Browsing by Subject "GALAXY CLUSTERS"

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  • Ge, Chong; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Sun, Ming; Yu, Heng; Rudnick, Lawrence; Eilek, Jean; Owen, Frazer; Dasadia, Sarthak; Rossetti, Mariachiara; Markevitch, Maxim; Clarke, Tracy E.; Jones, Thomas W.; Ghizzardi, Simona; Venturi, Tiziana; Finoguenov, Alexis; Eckert, Dominique (2020)
    We present the results of deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a complex merging galaxy cluster Abell 2256 (A2256) that hosts a spectacular radio relic (RR). The temperature and metallicity maps show clear evidence of a merger between the western subcluster (SC) and the primary cluster (PC). We detect five X-ray surface brightness edges. Three of them near the cluster centre are cold fronts (CFs): CF1 is associated with the infalling SC; CF2 is located in the east of the PC; and CF3 is located to the west of the PC core. The other two edges at cluster outskirts are shock fronts (SFs): SF1 near the RR in the NW has Mach numbers derived from the temperature and the density jumps, respectively, of M-T = 1.62 +/- 0.12 and M-rho = 1.23 +/- 0.06; SF2 in the SE has M-T = 1.54 +/- 0.05 and M-rho = 1.16 +/- 0.13. In the region of the RR, there is no evidence for the correlation between X-ray and radio substructures, from which we estimate an upper limit for the inverse-Compton emission, and therefore set a lower limit on the magnetic field (similar to 450 kpc from PC centre) of B > 1.0 mu G for a single power-law electron spectrum or B > 0.4 mu G for a broken power-law electron spectrum. We propose a merger scenario including a PC, an SC, and a group. Our merger scenario accounts for the X-ray edges, diffuse radio features, and galaxy kinematics, as well as projection effects.
  • Lindholm, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Comparat, J.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Rykoff, E.; Clerc, N.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Chitham, J. Ider; Padilla, N. (2021)
  • Kiiveri, K.; Gruen, D.; Finoguenov, A.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Rykoff, E.; Miller, L.; Hagstotz, S.; Dupke, R.; Henry, J. Patrick; Kneib, J-P; Gozaliasl, G.; Kirkpatrick , C. C.; Cibirka, N.; Clerc, N.; Costanzi, M.; Cypriano, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Shan, H.; Spinelli, P.; Valiviita, J.; Weller, J. (2021)
    The COnstrain Dark Energy with X-ray clusters (CODEX) sample contains the largest flux limited sample of X-ray clusters at 0.35 <z <0.65. It was selected from ROSAT data in the 10 000 square degrees of overlap with BOSS, mapping a total number of 2770 high-z galaxy clusters. We present here the full results of the CFHT CODEX programme on cluster mass measurement, including a reanalysis of CFHTLS Wide data, with 25 individual lensing-constrained cluster masses. We employ LENSFIT shape measurement and perform a conservative colour-space selection and weighting of background galaxies. Using the combination of shape noise and an analytic covariance for intrinsic variations of cluster profiles at fixed mass due to large-scale structure, miscentring, and variations in concentration and ellipticity, we determine the likelihood of the observed shear signal as a function of true mass for each cluster. We combine 25 individual cluster mass likelihoods in a Bayesian hierarchical scheme with the inclusion of optical and X-ray selection functions to derive constraints on the slope alpha, normalization beta, and scatter sigma(ln lambda vertical bar mu) of our richness-mass scaling relation model in log-space: <In lambda vertical bar mu > = alpha mu + beta, with mu = ln (M-200c/M-piv), and M-piv = 10(14.81)M(circle dot). We find a slope alpha = 0.49(-0.15)(+0.20) , normalization exp(beta) = 84.0(-14.8)(+9.2) , and sigma(ln lambda vertical bar mu) = 0.17(-0.09)(+0.13) using CFHT richness estimates. In comparison to other weak lensing richness-mass relations, we find the normalization of the richness statistically agreeing with the normalization of other scaling relations from a broad redshift range (0.0 <z <0.65) and with different cluster selection (X-ray, Sunyaev-Zeldovich, and optical).
  • Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Clerc, N.; Nandra, K.; Ridl, J.; Dennerl, K.; Ramos-Ceja, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Reiprich, T. H. (2017)
    Context. The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. Aims. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. Methods. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. Results. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses, as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. Conclusions. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.
