Browsing by Subject "GAP"

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  • Obst, Matthias; Exter, Katrina; Allcock, A. Louise; Arvanitidis, Christos; Axberg, Alizz; Bustamante, Maria; Cancio, Ibon; Carreira-Flores, Diego; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Chrismas, Nathan; Clark, Melody S.; Comtet, Thierry; Dailianis, Thanos; Davies, Neil; Deneudt, Klaas; de Cerio, Oihane Diaz; Fortic, Ana; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Hablutzel, Pascal; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Kotoulas, Georgios; Lasota, Rafal; Leite, Barbara R.; Loisel, Stephane; Leveque, Laurent; Levy, Liraz; Malachowicz, Magdalena; Mavria, Borut; Meyer, Christopher; Mortelmans, Jonas; Norkko, Joanna; Pade, Nicolas; Power, Anne Marie; Ramsak, Andreja; Reiss, Henning; Solbakken, Jostein; Stoehr, Peter A.; Sundberg, Per; Thyrring, Jakob; Troncoso, Jesus S.; Viard, Frederique; Wenne, Roman; Yperifanou, Eleni Loanna; Zbawicka, Malgorzata; Pavloudi, Christina (2020)
    Marine hard-bottom communities are undergoing severe change under the influence of multiple drivers, notably climate change, extraction of natural resources, pollution and eutrophication, habitat degradation, and invasive species. Monitoring marine biodiversity in such habitats is, however, challenging as it typically involves expensive, non-standardized, and often destructive sampling methods that limit its scalability. Differences in monitoring approaches furthermore hinders inter-comparison among monitoring programs. Here, we announce a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) consisting of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) with the aim to assess the status and changes in benthic fauna with genomic-based methods, notably DNA metabarcoding, in combination with image-based identifications. This article presents the results of a 30-month pilot phase in which we established an operational and geographically expansive ARMS-MBON. The network currently consists of 20 observatories distributed across European coastal waters and the polar regions, in which 134 ARMS have been deployed to date. Sampling takes place annually, either as short-term deployments during the summer or as long-term deployments starting in spring. The pilot phase was used to establish a common set of standards for field sampling, genetic analysis, data management, and legal compliance, which are presented here. We also tested the potential of ARMS for combining genetic and image-based identification methods in comparative studies of benthic diversity, as well as for detecting non-indigenous species. Results show that ARMS are suitable for monitoring hard-bottom environments as they provide genetic data that can be continuously enriched, re-analyzed, and integrated with conventional data to document benthic community composition and detect non-indigenous species. Finally, we provide guidelines to expand the network and present a sustainability plan as part of the European Marine Biological Resource Centre (www.embrc.eu).
  • Toijala, H.; Eimre, K.; Kyritsakis, A.; Zadin, Vahur; Djurabekova, F. (2019)
    In this work we combine density functional theory and quantum transport calculations to study the influence of atomic-scale defects on the work function and field emission characteristics of metal surfaces. We develop a general methodology for the calculation of the field emitted current density from nanofeatured surfaces, which is then used to study specific defects on a Cu(111) surface. Our results show that the inclusion of a defect can significantly locally enhance the field emitted current density. However, this increase is attributed solely to the decrease of the work function due to the defect, with the effective field enhancement being minute. Finally, the Fowler-Nordheim equation is found to be valid when the modified value for the work function is used, with only an approximately constant factor separating the computed currents from those predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim equation.
  • Pajunoja, Aki; Lambe, Andrew T.; Hakala, Jani; Rastak, Narges; Cummings, Molly J.; Brogan, James F.; Hao, Liqing; Paramonov, Mikhail; Hong, Juan; Prisle, Nonne L.; Malila, Jussi; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Laaksonen, Ari; Kulmala, Markku; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B.; Donahue, Neil M.; Riipinen, Ilona; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Petaja, Tuukka; Virtanen, Annele (2015)
    Aerosol climate effects are intimately tied to interactions with water. Here we combine hygroscopicity measurements with direct observations about the phase of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles to show that water uptake by slightly oxygenated SOA is an adsorption-dominated process under subsaturated conditions, where low solubility inhibits water uptake until the humidity is high enough for dissolution to occur. This reconciles reported discrepancies in previous hygroscopicity closure studies. We demonstrate that the difference in SOA hygroscopic behavior in subsaturated and supersaturated conditions can lead to an effect up to about 30% in the direct aerosol forcinghighlighting the need to implement correct descriptions of these processes in atmospheric models. Obtaining closure across the water saturation point is therefore a critical issue for accurate climate modeling.
  • Ueda, Riyo; Kaga, Yoshimi; Kita, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Eiji; Okada, Takashi; Inagaki, Masumi (2021)
    Background Poor reading ability is one of the common causes of low academic performance. In previous studies, children with dyslexia were found to demonstrate poor academic achievement due to poor reading ability. However, the relationship between academic achievement and reading ability in children with a borderline full-scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) is unknown. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of children with borderline FSIQ and poor reading ability, and differentiate these characteristics from those of children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability. Methods A total of 126 children (aged 6-15 years) identified as having low academic performance were enrolled. The reading ability of children was assessed through their performance on the hiragana (Japanese syllabary) reading task, while their reading and writing achievement was assessed through their reading and writing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Children were categorized into two groups based on their FSIQ score (FSIQ > 85 and 85 >= FSIQ >= 70). Reading ability in children was evaluated by referring to the linear relationship between FSIQ and the standard deviation value of reading tasks in typically developing children. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine clinical characteristics between higher and lower FSIQ groups. Associations between reading and writing achievement, reading ability, and ages of children were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients for the higher and lower FSIQ groups. Results Poorer reading and writing achievement was associated with poorer reading ability in the higher FSIQ group. Conversely, poorer reading and writing achievement and poor reading ability were associated with older age in the lower FSIQ group. Conclusions Poor reading and writing achievement were associated with older age, not with poor reading ability in the lower FSIQ group. Children with lower FSIQ need appropriate educational interventions based on independent assessments to further their academic achievement and reading ability. Moreover, they need more frequent evaluations of their academic achievement than do children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability since they are more likely to be at a lower academic achievement level at an older age.
