Browsing by Subject "Frailty"

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  • the OBSERVANT Research Group; Biancari, F; Rosato, S; Costa, G; Barbanti, M; D'Errigo, P; Tamburino, C; Cerza, F; Rosano, A; Seccareccia, F (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a novel risk assessment tool for the prediction of 30-day mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement incorporating a patient's frailty. METHODS: Overall, 4718 patients from the multicentre study OBSERVANT was divided into derivation (n=3539) and validation (n=1179) cohorts. A stepwise logistic regression procedure and a criterion based on Akaike information criteria index were used to select variables associated with 30-day mortality. The performance of the regression model was compared with that of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II. RESULTS: At 30 days, 90 (2.54%) and 35 (2.97%) patients died in the development and validation data sets, respectively. Age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant coronary revascularization, frailty stratified according to the Geriatric Status Scale, urgent procedure and estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The estimated OBS AVR score showed higher discrimination (area under curve 0.76 vs 0.70, P CONCLUSIONS: The OBS AVR risk score showed high discrimination and calibration abilities in predicting 30-day mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement. The addition of a simplified frailty assessment into the model seems to contribute to an improved predictive ability over the EuroSCORE II. The OBS AVR risk score showed a significant association with long-term mortality.
  • Tiainen, Marjaana; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Virtanen, Pekka; Räty, Silja; Strbian, Daniel (2022)
    Objectives: Data concerning the results of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in old patients is still limited. We aimed to investigate the outcomes in thrombectomytreated ischemic stroke patients aged > 80 years, focusing on frailty as a contributing factor. Patients and methods: We performed a single-centre retrospective cohort study with 159 consecutive patients aged > 80 years and treated with EVT for acute ischemic stroke between January 1st 2016 and December 31st 2019. Pre-admission frailty was assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Patients with CFS > 5 were defined as frail. The main outcome was very poor outcome defined as mRS 46 at three months after EVT. Secondary outcomes were recanalization status, symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH), and one-year survival. Finally, we recorded if the patient returned home within 12 months. Results: Very poor outcome was observed in 57.9% of all patients (52.4% in non-frail and 79.4% in frail patients). Rates of recanalization and sICH were comparable in frail and non-frail patients. Of all patients, 46.5% were able to live at home within 1 year after stroke. One-year survival was 59.1% (65.6% in non-frail and 35.3% in frail patients). In logistic regression analysis higher admission NIHSS, not performing thrombolysis, lack of recanalization and higher frailty status were all independently associated with very poor three-month outcome. Factors associated with one-year mortality were male gender, not performing thrombolysis, sICH, and higher frailty status. Conclusion: Almost 60% of studied patients had very poor outcome. Frailty significantly increases the likelihood of very poor outcome and death after EVT-treated stroke.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
  • Haapanen, M. J.; Perälä, M. M.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Simonen, M.; Pohjolainen, P.; Pesonen, A. K.; Räikkönen, K.; Eriksson, J. G.; von Bonsdorff, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Evidence suggests that early life stress (ELS) may extend its effect into adulthood and predispose an individual to adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether wartime parental separation, an indicator of severe ELS, would be associated with frailty in old age. Methods: Of the 972 participants belonging to the present sub-study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 117 (12. 0%) had been evacuated abroad unaccompanied by their parents in childhood during World War II. Frailty was assessed at a mean age of 71 years according to Fried's criteria. Results: Thirteen frail men (4 separated and 9 non-separated) and 20 frail women (2 separated and 18 non-separated) were identified. Compared to the non-separated men, men who had been separated had an increased relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty (age-adjusted RRR 3.93, 95% CI 1.02, 15.11) that persisted after adjusting for several confounders. No associations were observed among women (RRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.13, 2.94). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that ELS might extend its effects not just into adulthood but also into old age, and secondly, that men may be more vulnerable to the long-term effects of ELS.
