Browsing by Subject "Fukushima"

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  • Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Vira, Julius; Paatero, Jussi (2020)
    The activity concentrations of Pu-238,Pu-239,Pu-240 and Am-241 (for determining its mother nuclide, Pu-241) as well as activity ratios of Pu-238/Pu239+240, Pu-241/Pu239+240 and Pu239+240/Cs-137 and the mass ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 were determined from air filter samples collected in Rovaniemi (Finnish Lapland) in 1965 to 2011. The origin of plutonium in surface air was assessed based on these data from long time series. The most important Pu sources in the surface air of Rovaniemi were atmospheric nuclear-weapon testing in the 1950s and 1960s, later nuclear tests in 1973-1980 and the SNAP-9A satellite accident in 1964, whereas the influence from the 1986 Chernobyl accident was only minor. Contrary to the alpha-emitting Pu isotopes, Pu-241 from the Fukushima accident in 2011 was detected in Rovaniemi. Dispersion modeling results with the SILAM (System for Integrated modeLling of Atmospheric composition) model indicate that Pu contamination in northern Finland due to hypothetical reactor accidents would be negligible in the case of a floating reactor in the Shtokman natural gas field and relatively low in the case of an intended nuclear power plant in western Finland.
  • Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Thölix, Laura E; Kivi, Rigel; Paatero, Jussi (2019)
    Radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr and total beta activity were determined from air filters collected in Rovaniemi (Finnish Lapland) in1965–2011. Nuclear contamination sources present in the air filter samples as well as temporal changes in radionuclide concentrations were examined. Ozone observations and meteorological modeling were used in combination with radionuclide analyses to study the reasons behind the observed seasonal concentration variation. In general, the magnitude and variation in activity concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr and total beta activity in the surface air of Rovaniemi in 1965–2011 corresponded well with values from other countries. However, the obtained results prove in practice that hardly any refractory or intermediate radionuclides from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor fuel were introduced to Finnish Lapland. The main source of 137Cs and 90Sr and total beta activity in the surface air of Rovaniemi in 1965–2011 has been intense atmospheric nuclear weapon testing in 1950s–1960s and later tests performed in 1965–1980, as well as leakages from underground nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk, 1966, and Novaya Zemlya, 1987. For 137Cs and total beta activity, the influence of Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents was detected.
  • Lehto, Jukka; Koivula, Risto; Leinonen, Heikki; Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto (2019)
    This paper describes the processes used at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, Japan, to purify the waste effluents generated in the cooling of damaged reactors. These include primary cesium removal with the Kurion zeolite system and the SARRY system utilizing silicotitanate to remove radiocesium from water recirculated to reactors for cooling. Another process is the ALPS system to purify the retentates of the reverse osmosis plant to further purify the water from radionuclides after primary cesium separation. In ALPS, a major role is played by the transition metal hexacyanoferrate product CsTreat and sodium titanate SrTreat in the removal of radiocesium and radiostrontium, respectively. The performance of these four exchangers (zeolite, silicotitanate, hexacyanoferrate, and sodium titanate) is critically analyzed with respect to processing capacities and the decontamination factors obtained in the processes. Furthermore, general information on preparation, structure and ion exchange of these ion-exchanger categories is given with additional information on their use in nuclear waste effluent treatment processes. Finally, the importance of selectivity and associated factors are discussed.