  • Karhunmaa, Kamilla (2020)
    The linear model of science-policy interaction presents scientific knowledge as a necessary and straightforward requirement for rational decision-making. While the practices related to the linear model have been criticized by science policy actors and research funders, who promote more participatory arrangements, the linear model persists in both research policy and practice. This study investigates why and in which form the linear model continues to exist. I focus on the "professor group on energy policy", a voluntary and bottom-up science-policy initiative active in Finnish energy policy debates during 2013-2017. The analysis is based on interviews, reports, news articles and observations. I assess both the engagement practices of the group and how they are justified and evaluated. The study demonstrates the prevalence of the linear model as a repertoire that different actors employ to order science and policy. The results point to the need to critically assess the context, politics and expectations related to science-policy interaction.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Bock, Anna; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Girardello, Marco; Valkama, Jari (2018)
    Climate change is triggering adaptation by people and wildlife. The speed and magnitude of these responses may disrupt ecological equilibria and potentially cause further biodiversity losses, but this has rarely been studied. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes may be particularly negatively affected by human adaptations to climate change. This could be, for example, the case of ground-nesting farmland birds, a group of highly vulnerable species that may be impacted by shifts in the timing of mechanical farming operations in response to climate change. Here we aim to explore whether trends in phenology of breeding ground-nesting birds differ from those of farming practices, and whether differences lead to the emergence of phenological mistiming with detrimental consequences to the birds. To achieve our objective, we tan linear mixed effects models using a 38 year dataset on onset of farming practices (i.e. sowing dates) and laying date of two endangered ground-nesting farmland birds (Northern lapwing and Eurasian curlew) in Finland. We found that timing of farming practices advanced slower than birds nesting phenology, with birds progressively starting nesting before fields are sown. These nests are at high risk of destruction from incoming sowing operations. The results highlight the importance of considering human adaptation responses, in addition to those of wildlife, for implementing species conservation in managed landscapes under climate change.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Sutherland, William J. (2017)
    In conservation, as in most other subjects, there is a division of expenditure into problem identification, solution testing, and practice. However, research concentrates on problem identification rather than solution testing. We calculate the return on the investment of research (a PhD thesis) examining the effectiveness of conservation interventions for birds of prey in three European countries. We show that the economic return from investing in a PhD thesis could be substantial, in the order of hundreds of thousands euros over 10 years or a return on investment of between 292% and 326% over that period. We derived the values of return on investment by first setting a common biological target (the total number of raptor fledglings produced per year). We then compared overall costs in achieving such target via the wide implementation of the results from the thesis (i.e., allocating resources to the most effective intervention) versus a business as usual scenario. We identify other theses that also show considerable benefits in improving effectiveness. We suggest that further research examining effectiveness would be cost-effective in improving practice.
  • Sadeghi, M.; Nilsson, K. F.; Larzon, T.; Pirouzram, A.; Toivola, A.; Skoog, P.; Idoguchi, K.; Kon, Y.; Ishida, T.; Matsumara, Y.; Matsumoto, J.; Reva, V.; Maszkowski, M.; Bersztel, A.; Caragounis, E.; Falkenberg, M.; Handolin, L.; Kessel, B.; Hebron, D.; Coccolini, F.; Ansaloni, L.; Madurska, M. J.; Morrison, J. J.; Horer, T. M. (2018)
    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique for temporary stabilization of patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage. This technique has been increasingly used worldwide during the past decade. Despite the good outcomes of translational studies, clinical studies are divided. The aim of this multicenter-international study was to capture REBOA-specific data and outcomes. REBOA practicing centers were invited to join this online register, which was established in September 2014. REBOA cases were reported, both retrospective and prospective. Demographics, injury patterns, hemodynamic variables, REBOA-specific data, complications and 30-days mortality were reported. Ninety-six cases from 6 different countries were reported between 2011 and 2016. Mean age was 52 +/- 22 years and 88% of the cases were blunt trauma with a median injury severity score (ISS) of 41 (IQR 29-50). In the majority of the cases, Zone I REBOA was used. Median systolic blood pressure before balloon inflation was 60 mmHg (IQR 40-80), which increased to 100 mmHg (IQR 80-128) after inflation. Continuous occlusion was applied in 52% of the patients, and 48% received non-continuous occlusion. Occlusion time longer than 60 min was reported as 38 and 14% in the non-continuous and continuous groups, respectively. Complications, such as extremity compartment syndrome (n = 3), were only noted in the continuous occlusion group. The 30-day mortality for non-continuous REBOA was 48%, and 64% for continuous occlusion. This observational multicenter study presents results regarding continuous and non-continuous REBOA with favorable outcomes. However, further prospective studies are needed to be able to draw conclusions on morbidity and mortality.