  • Haapanen, M. J; Perälä, M. M; Salonen, M. K; Kajantie, E.; Simonen, M.; Pohjolainen, P.; Pesonen, A. K; Räikkönen, K.; Eriksson, J. G; von Bonsdorff, M. B (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early life stress (ELS) may extend its effect into adulthood and predispose an individual to adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether wartime parental separation, an indicator of severe ELS, would be associated with frailty in old age. Methods Of the 972 participants belonging to the present sub-study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 117 (12.0%) had been evacuated abroad unaccompanied by their parents in childhood during World War II. Frailty was assessed at a mean age of 71 years according to Fried’s criteria. Results Thirteen frail men (4 separated and 9 non-separated) and 20 frail women (2 separated and 18 non-separated) were identified. Compared to the non-separated men, men who had been separated had an increased relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty (age-adjusted RRR 3.93, 95% CI 1.02, 15.11) that persisted after adjusting for several confounders. No associations were observed among women (RRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.13, 2.94). Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that ELS might extend its effects not just into adulthood but also into old age, and secondly, that men may be more vulnerable to the long-term effects of ELS.
  • Salminen, Marika; Viljanen, Anna; Eloranta, Sini; Viikari, Paula; Wuorela, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Korhonen, Päivi; Irjala, Kerttu; Lopponen, Minna; Viikari, Laura (2020)
    Background There is a lack of agreement about applicable instrument to screen frailty in clinical settings. Aims To analyze the association between frailty and mortality in Finnish community-dwelling older people. Methods This was a prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups. Frailty was assessed using FRAIL scale (FS) (n = 1152), Rockwood's frailty index (FI) (n = 1126), and PRISMA-7 (n = 1124). To analyze the association between frailty and mortality, Cox regression model was used. Results Prevalence of frailty varied from 2 to 24% based on the index used. In unadjusted models, frailty was associated with higher mortality according to FS (hazard ratio 7.96 [95% confidence interval 5.10-12.41] in 10-year follow-up, and 6.32 [4.17-9.57] in 18-year follow-up) and FI (5.97 [4.13-8.64], and 3.95 [3.16-4.94], respectively) in both follow-ups. Also being pre-frail was associated with higher mortality according to both indexes in both follow-ups (FS 2.19 [1.78-2.69], and 1.69 [1.46-1.96]; FI 1.81[1.25-2.62], and 1.31 [1.07-1.61], respectively). Associations persisted even after adjustments. Also according to PRISMA-7, a binary index (robust or frail), frailty was associated with higher mortality in 10- (4.41 [3.55-5.34]) and 18-year follow-ups (3.78 [3.19-4.49]). Discussion Frailty was associated with higher mortality risk according to all three frailty screening instrument used. Simple and fast frailty indexes, FS and PRISMA-7, seemed to be comparable with a multidimensional time-consuming FI in predicting mortality among community-dwelling Finnish older people. Conclusions FS and PRISMA-7 are applicable frailty screening instruments in clinical setting among community-dwelling Finnish older people.
  • Viljanen, Anna; Salminen, Marika; Irjala, Kerttu; Korhonen, Paivi; Wuorela, Maarit; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Vahlberg, Tero; Viitanen, Matti; Lopponen, Minna; Viikari, Laura (2021)
    Background In clinical practice, there is a need for an instrument to screen older people at risk of institutionalization. Aims To analyze the association of frailty, walking-ability and self-rated health (SRH) with institutionalization in Finnish community-dwelling older people. Methods In this prospective study with 10- and 18-year follow-ups, frailty was assessed using FRAIL Scale (FS) (n = 1087), Frailty Index (FI) (n = 1061) and PRISMA-7 (n = 1055). Walking ability was assessed as self-reported ability to walk 400 m (n = 1101). SRH was assessed by a question of general SRH (n = 1105). Cox regression model was used to analyze the association of the explanatory variables with institutionalization. Results The mean age of the participants was 73.0 (range 64.0-97.0) years. Prevalence of institutionalization was 40.8%. In unadjusted models, frailty was associated with a higher risk of institutionalization by FS in 10-year follow-up, and FI in both follow-ups. Associations by FI persisted after age- and gender-adjustments in both follow-ups. By PRISMA-7, frailty predicted a higher risk of institutionalization in both follow-ups. In unadjusted models, inability to walk 400 m predicted a higher risk of institutionalization in both follow-ups and after adjustments in 10-year follow-up. Poor SRH predicted a higher risk of institutionalization in unadjusted models in both follow-ups and after adjustments in 10-year follow-up. Discussion Simple self-reported items of walking ability and SRH seemed to be comparable with frailty indexes in predicting institutionalization among community-dwelling older people in 10-year follow-up. Conclusions In clinical practice, self-reported walking ability and SRH could be used to screen those at risk.
