Browsing by Subject "GAS-EXCHANGE"

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  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiucheng; Du, Xuhua; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    Synergistic regulation in leaf architecture and photosynthesis is essential for salt tolerance. However, how plant sex and inorganic nitrogen sources alter salt stress-dependent photosynthesis remains unknown. Leaf anatomical characteristics and photosynthesis of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males were investigated under salt stress conditions combined with nitrate NO3- and ammonium NH4+ supplies to clarify the underlying mechanisms. In salt-stressed females, we observed an increased mesophyll spongy cell density, a reduced chloroplast density, a decreased surface area of chloroplasts adjacent to the intercellular air space (S-c/S) and an increased mesophyll cell area per transverse section width (S/W), consequently causing mesophyll conductance (g(m)) and photosynthesis inhibition, especially under NH4+ supply. Conversely, males with a greater mesophyll palisade tissue thickness and chloroplast density, but a lower spongy cell density had lower S/W and higher S-c/S, and higher g(m) and photosynthesis. NH4+-fed females had a lower CO2 conductance through cell wall and stromal conductance perpendicular to the cell wall, but a higher chloroplast conductance from the cell wall (g(cyt1)) than females supplied with NO3-, whereas males had a higher chloroplast conductance and lower CO2 conductance through cell wall when supplied with NO3- instead of NH4+ under salt stress. These findings indicate sex-specific strategies in coping with salt stress related to leaf anatomy and g(m) under both types of nitrogen supplies, which may contribute to sex-specific CO2 capture and niche segregation.
  • Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    Following asymmetric pruning of leaves and/or roots, the functional balance of distribution of carbon, but not of nitrogen, in Cunninghamia lanceolata is more readily achieved for the roots and leaves on the same side of the pruning compared with those on the opposite side. Abstract The functional balance between leaves and roots is believed to be mediated by the specific location of shoots and roots, i.e. differences in transport distances and degrees of organ connectivity. However, it remains unknown whether the adaptive responses of trees to biomass removal depend on the relative orientation of leaf and root pruning. Here, we applied five pruning treatments to saplings of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) under field and glasshouse conditions, namely no pruning (control), half of lateral branches pruned, half of lateral roots pruned, half of the branches and roots pruned on the same side of the plant, and half of the branches and roots pruned on opposite sides of the plant. The effects of pruning on the growth, carbon storage and allocation, and physiology of leaves and fine roots on the same and opposite sides of the plant were investigated. Compared with the effect of root-pruning on leaves, fine roots were more limited by carbon availability and their physiological activity was more strongly reduced by shoot pruning, especially when branches on the same side of the plant were removed. Pruning of branches and roots on the opposite side of the plant resulted in the lowest carbon assimilation rates and growth among all treatments. The results of a stable-isotope labeling indicated that less C was distributed to fine roots from the leaves on the opposite side of the plant compared to those on the same side, but N allocation from roots to leaves depended less on the relative root and leaf orientation. The results collectively indicate that the functional responses of C. lanceolata to pruning are not only determined by the source-sink balance model but are also related to interactions between leaves and fine roots. We argue that the connectivity among lateral branches and roots depends on their relative orientation, which is therefore critical for the functional balance between leaves and fine roots.
  • Li, Xuefei; Wahlroos, Outi Marjatta; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan (2020)
    Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in a loss of their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and storm water quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in Southern Finland in the boreal climate. We conducted measurements of ecosystem CO2 flux and CH4 flux (FCH4) at the created storm water wetland Gateway in Nummela, Vihti, Southern Finland, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The measurements were commenced the fourth year after construction and lasted for 1 full year and two subsequent growing seasons. Besides ecosystemscale fluxes measured by the EC tower, the diffusive CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the open-water areas (FwCO(2) and FwCH(4), respectively) were modelled based on measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the water. Fluxes from the vegetated areas were estimated by applying a simple mixing model using the above-mentioned fluxes and the footprintweighted fractional area. The half-hourly footprint-weighted contribution of diffusive fluxes from open water ranged from 0% to 25.5% in 2013. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the studied wetland was 8.0 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 18:9 and 34.9 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), and FCH4 was 3.9 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 3.75 and 4.07 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The ecosystem sequestered CO2 during summer months (June-August), while the rest of the year it was a CO2 source. CH4 displayed strong seasonal dynamics, higher in summer and lower in winter, with a sporadic emission episode in the end of May 2013. Both CH4 and CO2 fluxes, especially those obtained from vegetated areas, exhibited strong diurnal cycles during summer with synchronized peaks around noon. The annual FwCO(2) was 297.5 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1) and FwCH(4) was 1.73 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The peak diffusive CH4 flux was 137.6 nmol C-CH4 m(-2) s(-1), which was synchronized with the FCH4. Overall, during the monitored time period, the established storm water wetland had a climate-warming effect with 0.263 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1) of which 89% was contributed by CH4. The radiative forcing of the open-water areas exceeded that of the vegetation areas (1.194 and 0.111 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1), respectively), which implies that, when considering solely the climate impact of a created wetland over a 100-year horizon, it would be more beneficial to design and establish wetlands with large patches of emergent vegetation and to limit the areas of open water to the minimum necessitated by other desired ecosystem services.
