Browsing by Subject "GAMBLERS"

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  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Latvala, Tiina; Castren, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne (2018)
    Aims: This study aims to explore the associations between final compulsory school grades and gambling and their relation to substance use and perceived mental health among people aged 18-29 in Finland (N = 831). Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data, weighted on the basis of age, gender and region of residence, were collected in 2015. The data were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables, risky alcohol use, daily smoking, and perceived mental health. Results: Weekly gambling and at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) were more common among men. Weekly gambling was linked to smoking and risky alcohol use among men and smoking among women. Additionally, ARPG was linked to risky alcohol use among men. ARPG was associated with moderate/poor mental health among men and women, but this was not the case with weekly gambling. Among men, low and average final school grades at age 16 were associated with weekly gambling later in life, even when adjusting for other variables. Among women, low and average final school grades were not associated with weekly gambling when adjusting for substance use. Lower final school grades were associated with ARPG among women but not among men when all potential confounders were adjusted for. Conclusions: Adolescents with lower final school grades are more likely to gamble weekly later in life. Lower final school grades are also linked with ARPG among women. It is important therefore for schools to have clear policies on gambling and to implement early prevention programmes.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Hellman, Matilda; Latvala, Tiina; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: This report is an overview of results from the 2016 Finnish Gambling Harms Survey covering the population and clinical perspectives. It summarises the main findings on gambling participation, gambling habits, gambling-related harm, and opinions on gambling advertising. Methods: The population sample (n = 7186) was collected from three regions and the clinical sample (n = 119) in a gambling help clinic. Results: Frequency of gambling in the population sample was characteristically once a week, while in the clinical sample it was daily. Men gambled more often than women only in the population sample. The most common gambling environments were kiosks, grocery stores or supermarkets, and home. The most typical gambling-related harms were financial or emotional/psychological harms; the amount of experienced harm was considerable among the clinical sample. The clinical sample also perceived gambling advertising as obtrusive and as a driving force for gambling. Conclusions: The results of the clinical sample imply that when gambling gets out of hand, the distinctions between gamblers' habits diminish and become more streamlined, focusing on gambling per se - doing it often, and in greater varieties (different game types). There is a heightened need to monitor gambling and gambling-related harm at the population level, especially amongst heavy consumers, in order to understand what type of external factors pertaining to policy and governance may contribute to the shift from recreational to problem gambling.
  • Castren, Sari; Salonen, Anne H.; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli; Simojoki, Kaarlo (2015)
  • Kalle, Lind; Johanna, Järvinen-Tassopoulos (2019)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the prevalence of potential problem gambling among Finnish prisoners; the associations between problem gambling and demographics, substance use and crime-related factors; and problem gamblers’ support preferences.Design/methodology/approach Prisoners (n=96) from two Finnish prisons were recruited between December 2017 and January 2018. The estimated response rate was 31 percent. Gambling problems were measured using the Brief Biosocial Gambling Screen. The participants were asked to report their gambling both for one year prior to their incarceration and for the past year. The independent variables were demographics (age, gender and marital status), substance use (alcohol, smoking and narcotics) and crime-related factors (crime type, prison type and previous sentence). Statistical significance (p) was determined using Fischer’s exact test.Findings Past-year pre-conviction problem gambling prevalence was 16.3 percent and past-year prevalence 15 percent. Age, gender, smoking, alcohol or illicit drug use were not associated with past-year problem gambling before sentencing. One-third of the prisoners (33.3 percent) who were sentenced for a property crime, financial crime or robbery were problem gamblers. One-quarter (24 percent) of all participants showed an interest in receiving support by identifying one or more support preferences. The most preferred type of support was group support in its all forms.Research limitations/implications It is recommended that correctional institutions undertake systematic screening for potential problem gambling, and implement tailored intervention programs for inmates with gambling problems.Originality/value This study provides a deeper understanding of problem gambling in prisons. Problem gambling is associated with crime and also seems to be linked with serving a previous sentence. Early detection and tailored interventions for problem gambling may help to reduce reoffending rates.