  • Alakare, Janne; Strandberg, Timo (2020)
  • Strandberg, Timo (2018)
  • Suominen, Anu; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2018)
    Lapsena kantasolusiirron yhteydessä annettu säde- tai solunsalpaajahoito vaurioittaa DNA:ta ja altistaa ennenaikaiselle vanhenemiselle. Vaarana ovat verisuonten ja sukurauhasten ennenaikainen vanheneminen sekä raihnaisuus aikuisiässä. Näiden potilaiden sydämen ja munasarjojen toimintaa, verenpainetta ja sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijöitä tulee seurata. Lapsena kantasolusiirron saaneita tulee aktiivisesti ohjata terveellisiin elämäntapoihin ja kuntoiluun.
  • Alakare, Janne; Kemp, Kirsi; Strandberg, Timo; Castren, Maaret; Tolonen, Jukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2022)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the association between low body temperature and mortality in frail older adults in the emergency department (ED). Methods Inclusion criteria were: >= 75 years of age, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 4-8, and temperature documented at ED admission. Patients were allocated to three groups by body temperature: low = 38.1. Odds ratios (OR) for 30-day and 90-day mortality were analysed. Results 1577 patients, 61.2% female, were included. Overall mortalities were 85/1577 (5.4%) and 144/1557 (9.2%) in the 30-day and 90-day follow-ups, respectively. The ORs for low body temperature were 3.03 (1.72-5.35; P < 0.001) and 2.71 (1.68-4.38; P < 0.001) for 30-day and 90-day mortality, respectively. This association remained when adjusted for age, CFS score and gender. Mortality of the high-temperature group did not differ significantly when compared to the normal-temperature group. Conclusions Low body temperature in frail older ED patients was associated with significantly higher 30- and 90-day mortality.
  • Koopman, Jacob J. E.; Kramer, Anneke; van Heemst, Diana; Asberg, Anders; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Collart, Frederic; Couchoud, Cecile G.; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Massy, Ziad A.; De Meester, Johan M. J.; Palsson, Runolfur; Steenkamp, Retha; Traynor, Jamie P.; Jager, Kitty J.; Putter, Hein (2016)
    Purpose: Although a population's senescence rate is classically measured as the increase in mortality rate with age on a logarithmic scale, it may be more accurately measured as the increase on a linear scale. Patients on dialysis, who suffer from accelerated senescence, exhibit a smaller increase in their mortality rate on a logarithmic scale, but a larger increase on a linear scale than patients with a functioning kidney transplant. However, this comparison may be biased by population heterogeneity. Methods: Follow-up data on 323,308 patients on dialysis and 91,679 patients with a functioning kidney transplant were derived from the ERA-EDTA Registry. We measured the increases in their mortality rates using Gompertz frailty models that allow individual variation in this increase. Results: According to these models, the senescence rate measured as the increase in mortality rate on a logarithmic scale was smaller in patients on dialysis, while the senescence rate measured as the increase on a linear scale was larger in patients on dialysis than patients with a functioning kidney transplant. Conclusions: Also when accounting for population heterogeneity, a population's senescence rate is more accurately measured as the increase in mortality rate on a linear scale than a logarithmic scale. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Podda, Mauro; Sylla, Patricia; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Adamina, Michel; Agnoletti, Vanni; Agresta, Ferdinando; Ansaloni, Luca; Arezzo, Alberto; Avenia, Nicola; Biffl, Walter; Biondi, Antonio; Bui, Simona; Campanile, Fabio C.; Carcoforo, Paolo; Commisso, Claudia; Crucitti, Antonio; De'Angelis, Nicola; De'Angelis, Gian Luigi; De Filippo, Massimo; De Simone, Belinda; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ercolani, Giorgio; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Gabrielli, Francesco; Gaiani, Federica; Guerrieri, Mario; Guttadauro, Angelo; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari K.; Loffredo, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Moore, Ernest E.; Ortenzi, Monica; Pata, Francesco; Parini, Dario; Pisanu, Adolfo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Polistena, Andrea; Puzziello, Alessandro; Rondelli, Fabio; Sartelli, Massimo; Smart, Neil; Sugrue, Michael E.; Tejedor, Patricia; Vacante, Marco; Coccolini, Federico; Davies, Justin; Catena, Fausto (2021)