  • Maignan, Fabienne; Abadie, Camille; Remaud, Marine; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Kohonen, Kukka-Maaria; Commane, Róisín; Wehr, Richard; Campbell, J. Elliott; Belviso, Sauveur; Montzka, Stephen A.; Raoult, Nina; Seibt, Ulli; Shiga, Yoichi P.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Whelan, Mary E.; Peylin, Philippe (2021)
    Land surface modellers need measurable proxies to constrain the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilated by continental plants through photosynthesis, known as gross primary production (GPP). Carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is taken up by leaves through their stomates and then hydrolysed by photosynthetic enzymes, is a candidate GPP proxy. A former study with the ORCHIDEE land surface model used a fixed ratio of COS uptake to CO2 uptake normalised to respective ambient concentrations for each vegetation type (leaf relative uptake, LRU) to compute vegetation COS fluxes from GPP. The LRU approach is known to have limited accuracy since the LRU ratio changes with variables such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): while CO2 uptake slows under low light, COS uptake is not light limited. However, the LRU approach has been popular for COS-GPP proxy studies because of its ease of application and apparent low contribution to uncertainty for regional-scale applications. In this study we refined the COS-GPP relationship and implemented in ORCHIDEE a mechanistic model that describes COS uptake by continental vegetation. We compared the simulated COS fluxes against measured hourly COS fluxes at two sites and studied the model behaviour and links with environmental drivers. We performed simulations at a global scale, and we estimated the global COS uptake by vegetation to be -756 Gg S yr(-1) , in the middle range of former studies (-490 to -1335 Gg S yr(-1)). Based on monthly mean fluxes simulated by the mechanistic approach in ORCHIDEE, we derived new LRU values for the different vegetation types, ranging between 0.92 and 1.72, close to recently published averages for observed values of 1.21 for C-4 and 1.68 for C-3 plants. We transported the COS using the monthly vegetation COS fluxes derived from both the mechanistic and the LRU approaches, and we evaluated the simulated COS concentrations at NOAA sites. Although the mechanistic approach was more appropriate when comparing to high-temporal-resolution COS flux measurements, both approaches gave similar results when transporting with monthly COS fluxes and evaluating COS concentrations at stations. In our study, uncertainties between these two approaches are of secondary importance compared to the uncertainties in the COS global budget, which are currently a limiting factor to the potential of COS concentrations to constrain GPP simulated by land surface models on the global scale.
  • Wang, K.; Liu, C.; Zheng, X.; Pihlatie, M.; Li, B.; Haapanala, S.; Vesala, T.; Liu, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, G.; Hu, F. (2013)
  • Leinonen, Ville; Kokkola, Harri; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Mielonen, Tero; Kühn, Thomas; Nieminen, Tuomo; Heikkinen, Simo; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Bergman, Tommi; Carslaw, Ken; Decesari, Stefano; Fiebig, Markus; Hussein, Tareq; Kivekäs, Niku; Krejci, Radovan; Kulmala, Markku; Leskinen, Ari; Massling, Andreas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Mulcahy, Jane P.; Noe, Steffen M.; van Noije, Twan; O'Connor, Fiona M.; O'Dowd, Colin; Olivie, Dirk; Pernov, Jakob B.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Seland, Øyvind; Schulz, Michael; Scott, Catherine E.; Skov, Henrik; Swietlicki, Erik; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Virtanen, Annele; Mikkonen, Santtu (2022)
    Despite a large number of studies, out of all drivers of radiative forcing, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of particle number concentrations in nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes at 21 measurement sites in Europe and the Arctic. For 13 of those sites, with longer measurement time series, we compared the field observations with the results from five climate models, namely EC-Earth3, ECHAM-M7, ECHAM-SALSA, NorESM1.2, and UKESM1. This is the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five earth system models (ESMs). We found that the trends of particle number concentrations were mostly consistent and decreasing in both measurements and models. However, for many sites, climate models showed weaker decreasing trends than the measurements. Seasonal variability in measured number concentrations, quantified by the ratio between maximum and minimum monthly number concentration, was typically stronger at northern measurement sites compared to other locations. Models had large differences in their seasonal representation, and they can be roughly divided into two categories: for EC-Earth and NorESM, the seasonal cycle was relatively similar for all sites, and for other models the pattern of seasonality varied between northern and southern sites. In addition, the variability in concentrations across sites varied between models, some having relatively similar concentrations for all sites, whereas others showed clear differences in concentrations between remote and urban sites. To conclude, although all of the model simulations had identical input data to describe anthropogenic mass emissions, trends in differently sized particles vary among the models due to assumptions in emission sizes and differences in how models treat size-dependent aerosol processes. The inter-model variability was largest in the accumulation mode, i.e. sizes which have implications for aerosol-cloud interactions. Our analysis also indicates that between models there is a large variation in efficiency of long-range transportation of aerosols to remote locations. The differences in model results are most likely due to the more complex effect of different processes instead of one specific feature (e.g. the representation of aerosol or emission size distributions). Hence, a more detailed characterization of microphysical processes and deposition processes affecting the long-range transport is needed to understand the model variability.
  • Staehr, Peter A.; Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Reader, Heather (2018)
    Long-term deterioration of water quality is known to reduce the importance of benthic ecosystem metabolism in shallow coastal ecosystems, but drivers of spatial and short-term variability in ecosystem metabolism are poorly understood. We addressed this knowledge gap through detailed seasonal measurements of ecosystem metabolism across depth gradients from shallow (2 to 3 m) eelgrass-dominated to deeper (4 to 5 m) muddy regions of a shallow, productive estuary. Combined measurements of gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R) and, by difference, net ecosystem production (NEP) by the open-water diel oxygen technique and in situ chamber incubations showed high importance of shallow eelgrass habitats for metabolism at the system scale. Seasonal variations in GPP, R and NEP increased with light availability and temperature with highest NEP in all habitats during the warm and sunny mid-summer. The shallow eelgrass-dominated and neighboring habitats were seasonally net autotrophic (NEP = 0.54 and 0.31 mg O2 m-2 d-1, respectively), compared to net heterotrophy (NEP = -0.26 mg O2 m-2 d-1) at the deeper muddy site. Detailed studies along depth gradients further confirmed the role of eelgrass as a key driver of spatial differences in ecosystem metabolism across the estuary. Strong northerly winds (>8 m s-1) caused short-term (<24 h) periods of similar oxygen dynamics and similar apparent productivity in shallow and deeper waters, indicative of efficient lateral mixing, while calm periods (<4 m s-1) enabled formation of ‘pockets’, i.e. water masses with limited connectivity, which exacerbated the metabolic differences between shallow and deep sites.
  • Vesala, Timo; Sevanto, Sanna; Grönholm, Tiia; Salmon, Yann; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hari, Pertti; Hölttä, Teemu (2017)
    The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but withmuch lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/ intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i.e., over the flat surface. The curved surface causes a reduction also in the equilibrium vapor pressure of dissolved CO2, thus enhancing its physical solubility to water. Although the water vapor reduction is acknowledged by plant physiologists its consequences for water vapor exchange at low water potential values have received very little attention. Consequences of the enhanced CO2 solubility to a leaf water-carbon budget have not been considered at all before this study. We use theoretical calculations and modeling to show how the reduction in the vapor pressures affects transpiration and carbon assimilation rates. Our results indicate that the reduction in vapor pressures of water and CO2 could enhance plant water use efficiency up to about 10% at a leaf water potential of -2 MPa, and much more when water potential decreases further. The low water potential allows for a direct stomatal water vapor uptake from the ambient air even at sub-100% relative humidity values. This alone could explain the observed rates of foliar water uptake by e.g., the coastal redwood in the fog belt region of coastal California provided the stomata are sufficiently open. The omission of the reduction in the water vapor pressure causes a bias in the estimates of the stomatal conductance and leaf internal CO2 concentration based on leaf gas exchange measurements. Manufactures of leaf gas exchange measurement systems should incorporate leaf water potentials in measurement set-ups.
  • Salmon, Yann; Buchmann, Nina; Barnard, Romain L. (2016)
    Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (delta C-13) of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the delta C-13 of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes) were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence). Ontogeny-related changes in delta C-13 of leaf-and soil-respired CO2 and C-13/C-12 fractionation in respiration (Delta(R)) were species-dependent and up to 7 parts per thousand, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in delta C-13 of respired CO2 and Delta(R) with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the above-ground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower Delta(R) values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in C-13) were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.
  • Riikonen, Anu; Järvi, Leena; Nikinmaa, Eero (2016)
    We investigated the drivers of street tree transpiration in boreal conditions, in order to better understand tree water use in the context of urban tree planning and stormwater management. Two streets built in Helsinki in 2002, hemiboreal zone that had been planted either with Tilia x vulgaris or Alnus glutinosa f. pyramidalis were used as the study sites. Tree water use was measured from sap flow over the 2008-2011 period by the heat dissipation method. Penman-Monteith based evapotranspiration models of increasing complexity were tested against the tree water use measurements to assess the role of environmental and tree related factors in tree transpiration. Alnus and Tilia respectively used 1.1 and 0.8 l of water per m(2) of leaf area per day under ample water conditions, but the annual variation was high. The Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration estimate and soil water status changes explained over 80 % of the variation in tree transpiration when the model was parameterized annually. The addition of tree crown surface area in the model improved its accuracy and diminished variation between years and sites. Using single parameterization over all four years instead of annually varying one did not produce reliable estimates of tree transpiration. Tree transpiration, scaled to different canopy cover percentages, implied that the columnar Alnus trees could transpire as much as all annual rainfall at or less than 50 % canopy cover.
  • Tian, Xianglin; Minunno, Francesco; Cao, Tianjian; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkelä, Annikki (2020)
    Abstract Applications of ecosystem flux models on large geographical scales are often limited by model complexity and data availability. Here, we calibrated and evaluated a semi-empirical ecosystem flux model, PRELES, for various forest types and climate conditions, based on eddy covariance data from 55 sites. A Bayesian approach was adopted for model calibration and uncertainty quantification. We applied the site-specific calibrations and multisite calibrations to nine plant functional types (PFTs) to obtain the site-specific and PFT specific parameter vectors for PRELES. A systematically designed cross-validation was implemented to evaluate calibration strategies and the risks in extrapolation. The combination of plant physiological traits and climate patterns generated significant variation in vegetation responses and model parameters across but not within PFTs, implying that applying the model without PFT-specific parameters is risky. But within PFT, the multisite calibrations performed as accurately as the site-specific calibrations in predicting gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Moreover, the variations among sites within one PFT could be effectively simulated by simply adjusting the parameter of potential light-use efficiency (LUE), implying significant convergence of simulated vegetation processes within PFT. The hierarchical modelling of PRELES provides a compromise between satellite-driven LUE and physiologically oriented approaches for extrapolating the geographical variation of ecosystem productivity. Although measurement errors of eddy covariance and remotely sensed data propagated a substantial proportion of uncertainty or potential biases, the results illustrated that PRELES could reliably capture daily variations of GPP and ET for contrasting forest types on large geographical scales if PFT-specific parameterizations were applied.
  • Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Back, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija (2014)
  • Robson, T. Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M.; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2015)
    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive. We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress. Plants were grown under nine combinations of solar UV treatments and water deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced growth compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation; whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange.
  • Marshall, John D.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Makela, Annikki; Peichl, Matthias; Hasselquist, Niles; Nasholm, Torgny (2021)
    Forests pass water and carbon through while converting portions to streamflow, soil organic matter, wood production, and other ecosystem services. The efficiencies of these transfers are but poorly quantified. New theory and new instruments have made it possible to use stable isotope composition to provide this quantification of efficiencies wherever there is a measurable difference between the branches of a branchpoint. We present a linked conceptual model that relies on isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen to describe these branchpoints along the pathway from precipitation to soil and biomass carbon sequestration and illustrate how it can be tested and generalized. Plain Language Summary The way a forest works can be described in terms of carbon and water budgets, which describe the ways that carbon and water flow through the forest. The paths of such flows are frequently branched and the branches are often different in their stable isotope composition. This means that stable isotopes can be used to describe the branching events. We present isotopic methods of quantifying several such events, then link them in a chain that begins with the evaporation of water and ends with biomass production.
  • Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Hietanen, Susanna; Jilbert, Tom (2019)
    Estuaries are important conduits between terrestrial and marine aquatic systems and function as hot spots in the aquatic methane cycle. Eutrophication and climate change may accelerate methane emissions from estuaries, causing positive feedbacks with global warming. Boreal regions will warm rapidly in the coming decades, increasing the need to understand methane cycling in these systems. In this 3-year study, we investigated seasonal and spatial variability of methane dynamics in a eutrophied boreal estuary, both in the water column and underlying sediments. The estuary and the connected archipelago were consistently a source of methane to the atmosphere, although the origin of emitted methane varied with distance offshore. In the estuary, the river was the primary source of atmospheric methane. In contrast, in the adjacent archipelago, sedimentary methanogenesis fueled by eutrophication over previous decades was the main source. Methane emissions to the atmosphere from the study area were highly variable and dependent on local hydrodynamics and environmental conditions. Despite evidence of highly active methanogenesis in the studied sediments, the vast majority of the upwards diffusive flux of methane was removed before it could escape to the atmosphere, indicating that oxidative filters are presently still functioning regardless of previous eutrophication and ongoing climate change.
