quantitative event study was used as a research method, and the data was examined by using the daily stock prices in the 21-day [-10, +10] event window. The study examined the reaction both at the time of publication of the index (publication date, when the annual content of the index is published) and at the actual time of change (date of change, when the changes in the index take effect). Based on the results, the addition to the studied index caused abnormal returns around the date of change on the two-day window [0, +1]. The observed average cumulative abnormal return (CAAR) in the event window was +0.46%. Annualized, the abnormal return would thus be approximately 57,5%. However, based on the results, abnormal returns weakened later after the event. Additionally, for the removed stocks, a negative return reaction was observed in the date of change event window [0, +1], where the CAAR was -0.37%. No statistically significant results were observed in later time windows – suggesting the presence of semi-strong market efficiency. On the publication date of the index, no statistically significant results were observed. Reactions only on the change date suggest that the addition (deletion) to the index itself does not provide the investors with new information about the stocks added (removed). Instead, the results provide evidence that the abnormal return arises from the increased trading activity of the stock.
  • Wéman, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of the study was to identify drivers which affect the tendency to conduct timber trade online among private forest owners in greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Drivers were measured using a survey form. The survey form was constructed using an applied Technology Acceptance Model. Mail addresses for the survey were collected from a Finnish forest products company’s customer database. The survey data was gathered using a survey form which was delivered by mail. The form could also be filled online The reference population consisted of 6059 private forest owners from which a sample of 865 private forest owners was taken. The forest owners included in the sample were sent the survey form of which 88 were returned filled. This yields an answer percentage of 10 %. The answers were analyzed using linear regression models. From the individual models a composite model was constructed which was used to explain what the drivers behind private forest owners’ decision to do online timber trade were and how big the effects of a driver were. The biggest drivers according to the data were perceived usefulness, result demonstrability and relevance. Also output quality, perceived ease of use and subjective norm had a positive effect on the tendency to do online timber trade. According to the data it is impossible to say whether voluntariness of use has an effect on the private forest owners’ decision to do online timber trade. The results were mainly in line with previous Technology Acceptance Model based research. The effects of subjective norm and output quality were slightly lower than previous Technology Acceptance Model related studies. There has not yet been any previous research into the tendency to conduct online timber trade in Finland to which the results could be directly compared to.