Browsing by Subject "Formin"

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  • Peippo, Minna; Gardberg, Maria; Lamminen, Tarja; Kaipio, Katja; Carpen, Olli; Heuser, Vanina D. (2017)
    The functional properties of actin-regulating formin proteins are diverse and in many cases cell-type specific. FHOD1, a formin expressed predominantly in cells of mesenchymal lineage, bundles actin filaments and participates in maintenance of cell shape, migration and cellular protrusions. FHOD1 participates in cancer associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer. The role of FHOD1 in melanomas has not been characterized. Here, we show that FHOD1 expression is typically strong in cutaneous melanomas and cultured melanoma cells while the expression is low or absent in benign nevi. By using shRNA to knockdown FHOD1 in melanoma cells, we discovered that FHOD1 depleted cells are larger, rounder and have smaller focal adhesions and inferior migratory capacity as compared to control cells. Importantly, we found FHOD1 depleted cells to have reduced colony-forming capacity and attenuated tumor growth in vivo, a finding best explained by the reduced proliferation rate caused by cell cycle arrest. Unexpectedly, FHOD1 depletion did not prevent invasive growth at the tumor margins. These results suggest that FHOD1 participates in key cellular processes that are dysregulated in malignancy, but may not be essential for melanoma cell invasion.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Mansuri, Naziha; Mogg, Jasper; Kurki, Samu; Repo, Heli; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2018)
    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. The subgroup can be identified immunohistochemically, by lack of hormone receptor expression combined with expression of basal markers such as CK5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro, several regulators of the actin cytoskeleton are essential for efficient invasion of basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Whether these proteins are expressed in vivo determines the applicability of these findings in clinical settings. The actin-regulating formin protein FHOD1 participates in invasion of the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Here, we measure the expression of FHOD1 protein in clinical triple-negative breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and further characterize the expression of another formin protein, INF2. We report that basal-like breast cancers frequently overexpress formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2. In cell studies using basal-like breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of FHOD1 or INF2 interferes with very similar processes: maintenance of cell shape, migration, invasion, and proliferation. Inhibition of EGFR, PI3K, or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity does not alter the expression of FHOD1 and INF2 in these cell lines. We conclude that the experimental studies on these formins have implications in the clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancer.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Kiviniemi, Aida; Lehtinen, Laura; Munthe, Sune; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Posti, Jussi P.; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Vuorinen, Ville; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2020)
    BackgroundThe prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, related to its diffuse spread within the brain. There is an ongoing search for molecular regulators of this particularly invasive behavior. One approach is to look for actin regulating proteins that might be targeted by future anti-cancer therapy. The formin family of proteins orchestrates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cellular processes. Recently, the formin proteins mDia1 and mDia2 were shown to be expressed in glioblastoma in vitro, and their function could be modified by small molecule agonists. This finding implies that the formins could be future therapeutic targets in glioblastoma.MethodsIn cell studies, we investigated the changes in expression of the 15 human formins in primary glioblastoma cells and commercially available glioblastoma cell lines during differentiation from spheroids to migrating cells using transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR. siRNA mediated knockdown of selected formins was performed to investigate whether their expression affects glioblastoma migration.Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of two formins, FHOD1 and INF2, in tissue samples from 93 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Associated clinicopathological parameters and follow-up data were utilized to test whether formin expression correlates with survival or has prognostic value.ResultsWe found that multiple formins were upregulated during migration. Knockdown of individual formins mDia1, mDia2, FHOD1 and INF2 significantly reduced migration in most studied cell lines. Among the studied formins, knockdown of INF2 generated the greatest reduction in motility in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2 in glioblastoma tissues. Importantly, we found that moderate/high expression of INF2 was associated with significantly impaired prognosis.ConclusionsFormins FHOD1 and INF2 participate in glioblastoma cell migration. Moderate/high expression of INF2 in glioblastoma tissue is associated with worse outcome. Taken together, our in vitro and tissue studies suggest a pivotal role for INF2 in glioblastoma. When specific inhibiting compounds become available, INF2 could be a target in the search for novel glioblastoma therapies.