    Background and aims Although rectal cancer is predominantly a disease of older patients, current guidelines do not incorporate optimal treatment recommendations for the elderly and address only partially the associated specific challenges encountered in this population. This results in a wide variation and disparity in delivering a standard of care to this subset of patients. As the burden of rectal cancer in the elderly population continues to increase, it is crucial to assess whether current recommendations on treatment strategies for the general population can be adopted for the older adults, with the same beneficial oncological and functional outcomes. This multidisciplinary experts' consensus aims to refine current rectal cancer-specific guidelines for the elderly population in order to help to maximize rectal cancer therapeutic strategies while minimizing adverse impacts on functional outcomes and quality of life for these patients. Methods The discussion among the steering group of clinical experts and methodologists from the societies' expert panel involved clinicians practicing in general surgery, colorectal surgery, surgical oncology, geriatric oncology, geriatrics, gastroenterologists, radiologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and endoscopists. Research topics and questions were formulated, revised, and unanimously approved by all experts in two subsequent modified Delphi rounds in December 2020-January 2021. The steering committee was divided into nine teams following the main research field of members. Each conducted their literature search and drafted statements and recommendations on their research question. Literature search has been updated up to 2020 and statements and recommendations have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. A modified Delphi methodology was implemented to reach agreement among the experts on all statements and recommendations. Conclusions The 2021 SICG-SIFIPAC-SICE-WSES consensus for the multidisciplinary management of elderly patients with rectal cancer aims to provide updated evidence-based statements and recommendations on each of the following topics: epidemiology, pre-intervention strategies, diagnosis and staging, neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgery, watch and wait strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy, synchronous liver metastases, and emergency presentation of rectal cancer.
  • Kemp, Kirsi; Alakare, Janne; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Strandberg, Timo; Tolonen, Jukka; Lehtonen, Lasse; Castrén, Maaret (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The aim of the emergency department (ED) triage is to recognize critically ill patients and to allocate resources. No strong evidence for accuracy of the current triage instruments, especially for the older adults, exists. We evaluated the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and a 3-level triage assessment as risk predictors for frail older adults visiting the ED. Methods This prospective, observational study was performed in a Finnish ED. The data were collected in a six-month period and included were ≥ 75-year-old residents with Clinical Frailty Scale score of at least four. We analyzed the predictive values of NEWS2 and the three-level triage scale for 30-day mortality, hospital admission, high dependency unit (HDU) and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, a count of 72-h and 30-day revisits, and ED length-of-stay (LOS). Results A total of 1711 ED visits were included. Median for age, CFS, LOS and NEWS2 were 85 years, 6 points, 6.2 h and 1 point, respectively. 30-day mortality was 96/1711. At triage, 69, 356 and 1278 of patients were assessed as red, yellow and green, respectively. There were 1103 admissions, of them 31 to an HDU facility, none to ICU. With NEWS2 and triage score, AUCs for 30-day mortality prediction were 0.70 (0.64–0.76) and 0.62 (0.56–0.68); for hospital admission prediction 0.62 (0.60–0.65) and 0.55 (0.52–0.56), and for HDU admission 0.72 (0.61–0.83) and 0.80 (0.70–0.90), respectively. The NEWS2 divided into risk groups of low, medium and high did not predict the ED LOS (p = 0.095). There was a difference in ED LOS between the red/yellow and as red/green patient groups (p < 0.001) but not between the yellow/green groups (p = 0.59). There were 48 and 351 revisits within 72 h and 30 days, respectively. With NEWS2 AUCs for 72-h and 30-day revisit prediction were 0.48 (95% CI 0.40–0.56) and 0.47 (0.44–0.51), respectively; with triage score 0.48 (0.40–0.56) and 0.49 (0.46–0.52), respectively. Conclusions The NEWS2 and a local 3-level triage scale are statistically significant, but poor in accuracy, in predicting 30-day mortality, and HDU admission but not ED LOS or revisit rates for frail older adults. NEWS2 also seems to predict hospital admission.