  • Sulkunen, Pekka; Babor, Thomas F.; Cisneros-Örnberg, Jenny; Egerer, Michael; Hellman, Matilda; Livingstone, Charles; Marionneau, Virve; Nikkinen, Janne; Orford, Jim; Room, Robin; Rossow, Ingeborg (2021)
    The gambling industry has grown into a global business in the 21st century. This has created the need for a new emphasis on problem prevention. This article highlights the core themes of the book Setting Limits: Gambling, Science and Public Policy, taking a broad view of the consequences of gambling for society as a burden on health, well-being and equality. The book covers the extent of gambling and gambling-related problems in different societies and presents a critical review of research on industry practices, policy objectives and preventive approaches, including services to people suffering from gambling and its consequences. It discusses the developments in game characteristics and gambling environments and provides evidence on how regulation can affect those. Effective measures to minimize gambling harm exist and many are well supported by scientific evidence. They include restrictions on general availability as well as selective measures to prevent gamblers from overspending. The revenue generated from gambling for the industry, governments, and providers of public services funded from gambling returns presents an obstacle to developing policies to implement harm-reduction measures. A public interest approach must weigh these interests against the suffering and losses of the victims of gambling.
  • Vuorinen, Ilkka; Oksanen, Atte; Savolainen, Iina; Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela (2021)
    Background and aims: Loneliness and a low sense of mastery are associated with excessive gambling, but the underlying processes of these relationships remain unstudied. Because psychological distress can increase vulnerability to excessive gambling, we investigated its mediating role in these relationships among young people. To meet the need for cross-country research, we also observed how these relationships occur in four countries with different cultures. Design, setting, and participants: Demographically balanced cross-sectional survey data were collected from 15-25-year-olds in Finland (n = 1200; 50% male), the United States (n = 1212; 49.8% male), South Korea (n = 1192; 49.6% male), and Spain (n = 1212; 51.2% male). Measurements: Excessive gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, psychological distress was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, loneliness was measured with the three-item Loneliness Scale, and low sense of mastery was assessed with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Associations were examined first using zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses with excessive gambling as the outcome. In addition, path analyses were performed to study how loneliness and low sense of mastery relate to excessive gambling, with psychological distress as the mediating variable. Findings: Loneliness and low sense of mastery were associated indirectly with excessive gambling via psychological distress in all country samples. Low sense of mastery was also directly associated with excessive gambling. There was a direct association between loneliness and excessive gambling only in samples from South Korea and Spain. Conclusions: Psychological distress is an important factor in understanding how loneliness and sense of mastery relate to gambling.
  • Castrén, Sari; Heiskanen, Maria; Salonen, Anne H (2018)
    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate trends in past-year gambling participation and gambling severity among Finnish men and women from 2007 to 2015. Design Cross-sectional population surveys from years 2007, 2011 and 2015. Setting Data were drawn from the population register and collected using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Participants Representative random samples of Finns aged 15-74 were drawn in the study in 2007 (n=5008), 2011 (n=4484) and 2015 (n=4515) with response rates of 58%, 40% and 62%, respectively. Outcome measures The outcome measures were gambling versatility, type of games, gambling intensity and gambling severity. Significance (p) between time points was determined using (2) tests. All temporal comparisons between 2007-2011, 2011-2015 and 2007-2015 were performed separately for all respondents aged 15-74 and for women and men. Results Gambling participation overall showed a rising trend (6.6 percentage points, 95%CI 4.9 to 8.3) from 2007 to 2015. In 2007-2011 women's gambling participation increased more (7.8 percentage points, 95%CI 5.5 to 10.4) than men's (5.4 percentage points, 95%CI 3.2 to 7.6). The most popular game types since 2007 have been lottery games, scratch cards and electronic gaming machines (EGMs). EGM gambling, on the other hand, has decreased since 2007. Online gambling has increased significantly from 2007 to 2015 in both genders. Men's at-risk gambling decreased from 2007 to 2011, while women's at-risk gambling and problem gambling increased from 2011 to 2015. Conclusions Women's increasing gambling participation is causing gender differences in gambling behaviour to narrow. The article concludes with a discussion of the need for gender-specific interventions aimed at preventing gambling-related harm and ultimately at protecting the most vulnerable groups.