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  • Yanes, Manar; Santoni, Giola; Maret-Ouda, John; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Farkkila, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Nwaru, Bright; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pal; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper (2020)
    Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration. Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes. Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results. Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Wetselaar, Peter; Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Johansson, Anders; Aarab, Ghizlane; Papagianni, Chryssa E.; Sevilla, Marisol Reyes; Koutris, Michail; Lobbezoo, Frank (2019)
    Objectives Tooth wear is a common finding in adult patients with dental sleep disorders. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the possible associations between tooth wear and the following dental sleep disorders: sleep-related oro-facial pain, oral moistening disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and sleep bruxism. Methods A PubMed search was performed on 1 June 2018 using MeSH terms in the following query: Tooth Wear AND (Facial Pain OR Temporomandibular Joint Disorders OR Xerostomia OR Sialorrhea OR Gastroesophageal Reflux OR Sleep Apnea Syndrome OR Sleep Bruxism). Results The query yielded 706 reports on tooth wear and the mentioned dental sleep disorders. Several associations between tooth wear and the dental sleep disorders were suggested in the literature. It could be concluded that: (a) tooth wear is associated with dental pain and/or hypersensitivity; (b) oral dryness is associated with tooth wear, oro-facial pain and sleep bruxism; (c) GERD is associated with tooth wear, oro-facial pain, oral dryness, OSAS and sleep bruxism; (d) OSAS is associated with oral dryness, GERD and sleep bruxism; and (e) sleep bruxism is associated with tooth wear. Conclusions Tooth wear is associated with the dental sleep disorders oro-facial pain, oral dryness, GERD and sleep bruxism. The dental sleep disorders are interlinked with each other, which leads to indirect associations as well, and makes the consequences of each single condition difficult to disentangle. Knowledge of these associations is clinically relevant, but more research is needed to confirm their validity.
  • Punkkinen, Jari; Nyyssönen, Meri; Walamies, Markku; Roine, Risto; Sintonen, Harri; Koskenpato, Jari; Haakana, Riikka; Arkkila, Perttu (2022)
    Background Behavioral therapy (BT) has been proven effective in the treatment of supragastric belching (SGB) in open studies. The aim was to compare BT to follow-up without intervention in patients with SGB in a randomized study. Methods Forty-two patients were randomized to receive 5 sessions of BT, comprising diaphragmatic breathing exercises, or to follow-up without intervention. Patients were evaluated at 6 months, at which point the control group was also offered BT and evaluated after another 6 months. The frequency and intensity of belching and mental well-being were evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated with four questionnaires: BDI, BAI, 15D, and RAND-36. Key results The frequency and intensity of SGB were significantly lower in the therapy group (n = 19) than in the control group (n = 18) at the 6-month control (p < 0.001). When all patients (n = 36) were evaluated 6 months after BT, in addition to relief in the frequency and intensity of belching (p < 0.001), mental well-being had also improved (p < 0.05). Of all 36 patients, 27(75%) responded to BT. Depression scores were lower after therapy (p < 0.05). Only minor changes occurred in anxiety and HRQoL. Conclusions and Inferences Behavioral therapy is superior to follow-up without intervention in patients with SGB in reducing belching and depression; it also improves mental well-being but has only a modest effect on anxiety and HRQoL.
  • Maret-Ouda, John; Wahlin, Karl; Artama, Miia; Brusselaers, Nele; Farkkila, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Mattsson, Fredrik; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pal; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper (2017)
    Purpose To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk of cancers, other diseases and mortality. Participants Included were individuals with a GORD diagnosis recorded in any of the nationwide patient registries in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in 1964-2014 (with various start and end years in different countries). Data regarding cancer, other diseases and mortality were retrieved from the nationwide registries for cancer, patients and causes of death, respectively. Findings to date The NordASCo includes 945 153 individuals with a diagnosis of GORD. Of these, 48 433 (5.1%) have undergone primary antireflux surgery. Median age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. Future plans The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORDrelated cancers, that is, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents.
  • Rintala, Risto J. (2017)
    Patients with esophageal atresia (EA) suffer from abnormal and permanent esophageal intrinsic and extrinsic innervation that affects severely esophageal motility. The repair of EA also results in esophageal shortening that affects distal esophageal sphincter mechanism. Consequently, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in these patients, overall approximately half of them suffer from symptomatic reflux. GER in EA patients often resists medical therapy and anti-reflux surgery in the form of fundoplication is required. In patients with pure and long gap EA, the barrier mechanisms against reflux are even more damaged, therefore, most of these patients undergo fundoplication during first year of life. Other indications for anti-reflux surgery include recalcitrant anastomotic stenoses and apparent life-threatening episodes. In short term, fundoplication alleviates symptoms in most patients but recurrences are common occurring in at least one third of the patients. Patients with fundoplication wrap failure often require redo surgery, which may be complicated and associated with significant morbidity. A safe option in a subset of patients with failed anti-reflux surgery appears to be long-term medical treatment with proton pump inhibitors.
  • Järvenpää, Pia; Arkkila, Perttu; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija (2018)
    Globus is a non-painful sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat, and it frequently improves with eating. Although globus is a common symptom, only little is known about the etiology, and the causes have remained controversial. Previously, globus was labelled as a hysterical symptom. However, nowadays, the research has been mainly focused on somatic causes and it is suspected that the etiology is complex. Because of the unclear etiology, the diagnostics and treatment are varying, predisposing patients to possible unnecessary investigations. This review presents the current literature of globus: its etiology, diagnostics, and treatment. In addition, a special aim is to discuss the rational investigation methods in globus diagnostics and present a diagnostic algorithm based on recent researches.
  • Saarinen, Tuure; Kettunen, Ulla; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Juuti, Anne (2018)
    Background: Consensus on the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before bariatric surgery is lacking. Recommendations and practices vary by country and unit. Several reports have expressed concerns on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its consequences after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and the risk of leaving a premalignant lesion in the excluded stomach after Roux en -Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objectives: We explored the number and types of clinically significant findings in preoperative EGDs and how they associate with preexisting GERD-symptoms (SG) and premalignant lesions (RYGB). We also studied how many reoperations were performed due to postoperative GERD in SG-patients. Setting: University hospital. Methods: We investigated preoperative EGD-findings and gastrointestinal symptoms before bariatric surgery in all patients with a primary bariatric operation in our unit between December 2007 and May 2016. Results: We performed 1474 operations: 1047 (71.0%) RYGB, 407 (27.6%) SG, and 20 (1.4%) others. One thousand two hundred seventy-five (86.5%) preoperative EGD reports were analyzed: 647 (50.7%) EGDs were completely normal. Altogether, 294 patients (23.0% of total) had a clinically significant finding that was relevant for SG (hiatal hernia, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal dysplasia), 144 (49.0%) of whom reported gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty patients (1.6%) had a significant finding relevant for RYGB (peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor), and 6 (30%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms. Thirteen (3.2%) SGs were converted into RYGB due to GERD. Conclusions: Preoperative EGD is indicated before SG but not before RYGB for asymptomatic patients without a risk for gastric pathology. (C) American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
  • Palomaki, Marja; Saaresranta, Tarja; Anttalainen, Ulla; Partinen, Markku; Keto, Jaana; Linna, Miika (2022)
    The prevalence of sleep apnoea is increasing globally; however, population-based studies have reported a wide variation of prevalence estimates, and data on incidence of clinically diagnosed sleep apnoea are scant. Data on the overall burden of comorbidities or multimorbidity in individuals with incident sleep apnoea are scarce, and the pathways to multimorbidity have only marginally been studied. To study the current epidemiology of sleep apnoea in Finland, overall burden of comorbidities, and multimorbidity profiles in individuals with incident sleep apnoea, we conducted a register-based, nationwide, retrospective study of data from January 2016 to December 2019. The prevalence of clinically diagnosed sleep apnoea was 3.7% in the Finnish adult population; 1-year incidence was 0.6%. Multimorbidity was present in 63% of individuals at the time of sleep apnoea diagnosis. Of those with incident sleep apnoea, 34% were heavily multimorbid (presenting with four or more comorbidities). The three most common chronic morbidities before sleep apnoea diagnosis were musculoskeletal disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In multimorbid sleep apnoea patients, hypertension and metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and dorsopathies, in different combinations, encompassed the most frequent disease pairs preceding a sleep apnoea diagnosis. Our study adds to the few population-based studies by introducing overall and detailed figures on the burden of comorbidities in sleep apnoea in a nationwide sample and provides up-to-date information on the occurrence of sleep apnoea as well as novel insights into multimorbidity in individuals with incident sleep apnoea.
  • Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ulrik, Charlotte; Skjold, Tina; Backer, Vibeke; Laerum, Birger; Lehman, Sverre; Janson, Crister; Sandstrom, Thomas; Bjermer, Leif; Dahlen, Barbro; Lundback, Bo; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Bjornsdottir, Unnur; Altraja, Alan; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Kauppi, Paula; Karjalainen, Jussi; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2018)
    Although a minority of asthma patients suffer from severe asthma, they represent a major clinical challenge in terms of poor symptom control despite high-dose treatment, risk of exacerbations, and side effects. Novel biological treatments may benefit patients with severe asthma, but are expensive, and are only effective in appropriately targeted patients. In some patients, symptoms are driven by other factors than asthma, and all patients with suspected severe asthma ('difficult asthma') should undergo systematic assessment, in order to differentiate between true severe asthma, and 'difficult-to-treat' patients, in whom poor control is related to factors such as poor adherence or co-morbidities. The Nordic Consensus Statement on severe asthma was developed by the Nordic Severe Asthma Network, consisting of members from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia, including representatives from the respective national respiratory scientific societies with the aim to provide an overview and recommendations regarding the diagnosis, systematic assessment and management of severe asthma. Furthermore, the Consensus Statement proposes recommendations for the organization of severe asthma management in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
  • Helin, Noora; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Merras-Salmio, Laura (2022)
    Aim This study estimated follow-up outcomes for children presenting with troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in early childhood. Methods We identified from our upper endoscopy registry children with undefined GI symptoms having undergone an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy to rule out oesophagitis at a median age of 2.6 years in 2006-2016. We included only those with normal findings. In early 2020, we performed a National Patient Data Repository and Prescription Service review to note patients' current GI symptoms, medications and medical consultations. We also employed a study-specific questionnaire with a validated quality-of-life measure (the PedsQL). Results After a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, the children (n = 199) had a median age of 10.6 years. Medical consultations related to upper GI symptoms were rare. However, parents reported recurrent GI symptoms in 24% of the children, and 41% followed a specific diet. Regular anti-acid medication was in use in 3.5% of the cohort, more often when with a predisposing condition for reflux disease. The current quality of life was good. Conclusion Although some upper GI symptoms may persist after early childhood, patients without diseases predisposing to reflux disease have a good quality of life without GI-related morbidity in school age.
  • Lätti, Anne M.; Pekkanen, Juha; Koskela, Heikki O. (2020)
    Chronic cough causes significant impairment in the quality of life and is often immune to treatment. Previous studies about its persistence have focused on patients managed in special cough clinics. Little is known about the persistence of chronic cough in unselected populations. In this prospective follow-up study, we investigated factors that predict the persistence of cough at 12-month follow-up in a community-based study of subjects with chronic cough. The first e-mail survey in 2017 included a questionnaire about current cough and its risk factors. The 264 subjects who reported chronic cough were sent a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The response rate was 77.7% (205 subjects), of whom 165 subjects (80.5%) still had cough in 2018. In multivariate analysis, the following baseline factors predicted the persistence of cough at 12 months; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.02 (95% CI 1.10-22.83)), presence of a chemical trigger (aOR 2.88 (95% CI (1.20-7.00)), duration of cough more than 1 year (aOR 2.80 (95% CI 1.27-6.22)), frequent somatic symptoms (aOR 1.31 (95% CI 1.07-1.59)), and low number of family members (aOR 0.71 (95% CI 0.52-0.98)). In conclusion, most patients with chronic cough still suffer from cough 1 year later. The presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is the main predictor for the persistence of cough.
  • Kellokumpu, Ilmo; Voutilainen, Markku; Haglund, Caj; Färkkilä, Martti Antero; Roberts, Peter J.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2013)
  • Helin, Noora; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Rintala, Risto; Merras-Salmio, Laura (2020)
    Abstract Aim This study estimated the diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) in young children with non-acute, non-specific gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms who were treated by a Finnish tertiary level referral centre. Methods A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 1850 Finnish children under seven years of age who underwent their first diagnostic OGDs at Helsinki University Hospital during 2006-2016. We noted the endoscopy indications, macroscopic findings, the histology of the mucosal biopsies and the follow-up data. Results After the exclusion criteria were applied, we enrolled 666 patients (57.7% boys) at a median age of 3.5 years. The number of children with non-specific symptoms referred for OGD increased 2.3-fold in 11 years. A routine set of biopsies was obtained in 644/666 (96.7%) of the endoscopies. The OGD was both macroscopically and histologically normal in 519/644 (80.6%) of cases. The most common indication was to rule out gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 268/666 (40.2%) cases and the most frequent histological diagnosis was mild to moderate oesophagitis in 57/644 (8.9%) cases. There was no erosive oesophagitis. Conclusion The diagnostic yield of macroscopic and histological OGD findings was low in our cohort. Unless there are alarming symptoms, younger children do not need OGD.