  • CORE Collaboration; Challinor, A.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    Lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is now a well-developed probe of the clustering of the large-scale mass distribution over a broad range of redshifts. By exploiting the non-Gaussian imprints of lensing in the polarization of the CMB, the CORE mission will allow production of a clean map of the lensing deflections over nearly the full-sky. The number of high-SAN modes in this map will exceed current CMB lensing maps by a factor of 40, and the measurement will be sample-variance limited on all scales where linear theory is valid. Here, we summarise this mission product and discuss the science that will follow from its power spectrum and the cross-correlation with other clustering data. For example, the summed mass of neutrinos will be determined to an accuracy of 17 meV combining CORE lensing and CMB two-point information with contemporaneous measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies, three times smaller than the minimum total mass allowed by neutrino oscillation measurements. Lensing has applications across many other science goals of CORE, including the search for B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves. Here, lens-induced B-modes will dominate over instrument noise, limiting constraints on the power spectrum amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. With lensing reconstructed by CORE, one can "delens" the observed polarization internally, reducing the lensing B-mode power by 60 %. This can be improved to 70 % by combining lensing and measurements of the cosmic infrared background from CORE, leading to an improvement of a factor of 2.5 in the error on the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves compared to no delensing (in the null hypothesis of no primordial B-modes). Lensing measurements from CORE will allow calibration of the halo masses of the tens of thousands of galaxy clusters that it will find, with constraints dominated by the clean polarization-based estimators. The 19 frequency channels proposed for CORE will allow accurate removal of Galactic emission from CMB maps. We present initial findings that show that residual Galactic foreground contamination will not be a significant source of bias for lensing power spectrum measurements with CORE.
  • Deshev, Boris; Haines, Christopher; Hwang, Ho Seong; Finoguenov, Alexis; Taylor, Rhys; Orlitova, Ivana; Einasto, Maret; Ziegler, Bodo (2020)
    Aims. We qualitatively assess and map the relative contribution of pre-processing and cluster related processes to the build-up of A963, a massive cluster at z=0.2 showing an unusually high fraction of star forming galaxies in its interior.Methods. We use Voronoi binning of positions of cluster members on the plane of the sky in order to map the 2D variations of galaxy properties in the centre and infall region of A963. We map four galaxy parameters (fraction of star forming galaxies, specific star formation rate, HI deficiency and age of the stellar population) based on full SED fitting, 21 cm imaging and optical spectroscopy.Results. We find an extended region dominated by passive galaxies along a north-south axis crossing the cluster centre, possibly associated with known filaments of the large-scale structure. There are signs that the passive galaxies in this region were quenched long before their arrival in the vicinity of the cluster. Contrary to that, to the east and west of the cluster centre lie regions of recent accretion dominated by gas rich, actively star forming galaxies not associated with any substructure or filament. The few passive galaxies in this region appear to be recently quenched, and some gas rich galaxies show signs of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. We report the first tentative observations at 21 cm of ongoing ram-pressure stripping at z=0.2, as well as observed inflow of low-entropy gas into the cluster along filaments of the large-scale structure.Conclusions. The observed galaxy content of A963 is a result of strongly anisotropic accretion of galaxies with different properties. Gas rich, star forming galaxies are being accreted from the east and west of the cluster and these galaxies are being quenched at r<R-200, likely by ram-pressure stripping. The bulk of the accretion onto the cluster, containing multiple groups, happens along the north-south axis and brings mostly passive galaxies, likely quenched before entering A963.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Erfanianfar, G.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2019)
    We use galaxy dynamical information to calibrate the richness-mass scaling relation of a sample of 428 galaxy clusters that are members of the CODEX sample with redshifts up to z similar to 0.7. These clusters were X-ray selected using the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and then cross-matched to associated systems in the redMaPPer (the red sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation) catalogue from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The spectroscopic sample we analyse was obtained in the SPIDERS program and contains similar to 7800 red member galaxies. Adopting NFW mass and galaxy density profiles and a broad range of orbital anisotropy profiles, we use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses. Modelling the scaling relation as lambda proportional to A(lambda) M-200c(B lambda) (1 + z)()lambda), we find the parameter constraints A(lambda) = 38.6(-4.1)(+3.1) +/- 3.9, B-lambda = 0.99(-0.07)(+0.06) +/- 0.04, and gamma(lambda) = -1.13(-0.34)(+0.32) +/- 0.49, where we present systematic uncertainties as a second component. We find good agreement with previously published mass trends with the exception of those from stacked weak lensing analyses. We note that although the lensing analyses failed to account for the Eddington bias, this is not enough to explain the differences. We suggest that differences in the levels of contamination between pure redMaPPer and RASS + redMaPPer samples could well contribute to these differences. The redshift trend we measure is more negative than but statistically consistent with previous results. We suggest that our measured redshift trend reflects a change in the cluster galaxy red sequence (RS) fraction with redshift, noting that the trend we measure is consistent with but somewhat stronger than an independently measured redshift trend in the RS fraction. We also examine the impact of a plausible model of correlated scatter in X-ray luminosity and optical richness, showing it has negligible impact on our results.