Browsing by Subject "Fragaria"

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  • Hytönen, Timo; Kurokura, Takeshi (2020)
    Strawberry flowering physiology has engaged the interest of researchers for almost a century after the initial reports demonstrating the photoperiodic control of flowering and N egetative reproduction through stolons called runners. Most strawberries possess a seasonal flowering habit with flower initiation occurring under short days in autumn and flowering during the following spring. Also perpetual flowering genotypes are known in diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and octoploid garden strawberry (F. x ananassa Duch.), and recent research have shown that this trait has evolved independently in different species. Studies in the perpetual flowering mutant of woodland strawberry led to the identification of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) as a major floral repressor causing the seasonal flowering habit in this species and demonstrated that recessive mutation in this gene leads to perpetual flowering. This breakthrough opened an avenue for molecular understanding on the control of flowering by different environmental signals. Different loci control perpetual flowering in garden strawberry including one dominant major locus and additional environmentally regulated epistatic loci. The major gene is called Perpetual Flowering Runnering (PFRU) because it also reduces the number of runners. Growth regulator applications initially demonstrated the role of gibberellin in the control of runner formation, and molecular understanding on the role of gibberellin biosynthesis and signaling in this process has started to emerge. Here, we present current understanding and major open questions on the control of flowering and runnering in strawberries. In order to understand the control of flowering in the context of perennial growth cycle, we also discuss current knowledge on the control of dormancy.
  • Kurokura, Takeshi; Samad, Samia; Koskela, Elli; Mouhu, Katriina; Hytonen, Timo (2017)
    According to the external coincidence model, photoperiodic flowering occurs when CONSTANS ( CO) mRNA expression coincides with light in the afternoon of long days (LDs), leading to the activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO has evolved in Brassicaceae from other Group Ia CO-like (COL) proteins which do not control photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. COLs in other species have evolved different functions as floral activators or even as repressors. To understand photoperiodic development in the perennial rosaceous model species woodland strawberry, we functionally characterized FvCO, the only Group Ia COL in its genome. We demonstrate that FvCO has a major role in the photoperiodic control of flowering and vegetative reproduction through runners. FvCO is needed to generate a bimodal rhythm of FvFT1 which encodes a floral activator in the LD accession Hawaii-4: a sharp FvCO expression peak at dawn is followed by the FvFT1 morning peak in LDs indicating possible direct regulation, but additional factors that may include FvGI and FvFKF1 are probably needed to schedule the second FvFT1 peak around dusk. These results demonstrate that although FvCO and FvFT1 play major roles in photoperiodic development, the CO-based external coincidence around dusk is not fully applicable to the woodland strawberry.
  • Andrés Jiménez, Javier (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The Rosaceae family accounts for more than 90% of the total fresh fruit production in Finland and for more than 25% worldwide in 2013. Thus, improving the yield potential of Rosaceae species works in favor of economic growth and food security. To achieve that, expanding the knowledge on Rosaceae species is required. Fragaria vesca (F. vesca), particularly the everbearing F. vesca semperflorens accession ‘Hawaii-4’ (H4), provides several features that makes it formidable as a model organism for the study of physiological processes in Rosaceae species, where the CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINALFLOWER 1/SELF-PRUNING (CETS) genes play a remarkable role. In this Thesis, I have studied the expression patterns and functions of the CETS genes by performing gene expression analysis, generation of H4 transgenic lines and observation on H4 plants (both transgenic and wild type) grown under different sets of conditions. My results confirmed the expression patterns and functions previously reported for F.vesca TERMINAL FLOWER1 and F.vesca FLOWERING LOCUS T1. I showed that F.vesca CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE2 is a floral repressor and demonstrated that F.vesca FLOWERING LOCUS T3 is a flowering promoter. Additionally, our data suggest that F.vesca MOTHER OF FT is directly related with stolon formation and that F.vesca CENTRORADIALIS-LIKE1 is most likely a floral repressor. This new information could be used in the future to improve the efficiency of Rosaceae crops farming by adapting flowering and vegetative responses and also for breeding more productive Rosaceae crops.
  • Koskela, Elli (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is the most important berry crop cultivated in Finland. Due to the species' economic importance, there is a national breeding programme aimed at extending the cropping season from the current one month to up to three months. This could be achieved by growing cultivars which would initiate flowers throughout the summer months, without the requirement of a period of short days as is the case with currently grown cultivars. The cultivated strawberry is an octoploid and therefore has complex patterns of inheritance. It is desirable to study the genetic mechanisms of flowering in the closely related but diploid species F. vesca (L). In the diploid Fragaria, a mutation in a single locus, namely the SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (Sfl), changes the flowering phenotype from seasonal to perpetual flowering. There is also an array of genetic tools available for F. vesca, which facilitate genetic studies at molecular level. Experiments described here aimed at elucidating the identity of the gene which confers perpetual flowering in F. vesca by exploring the flowering characteristics and genotypes of five F2 populations (crosses between seasonal × perpetual flowering cultivars). The study took advantage of a genetic map for diploid Fragaria, publicly available EST and genomic Fragaria sequences and a recently developed BAC library. Sequence information was used for designing gene–specific primers for a host of flowering–related candidate genes, which were subsequently mapped on the diploid Fragaria genetic map. BAC library was screened with molecular markers supposedly located close to the Sfl, with the aim of positionally cloning the Sfl. Segregation of flowering phenotypes in the five F2 populations showed, that the Sfl indeed controls flowering in all the tested cultivars. A genetic map was constructed of the chromosome with the Sfl, and a positional cloning attempt was initiated with the closest flanking markers. 45 gene–specific primers pairs were designed for 21 flowering–related genes, and eight genes were successfully mapped on the diploid Fragaria map. One of the mapped genes, namely PRR7, located very close to the Sfl, and is a potential candidate for the gene that has evaded identification so far.
  • Rantanen, Marja; Kurokura, Takeshi; Mouhu, Katriina; Pinho, Paulo; Tetri, Eino; Halonen, Liisa; Palonen, Pauliina; Elomaa, Paula; Hytonen, Timo (2014)
  • Koskela, Elli Aurora; Sonsteby, Anita; Flachowsky, Henryk; Heide, Ola Mikal; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo (2016)
    The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1) SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)-TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar 'Elsanta' is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1-FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars.