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  • Kauppi, Juha; Räsänen, Jari; Sihvo, Eero; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Ahotupa, Markku; Salo, Jarmo (2016)
    OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential element in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its transformation to adenocarcinoma (EAC). The state of OS in the proximal stomach of patients with BE and EAC is unknown. Isoprostanes are a specific marker of OS not previously used to determine OS from BE/EAC tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: OS was measured in 42 patients with BE (n = 9), EAC (n = 9), or both (n = 24) and 15 control patients. A STAT-8-Isoprostane EIA Kit served to identify 8-Isoprostanes (8-IP), and a Glutathione Assay Kit was used to measure glutathione reduced form(GSH) and glutathione oxidized form. An OxiSelect Oxidative DNA Damage ELISA Kit (8-OHdG) served to measure 8-OH-deoxyguanosine. RESULTS: The 8-IP (P = .039) and 8-OHdG (P = .008) levels were higher, and the GSH level lower (P = .031), in the proximal stomach of the study group than in that of the controls. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in 8% of the study patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the proximal stomach of BE and EAC patients, OS was elevated and antioxidative capacity was reduced. This finding suggests that the gastroesophageal reflux causing BE also induces oxidative stress in the proximal stomach and may contribute to the development of cancer in the proximal stomach and gastric cardia.
  • ten Kate, Chantal A.; de Klein, Annelies; de Graaf, Bianca M.; Doukas, Michail; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; van der Helm, Robert; Brands, Tom; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; van Bever, Yolande; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Brosens, Erwin (2022)
    Simple Summary We investigated the increased prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in adults with esophageal atresia. A higher polygenic risk score and disturbances in inflammatory, stress response and oncological pathways upon acid exposure suggest a genetic susceptibility and increased induction of inflammatory processes. Although further research is required to explore this hypothesis, this could be a first-step into selecting patients that are more at risk to develop Barrett's esophagus and/or esophageal carcinoma. Currently, an endoscopic screening and surveillance program is in practice in our institution for patients born with esophageal atresia, to early detect (pre)malignant lesions. Since recurrent endoscopies can be a burden for the patient, selecting patients by for example genetic susceptibility would allow to only include those at risk in future practice. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in adults born with esophageal atresia (EA) is four times higher than in the general population and presents at a younger age (34 vs. 60 years). This is (partly) a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Given the overlap between genes and pathways involved in foregut and BE development, we hypothesized that EA patients have an intrinsic predisposition to develop BE. Transcriptomes of Esophageal biopsies of EA patients with BE (n = 19, EA/BE); EA patients without BE (n = 44, EA-only) and BE patients without EA (n = 10, BE-only) were compared by RNA expression profiling. Subsequently, we simulated a reflux episode by exposing fibroblasts of 3 EA patients and 3 controls to acidic conditions. Transcriptome responses were compared to the differential expressed transcripts in the biopsies. Predisposing single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with BE, were slightly increased in EA/BE versus BE-only patients. RNA expression profiling and pathway enrichment analysis revealed differences in retinoic acid metabolism and downstream signaling pathways and inflammatory, stress response and oncological processes. There was a similar effect on retinoic acid signaling and immune response in EA patients upon acid exposure. These results indicate that epithelial tissue homeostasis in EA patients is more prone to acidic disturbances.
  • Dang, Kien Xuan; Ho, Tho; Sistonen, Saara; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko; Rintala, Risto; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Orpana, Arto; Stenman, Jakob (2018)
    Background Previous studies have reported an association among esophageal atresia (EA), Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma later in life. Objective The objective of the article is to evaluate KRAS and BRAF mutations as potential genetic markers for early detection of malignant transformation, we used an ultrasensitive technique to detect tissue expression of KRAS and BRAF mutations in endoscopic biopsies from 61 adult patients under follow-up after treatment for EA. Materials and Methods RNA was extracted from 112 fresh-frozen endoscopic tissue biopsies from 61 adult patients treated for EA in early childhood. RNA was reverse transcribed using the extendable blocking probe reverse transcription method. KRAS codons 12 and 13, as well as BRAF mutations were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results No mutations of KRAS codon 12, KRAS codon 13, or BRAF were found in 112 endoscopic biopsy samples from 61 patients. Conclusion Despite the presence of histological findings indicating long-standing gastroesophageal reflux in 25%, as well as symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux in more than 40%, there was no detectable tissue expression of KRAS or BRAF mutations in this cohort of patients.
  • Määttä, O. L. M.; Laurila, H. P.; Holopainen, S.; Lilja-Maula, L.; Melamies, M.; Viitanen, S. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Koho, N.; Neuvonen, M.; Niemi, M.; Rajamäki, M. M. (2018)
    Background: Gastroesophageal reflux and microaspiration (MA) of gastric juice are associated with various human respiratory diseases but not in dogs. Objective: To detect the presence of bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of dogs with various respiratory diseases. Animals: Twenty-seven West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF), 11 dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP), 13 with chronic bronchitis (CB), 9 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP), 19 with laryngeal dysfunction (LD), 8 Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs) with previous BPs, 13 healthy WHWTs, all privately owned dogs, and 6 healthy research colony Beagles Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study with convenience sampling of dogs. Bile acids were measured by mass spectrometry in BALF samples. Total bile acid (TBA) concentration was calculated as a sum of 17 different bile acids. Results: Concentrations of TBA were above the limit of quantification in 78% of CIPF, 45% of BP, 62% of CB, 44% of EBP, 68% of LD, and 13% of IWH dogs. In healthy dogs, bile acids were detected less commonly in Beagles (0/6) than in healthy WHWTs (10/13). Concentrations of TBA were significantly higher in CIPF (median 0.013 mu M, range not quantifiable [n.q.]-0.14 mu M, P <.001), healthy WHWTs (0.0052 mu M, n.q.-1.2 mu M, P = .003), LD (0.010 mu M, n.q.-2.3 mu M, P = .015), and CB (0.0078 mu M, n.q.-0.073 mu M, P = .018) groups compared to Beagles (0 mu M, n.q.). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: These results suggest that MA occurs in various respiratory diseases of dogs and also in healthy WHWTs.