  • Kemp, Kirsi; Alakare, Janne; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Strandberg, Timo; Tolonen, Jukka; Lehtonen, Lasse; Castrén, Maaret (2020)
    Background The aim of the emergency department (ED) triage is to recognize critically ill patients and to allocate resources. No strong evidence for accuracy of the current triage instruments, especially for the older adults, exists. We evaluated the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and a 3-level triage assessment as risk predictors for frail older adults visiting the ED. Methods This prospective, observational study was performed in a Finnish ED. The data were collected in a six-month period and included were >= 75-year-old residents with Clinical Frailty Scale score of at least four. We analyzed the predictive values of NEWS2 and the three-level triage scale for 30-day mortality, hospital admission, high dependency unit (HDU) and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, a count of 72-h and 30-day revisits, and ED length-of-stay (LOS). Results A total of 1711 ED visits were included. Median for age, CFS, LOS and NEWS2 were 85 years, 6 points, 6.2 h and 1 point, respectively. 30-day mortality was 96/1711. At triage, 69, 356 and 1278 of patients were assessed as red, yellow and green, respectively. There were 1103 admissions, of them 31 to an HDU facility, none to ICU. With NEWS2 and triage score, AUCs for 30-day mortality prediction were 0.70 (0.64-0.76) and 0.62 (0.56-0.68); for hospital admission prediction 0.62 (0.60-0.65) and 0.55 (0.52-0.56), and for HDU admission 0.72 (0.61-0.83) and 0.80 (0.70-0.90), respectively. The NEWS2 divided into risk groups of low, medium and high did not predict the ED LOS (p = 0.095). There was a difference in ED LOS between the red/yellow and as red/green patient groups (p <0.001) but not between the yellow/green groups (p = 0.59). There were 48 and 351 revisits within 72 h and 30 days, respectively. With NEWS2 AUCs for 72-h and 30-day revisit prediction were 0.48 (95% CI 0.40-0.56) and 0.47 (0.44-0.51), respectively; with triage score 0.48 (0.40-0.56) and 0.49 (0.46-0.52), respectively. Conclusions The NEWS2 and a local 3-level triage scale are statistically significant, but poor in accuracy, in predicting 30-day mortality, and HDU admission but not ED LOS or revisit rates for frail older adults. NEWS2 also seems to predict hospital admission.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Ferrucci, Luigi; Vahtera, Jussi; Hoogendijk, Emiel O.; Huisman, Martijn; Pentti, Jaana; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Background: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome, but little is known about its development in the years preceding onset of the syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the progression of frailty and compare the trajectories of each frailty component prior to frailty onset. Methods: Repeat data were from two cohort studies: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 1440) with a 15-year follow-up and the InCHIANTI Study (n = 998) with a 9-year follow-up. Participants were classified as frail if they had > 3 frailty components (exhaustion, slowness, physical inactivity, weakness, and weight loss). Transitions between frailty components were examined with multistate modeling. Trajectories of frailty components were compared among persons who subsequently developed frailty to matched nonfrail persons by using mixed effects models. Results: The probabilities were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.36 for transitioning from 0 to 1 frailty component, from 1 component to 2 components, and from 2 components to 3-5 components (the frail state). The transition probability from frail to death was 0.13. Exhaustion separated frail and nonfrail groups already 9 years prior to onset of frailty (pooled risk ratio [RR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-2.24). Slowness (RR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.44-2.61), low activity (RR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.19-2.13), and weakness (RR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.76) separated frail and nonfrail groups 6 years prior to onset of frailty. The fifth frailty component, weight loss, separated frail and nonfrail groups only at the onset of frailty (RR = 3.36, 95% CI 2.76-4.08). Conclusions: Evidence from two cohort studies suggests that feelings of exhaustion tend to emerge early and weight loss near the onset of frailty syndrome.