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Klein, M.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2020)
    We perform the calibration of the X-ray luminosity-mass scaling relation on a sample of 344 CODEX clusters with z <0.66 using the dynamics of their member galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up measurements have been obtained from the SPIDERS survey, leading to a sample of 6658 red member galaxies. We use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses, assuming an NFW mass profile and analysing a broad range of anisotropy profiles. With a scaling relation of the form L-X proportional to A(X)M(200c)(BX) E(z)(2)(1 + z)(gamma x), we find best-fitting parameters A(X) = 0.62(-0.06)(+0.05) (+/- 0.06) x 10(44) erg s(-)(1), B-X = 2.35(-0.18)(+0.21)(+/- 0.09), gamma(X) = -2.77(-1.05)(+1.06)(+/- 0.79), where we include systematic uncertainties in parentheses and for a pivot mass and redshift of 3 x 10(14) M-circle dot and 0.16, respectively. We compare our constraints with previous results, and we combine our sample with the SPT SZE-selected cluster subsample observed with XMM-Newton extending the validity of our results to a wider range of redshifts and cluster masses.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2015)
    We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (similar to 80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Y-z mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag for the remaining 280 candidates. This flag was derived from a novel artificial neural-network classification of the SZ signal. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme file with further information on the Planck SZ detections.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Hattori, Shiho; Ota, Naomi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Finoguenov, Alexis (2017)
    We present the results from Suzaku satellite observations of the surrounding region of a galaxy cluster, A 2744, at z = 0.3. To search for oxygen emission lines from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), we analyzed X-ray spectra from two northeastern regions 2.2-3.3 and 3.3-4.4 Mpc from the center of the cluster, which offers the first test on the presence of a WHIM near the typical accretion shock radius (similar to 2 r(200)) predicted by hydrodynamical simulations. For the 2.2-3.3 Mpc region, the spectral fit significantly (99.2% significance) improved when we included O-VII and O-VIII lines in the spectralmodel. A comparable WHIM surface brightness was obtained in the 3.3-4.4 Mpc region and the redshift of the O-VIII line is consistent with z=0.3 with in errors. The present results support that the observed soft X-ray emission originated from the WHIM. However, considering both statistical and systematic uncertainties, OVIII detection in the northeast regions was marginal. The surface brightnesses of the O-VIII line in 10(-7) photons cm(-2) s(-1) arcmin(-2) for the 2.2-3.3 and 3.3-4.4 Mpc regions were measured to be 2.7 +/- 1.0 and 2.1 +/- 1.2, giving upper limits on the baryon overdensity of delta = 319(<442) and 284(<446), respectively. This is comparable with previous observations of cluster outskirts and their theoretical predictions. The future prospect for WHIM detection using the Athena X-IFU micro-calorimeter is briefly discussed here. In addition, we also derived the intracluster medium temperature distribution of A 2744 to detect a clear discontinuity at the location of the radio relic. This suggests that the cluster has undergone strong shock heating by mass accretion along the filament.
  • Phriksee, Anirut; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Shan, HuanYuan; Finoguenov, Alexis; Komonjinda, Siramas; Wannawichian, Suwicha; Sawangwit, Utane (2020)
    We present the weak-lensing analysis of 279 CODEX clusters using imaging data from 4200 deg(2) of the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) Data Release 3. The cluster sample results from a joint selection in X-ray, optical richness in the range 20 proportional to M-0 (lambda/40)(F lambda). By measuring the CODEX cluster sample as an individual cluster, we obtain the best-fitting values, M-0 = 3.24(-0.27)(+0.29) x 10(14)M(circle dot), and F-lambda = 1.00(-0.22)(+0.22) for the richness scaling index, consistent with a power-law relation. Moreover, we separate the cluster sample into three richness groups; lambda = 20-30, 30-50, and 50-110, and measure the stacked excess surface mass density profile in each group. The results show that both methods are consistent. In addition, we find an excellent agreement between our weak lensing based scaling relation and the relation obtained with dynamical masses estimated from cluster member velocity dispersions measured by the SDSS-IV/SPIDERS team. This suggests that the cluster dynamical equilibrium assumption involved in the dynamical mass estimates is statistically robust for a large sample of clusters.