Browsing by Subject "GEN. NOV."

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  • Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Borglin, Sharon; Chakraborty, Romy; Tas, Neslihan; Mason, Olivia U.; Hultman, Jenni; Prestat, Emmanuel; Hazen, Terry C.; Jansson, Janet K. (2014)
  • Lukovac, Sabina; Belzer, Clara; Pellis, Linette; Keijser, Bart J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Montijn, Roy C.; Roeselers, Guus (2014)
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindstrom, Kristina (2017)
    The type strain of the prospective Bradyrhizobium shewense sp. nov. ERR11(T), was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071(T), was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) were sequenced by DOE-JGI and deposited at the DOE-JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11(T) is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. The CCBAU 10071(T) genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110(T). The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11(T) showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut-nodulating Bradyrhizobium arachidis LMG 26795(T). The nodulation genes nolYAnodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11(T) and CCBAU 10071(T) are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of USDA110(T), Bradyrhizobium ottawaense USDA 4 and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU 05525. The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11(T) also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the B. ottawaense branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11(T) and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to B. ottawaense branch (USDA4 and CCBAU15615), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11(T) with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11(T) showed the highest DDH predicted value with CCBAU15615 (58.5%), followed by USDA 4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11(T) and CCBAU 15615 or USDA 4 were below the cutoff values (ANI = 96.5%; DDH = 70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11(T) is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of B. shewense sp. nov. with strain ERR11(T) (HAMBI 3532(T)= LMG 30162(T)) as the type strain.
  • Geerlings, Sharon Y.; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Ritari, Jarmo; Aalvink, Steven; Stecher, Bärbel; Schaap, Peter J.; Paulin, Lars; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2021)
    Background Akkermansia muciniphila is a member of the human gut microbiota where it resides in the mucus layer and uses mucin as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. A. muciniphila is the only representative of the Verrucomicrobia phylum in the human gut. However, A. muciniphila 16S rRNA gene sequences have also been found in the intestines of many vertebrates. Results We detected A. muciniphila-like bacteria in the intestines of animals belonging to 15 out of 16 mammalian orders. In addition, other species belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum were detected in fecal samples. We isolated 10 new A. muciniphila strains from the feces of chimpanzee, siamang, mouse, pig, reindeer, horse and elephant. The physiology and genome of these strains were highly similar in comparison to the type strain A. muciniphila Muc(T). Overall, the genomes of the new strains showed high average nucleotide identity (93.9 to 99.7%). In these genomes, we detected considerable conservation of at least 75 of the 78 mucin degradation genes that were previously detected in the genome of the type strain Muc(T). Conclusions The low genomic divergence observed in the new strains may indicate that A. muciniphila favors mucosal colonization independent of the differences in hosts. In addition, the conserved mucus degradation capability points towards a similar beneficial role of the new strains in regulating host metabolic health.
  • Karcher, Nicolai; Nigro, Eleonora; Puncochar, Michal; Blanco-Miguez, Aitor; Ciciani, Matteo; Manghi, Paolo; Zolfo, Moreno; Cumbo, Fabio; Manara, Serena; Golzato, Davide; Cereseto, Anna; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; Valles-Colomer, Mireia; de Vos, Willem M.; Segata, Nicola (2021)
    Background Akkermansia muciniphila is a human gut microbe with a key role in the physiology of the intestinal mucus layer and reported associations with decreased body mass and increased gut barrier function and health. Despite its biomedical relevance, the genomic diversity of A. muciniphila remains understudied and that of closely related species, except for A. glycaniphila, unexplored. Results We present a large-scale population genomics analysis of the Akkermansia genus using 188 isolate genomes and 2226 genomes assembled from 18,600 metagenomes from humans and other animals. While we do not detect A. glycaniphila, the Akkermansia strains in the human gut can be grouped into five distinct candidate species, including A. muciniphila, that show remarkable whole-genome divergence despite surprisingly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences. These candidate species are likely human-specific, as they are detected in mice and non-human primates almost exclusively when kept in captivity. In humans, Akkermansia candidate species display ecological co-exclusion, diversified functional capabilities, and distinct patterns of associations with host body mass. Analysis of CRISPR-Cas loci reveals new variants and spacers targeting newly discovered putative bacteriophages. Remarkably, we observe an increased relative abundance of Akkermansia when cognate predicted bacteriophages are present, suggesting ecological interactions. A. muciniphila further exhibits subspecies-level genetic stratification with associated functional differences such as a putative exo/lipopolysaccharide operon. Conclusions We uncover a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of the Akkermansia genus in humans. This variability should be considered in the ongoing experimental and metagenomic efforts to characterize the health-associated properties of A. muciniphila and related bacteria.