  • Suikkanen, Sara; Soukkio, Paula; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Kääriä, Sanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Hupli, Markku (2019)
    Background Increasing the level of physical activity among persons with signs of frailty improves physical functioning. There is a lack of long-term supervised physical exercise intervention studies including a validated definition of frailty. Aims To present baseline characteristics of persons with signs of frailty participating in a randomized long-term home-based physical exercise trial (HIPFRA), and to study associations between the severity of frailty, functional independence and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Methods Three hundred persons, >= 65 years old and with signs of frailty (assessed by Fried ' s phenotype criteria) were recruited from South Karelia, Finland and randomized to a 12-month physiotherapist-supervised home-based physical exercise program (n = 150), and usual care (n = 150). Assessments at the participants' homes at baseline, and after 3, 6 and 12 months included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), HRQoL (15D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results Eligibility was screened among 520 persons; 300 met the inclusion criteria and were randomized. One person withdrew consent after randomization. A majority (75%) were women, 182 were pre-frail and 117 frail. The mean age was 82.5 (SD 6.3) years, SPPB 6.2 (2.6), FIM 108.8 (10.6) and MMSE 24.4 (3.1) points, with no significant differences between the study groups. Inverse associations between the severity of frailty vs. FIM scores and HRQoL (p <0.001 for both) were found. Conclusions Our participants showed marked physical frailty without major disabilities. The severity of frailty seems to be associated with impaired functional independence and HRQoL.
  • Strandberg, Timo E.; Lindström, Linda; Jyväkorpi, Satu; Urtamo, Annele; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Kivimäki, Mika (2021)
    Purpose Multimorbidity, prefrailty, and frailty are frequent in ageing populations, but their independent relationships to long-term prognosis in home-dwelling older people are not well recognised. Methods In the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS) men with high socioeconomic status (born 1919-1934, n = 3490) have been followed-up from midlife. In 2000, multimorbidity (>= 2 conditions), phenotypic prefrailty and frailty were determined in 1365 home-dwelling men with median age of 73 years). Disability was assessed as a possible confounder. 18-year mortality follow-up was established from registers and Cox regression used for analyses. Results Of the men, 433 (31.7%) were nonfrail and without multimorbidity at baseline (reference group), 500 (36.6%) and 82 (6.0%) men had prefrailty or frailty, respectively, without multimorbidity, 84 (6.2%) men had multimorbidity only, and 201 (14.7%) and 65 (4.8%) men had prefrailty or frailty together with multimorbidity. Only 30 (2.2%) and 86 (6.3%) showed signs of ADL or mobility disability. In the fully adjusted analyses (including ADL disability, mental and cognitive status) of 18-year mortality, frailty without multimorbidity (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.31) was associated with similar mortality risk than multimorbidity without frailty (1.55, 1.17-2.06). The presence of both frailty and multimorbidity indicated a strong mortality risk (2.93, 2.10-4.07). Conclusion Although multimorbidity is generally considered a substantial health problem, our long-term observational study emphasises that phenotypic frailty alone, independently of disability, may be associated with a similar risk, and a combination of multimorbidity and frailty is an especially strong predictor of mortality. Key summary pointsObjective Multimorbidity, phenotypic prefrailty and frailty are frequent in ageing populations Findings This long-term follow-up of home-dwelling older men reveals the relationship of phenotypic frailty to long-term prognosis, independently of the presence of significant chronic diseases and disability. Message Assessment of phenotypic frailty and already prefrailty provides extra clinical value for the assessment of prognosis in old age.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.
  • Pietiläinen, Laura; Hästbacka, Johanna; Bäcklund, Minna; Parviainen, Ilkka; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti (2018)
    We assessed the association between the premorbid functional status (PFS) and 1-year mortality and functional status of very old intensive care patients. Using a nationwide quality registry, we retrieved data on patients treated in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during the period May 2012aEuro'April 2013. Of 16,389 patients, 1827 (11.1%) were very old (aged 80 years or older). We defined a person with good functional status as someone independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs without assistance; a person with poor functional status was defined as needing assistance for ADL or being unable to climb stairs. We adjusted for severity of illness and calculated the impact of PFS. Overall, hospital mortality was 21.3% and 1-year mortality was 38.2%. For emergency patients (73.5% of all), hospital mortality was 28% and 1-year mortality was 48%. The functional status at 1 year was comparable to the PFS in 78% of the survivors. PFS was poor for 43.3% of the patients. A poor PFS predicted an increased risk of in-hospital death, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.10), and of 1-year mortality, OR 2.18 (1.67-2.85). PFS data significantly improved the prediction of 1-year mortality. Of very old ICU patients, 62% were alive 1 year after ICU admission and 78% of the survivors had a functional status comparable to the premorbid situation. A poor PFS doubled the odds of death within a year. Knowledge of PFS improved the prediction of 1-year mortality.