Browsing by Subject "GEMFIBROZIL"

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  • Kahma, Helinä; Aurinsalo, Laura; Neuvonen, Mikko; Katajamäki, Jani; Paludetto, Marie-Noelle; Viinamäki, Jenni; Launiainen, Terhi; Filppula, Anne M.; Tornio, Aleksi; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T. (2021)
    We developed an in vitro high-throughput cocktail assay with nine major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes, optimized for screening of time-dependent inhibition. The method was applied to determine the selectivity of the time-dependent CYP2C8 inhibitors gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide and clopidogrel acyl-beta-D-glucuronide. In vitro incubations with CYP selective probe substrates and pooled human liver microsomes were conducted in 96-well plates with automated liquid handler techniques and metabolite concentrations were measured with quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. After determination of inter-substrate interactions and Km values for each reaction, probe substrates were divided into cocktails I (tacrine/CYP1A2, bupropion/CYP2B6, amodiaquine/CYP2C8, tolbutamide/CYP2C9 and midazolam/CYP3A4/5) and II (coumarin/CYP2A6, S-mephenytoin/CYP2C19, dextromethorphan/CYP2D6 and astemizole/CYP2J2). Time-dependent inhibitors (furafylline/CYP1A2, selegiline/ CYP2A6, clopidogrel/CYP2B6, gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide/CYP2C8, tienilic acid/CYP2C9, ticlopidine/ CYP2C19, paroxetine/CYP2D6 and ritonavir/CYP3A) and direct inhibitor (terfenadine/CYP2J2) showed similar inhibition with single substrate and cocktail methods. Established time-dependent inhibitors caused IC50 fold shifts ranging from 2.2 to 30 with the cocktail method. Under time-dependent inhibition conditions, gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide was a strong (90% inhibition) and selective (<< 20% inhibition of other CYPs) inhibitor of CYP2C8 at concentrations ranging from 60 to 300 mu M, while the selectivity of clopidogrel acyl-beta-D-glucuronide was limited at concentrations above its IC80 for CYP2C8. The time-dependent IC50 values of these glucuronides for CYP2C8 were 8.1 and 38 mu M, respectively. In conclusion, a reliable cocktail method including the nine most important drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes was developed, optimized and validated for detecting timedependent inhibition. Moreover, gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide was established as a selective inhibitor of CYP2C8 for use as a diagnostic inhibitor in in vitro studies.
  • Itkonen, Matti K.; Tornio, Aleksi; Filppula, Anne M.; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T. (2018)
    The oxidation of montelukast is mainly mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, but other mechanisms may contribute to its disposition. In healthy volunteers, we investigated the effects of two widely used P2Y(12) inhibitors on montelukast pharmacokinetics. Clopidogrel (300mg on day 1 and 75mg on day 2) increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of montelukast 2.0-fold (90% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-2.28, P <0.001) and decreased the M6:montelukast AUC(0-7h) ratio to 45% of control (90% CI 40-50%, P <0.001). Prasugrel (60mg on day 1 and 10mg on day 2) had no clinically meaningful effect on montelukast pharmacokinetics. Our results imply that clopidogrel is at least a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C8, but prasugrel is not a clinically relevant CYP2C8 inhibitor. The different interaction potentials of clopidogrel and prasugrel are important to consider when antiplatelet therapy is planned for patients at risk for polypharmacy with CYP2C8 substrates.