  • Chernikova, Tatyana; Bargiela, Rafael; Toshchakov, Stepan V.; Shivaraman, Vignesh; Lunev, Evgenii A.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Thomas, David Neville; Golyshin, Peter N. (2020)
    Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria play an important role in natural petroleum biodegradation processes and were initially associated with man-made oil spills or natural seeps. There is no full clarity though on what, in the absence of petroleum, their natural niches are. Few studies pointed at some marine microalgae that produce oleophilic compounds (alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and alcohols) as potential natural hosts of these bacteria. We established Dansk crude oil-based enrichment cultures with photobioreactor-grown marine microalgae cultures Pavlova lutheri and Nannochloropsis oculata and analyzed the microbial succession using cultivation and SSU (16S) rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that petroleum enforced a strong selection for members of Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria in both enrichment cultures with the prevalence of Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp., well-known hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In total, 48 non-redundant bacterial strains were isolated and identified to represent genera Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Hyphomonas, Halomonas, Marinovum, Roseovarius, and Oleibacter, which were abundant in sequencing reads in both crude oil enrichments. Our assessment of public databases demonstrated some overlaps of geographical sites of isolation of Nannochloropsis and Pavlova with places of molecular detection and isolation of Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. Our study suggests that these globally important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are associated with P. lutheri and N. oculata.
  • Sinkko, Hanna; Hepolehto, Iina; Lyra, Christina; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M.; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf; Timonen, Sari (2019)
    Coastal hypoxia is a major environmental problem worldwide. Hypoxia-induced changes in sediment bacterial communities harm marine ecosystems and alter biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, the resistance of sediment bacterial communities to hypoxic stress is unknown. We investigated changes in bacterial communities during hypoxic-anoxic disturbance by artificially inducing oxygen deficiency to the seafloor for 0, 3, 7, and 48 days, with subsequent molecular biological analyses. We further investigated relationships between bacterial communities, benthic macrofauna and nutrient effluxes across the sediment-water-interface during hypoxic-anoxic stress, considering differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The composition of the moderately abundant OTUs changed significantly after seven days of oxygen deficiency, while the abundant and rare OTUs first changed after 48 days. High bacterial diversity maintained the resistance of the communities during oxygen deficiency until it dropped after 48 days, likely due to anoxia-induced loss of macrofaunal diversity and bioturbation. Nutrient fluxes, especially ammonium, correlated positively with the moderate and rare OTUs, including potential sulfate reducers. Correlations may reflect bacteria-mediated nutrient effluxes that accelerate eutrophication. The study suggests that even slightly higher bottom-water oxygen concentrations, which could sustain macrofaunal bioturbation, enable bacterial communities to resist large compositional changes and decrease the harmful consequences of hypoxia in marine ecosystems.
  • Avila, Marcelo P.; Brandao, Luciana P. M.; Brighenti, Ludmila S.; Tonetta, Denise; Reis, Mariana P.; Staehr, Peter A.; Asmala, Eero; Amado, Andre M.; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Bezerra-Neto, Jose F.; Nascimento, Andrea M. A. (2019)
    Bacterioplankton communities have a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle. Still the interaction between microbial community and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwater ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here, we report results from a 12-day mesocosm study performed in the epilimnion of a tropical lake, in which inorganic nutrients and allochthonous DOM were supplemented under full light and shading. Although the production of autochthonous DOM triggered by nutrient addition was the dominant driver of changes in bacterial community structure, temporal covariations between DOM optical proxies and bacterial community structure revealed a strong influence of community shifts on DOM fate. Community shifts were coupled to a successional stepwise alteration of the DOM pool, with different fractions being selectively consumed by specific taxa Typical freshwater clades as Limnohabitans and Sporichthyaceae were associated with consumption of low molecular weight carbon, whereas Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria utilized higher molecular weight carbon, indicating differences in DOM preference among Glades. Importantly. Verrucomicrobiaceae were important in the turnover of freshly produced autochthonous DOM, ultimately affecting light availability and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Our findings suggest that taxonomically defined bacterial assemblages play definite roles when influencing DOM fate, either by changing specific fractions of the DOM pool or by regulating light availability and DOC levels. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Roslund, Marja; Puhakka, Riikka; Nurminen, Noora; Oikarinen, Sami; Siter, Nathan; Grönroos, Mira; Cinek, Ondrej; Kramna, Lenka; Jumpponen, Ari; Laitinen, Olli; Rajaniemi, Juho; Hyöty, Heikki; Sinkkonen, Aki (2021)
    Background: In modern urban environments children have a high incidence of inflammatory disorders, including allergies, asthma, and type 1 diabetes. The underlying cause of these disorders, according to the biodiversity hypothesis, is an imbalance in immune regulation caused by a weak interaction with environmental microbes. In this 2-year study, we analyzed bacterial community shifts in the soil surface in day-care centers and commensal bacteria inhabiting the mouth, skin, and gut of children. We compared two different day-care environments: standard urban day-care centers and intervention day-care centers. Yards in the latter were amended with biodiverse forest floor vegetation and sod at the beginning of the study. Results: Intervention caused a long-standing increase in the relative abundance of nonpathogenic environmental mycobacteria in the surface soils. Treatment-specific shifts became evident in the community composition of Gammaproteobacteria, Negativicutes, and Bacilli, which jointly accounted for almost 40 and 50% of the taxa on the intervention day-care children's skin and in saliva, respectively. In the year-one skin swabs, richness of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria was higher, and the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Streptococcus sp., and Veillonella sp., was lower among children in intervention day-care centers compared with children in standard day-care centers. In the gut, the relative abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto decreased, particularly among the intervention children. Conclusions: This study shows that a 2-year biodiversity intervention shapes human commensal microbiota, including taxa that have been associated with immune regulation. Results indicate that intervention enriched commensal microbiota and suppressed the potentially pathogenic bacteria on the skin. We recommend future studies that expand intervention strategies to immune response and eventually the incidence of immune-mediated diseases.