  • Dewar, Roderick; Mauranen, Aleksanteri; Makela, Annikki; Holtta, Teemu; Medlyn, Belinda; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Optimization models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) attempt to explain observed stomatal behaviour in terms of cost-benefit tradeoffs. While the benefit of stomatal opening through increased CO2 uptake is clear, currently the nature of the associated cost(s) remains unclear. We explored the hypothesis that g(s) maximizes leaf photosynthesis, where the cost of stomatal opening arises from nonstomatal reductions in photosynthesis induced by leaf water stress. We analytically solved two cases, CAP and MES, in which reduced leaf water potential leads to reductions in carboxylation capacity (CAP) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) (MES). Both CAP and MES predict the same one-parameter relationship between the intercellular:atmospheric CO2 concentration ratio (c(i)/c(a)) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD, D), viz. c(i)/c(a) approximate to xi/xi (xi+D), as that obtained from previous optimization models, with the novel feature that the parameter xi is determined unambiguously as a function of a small number of photosynthetic and hydraulic variables. These include soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, implying a stomatal closure response to drought. MES also predicts that g(s)/g(m) is closely related to c(i)/c(a) and is similarly conservative. These results are consistent with observations, give rise to new testable predictions, and offer new insights into the covariation of stomatal, mesophyll and hydraulic conductances.
  • Sun, Wu; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Chen, Huilin; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Keskinen, Helmi; Seibt, Ulli (2018)
    Soil is a major contributor to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon monoxide (CO). COS is a tracer with which to quantify terrestrial photosynthesis based on the coupled leaf uptake of COS and CO2, but such use requires separating soil COS flux, which is unrelated to photosynthesis, from ecosystem COS uptake. For CO, soil is a significant natural sink that influences the tropospheric CO budget. In the boreal forest, magnitudes and variabilities of soil COS and CO fluxes remain poorly understood. We measured hourly soil fluxes of COS, CO, and CO2 over the 2015 late growing season (July to November) in a Scots pine forest in Hyytiala, Finland. The soil acted as a net sink of COS and CO, with average uptake rates around 3 pmol m(-2) s(-1) for COS and 1 nmol m(-2) s(-1) for CO. Soil respiration showed seasonal dynamics controlled by soil temperature, peaking at around 4 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) in late August and September and dropping to 1-2 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) in October. In contrast, seasonal variations of COS and CO fluxes were weak and mainly driven by soil moisture changes through diffusion limitation. COS and CO fluxes did not appear to respond to temperature variation, although they both correlated well with soil respiration in specific temperature bins. However, COS : CO2 and CO : CO2 flux ratios increased with temperature, suggesting possible shifts in active COS-and CO-consuming microbial groups. Our results show that soil COS and CO fluxes do not have strong variations over the late growing season in this boreal forest and can be represented with the fluxes during the photosynthetically most active period. Well-characterized and relatively invariant soil COS fluxes strengthen the case for using COS as a photosynthetic tracer in boreal forests.
  • Durand, Maxime; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Salmon, Yann; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Murchie, Erik H.; Robson, T. Matthew (2022)
    Sunflecks are transient patches of direct radiation that provide a substantial proportion of the daily irradiance to leaves in the lower canopy. In this position, faster photosynthetic induction would allow for higher sunfleck-use efficiency, as is commonly reported in the literature. Yet, when sunflecks are too few and far between, it may be more beneficial for shade leaves to prioritize efficient photosynthesis under shade. We investigated the temporal dynamics of photosynthetic induction, recovery under shade, and stomatal movement during a sunfleck, in sun and shade leaves of Fagus sylvatica from three provenances of contrasting origin. We found that shade leaves complete full induction in a shorter time than sun leaves, but that sun leaves respond faster than shade leaves due to their much larger amplitude of induction. The core-range provenance achieved faster stomatal opening in shade leaves, which may allow for better sunfleck-use efficiency in denser canopies and lower canopy positions. Our findings represent a paradigm shift for future research into light fluctuations in canopies, drawing attention to the ubiquitous importance of sunflecks for photosynthesis, not only in lower-canopy leaves where shade is prevalent, but particularly in the upper canopy where longer sunflecks are more common due to canopy openness.