  • Ottman, Noora; Reunanen, Justus; Meijerink, Marjolein; Pietilä, Taija; Kainulainen, Veera; Klievink, Judith; Huuskonen, Laura; Aalvink, Steven; Skurnik, Mikael; Boeren, Sjef; Satokari, Reetta; Mercenier, Annick; Palva, Airi; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2017)
    Gut barrier function is key in maintaining a balanced response between the host and its microbiome. The microbiota can modulate changes in gut barrier as well as metabolic and inflammatory responses. This highly complex system involves numerous microbiota-derived factors. The gut symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila is positively correlated with a lean phenotype, reduced body weight gain, amelioration of metabolic responses and restoration of gut barrier function by modulation of mucus layer thickness. However, the molecular mechanisms behind its metabolic and immunological regulatory properties are unexplored. Herein, we identify a highly abundant outer membrane pili-like protein of A. muciniphila MucT that is directly involved in immune regulation and enhancement of trans-epithelial resistance. The purified Amuc_1100 protein and enrichments containing all its associated proteins induced production of specific cytokines through activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. This mainly leads to high levels of IL-10 similar to those induced by the other beneficial immune suppressive microorganisms such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Together these results indicate that outer membrane protein composition and particularly the newly identified highly abundant pili-like protein Amuc_1100 of A. muciniphila are involved in host immunological homeostasis at the gut mucosa, and improvement of gut barrier function.
  • Shetty, Sudarshan A; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M (2019)
    The human intestinal tract harbors one of the most densely populated and open microbial ecosystems. The application of multi-omics approaches has provided insight into a wide array of complex interactions between the various groups of mainly anaerobic colonic microbes as well as the host-microbe dialogue. Integration of multi-omits techniques in cultivation based experiments that vary in complexity from monocultures to synthetic microbial communities identified key metabolic players in the trophic interactions as well as their ecological dynamics. A synergy between these approaches will be of utmost importance to reconstruct the functional interaction networks at the ecosystem level within the human intestinal microbiome. The improved understanding of microbiome functioning at ecosystem level will further aid in developing better predictive models and design of effective microbiome modulation strategies for health benefits.
  • Purkamo, Lotta; Kietavainen, Riikka; Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Bomberg, Malin; Cousins, Claire (2020)
    The deep bedrock surroundings are an analog for extraterrestrial habitats for life. In this study, we investigated microbial life within anoxic ultradeep boreholes in Precambrian bedrock, including the adaptation to environmental conditions and lifestyle of these organisms. Samples were collected from Pyhasalmi mine environment in central Finland and from geothermal drilling wells in Otaniemi, Espoo, in southern Finland. Microbial communities inhabiting the up to 4.4 km deep bedrock were characterized with phylogenetic marker gene (16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS region) amplicon and DNA and cDNA metagenomic sequencing. Functional marker genes (dsrB, mcrA, narG) were quantified with qPCR. Results showed that although crystalline bedrock provides very limited substrates for life, the microbial communities are diverse. Gammaproteobacterial phylotypes were most dominant in both studied sites. Alkanindiges -affiliating OTU was dominating in Pyhasalmi fluids, while different depths of Otaniemi samples were dominated by Pseudomonas. One of the most common OTUs detected from Otaniemi could only be classified to phylum level, highlighting the uncharacterized nature of the deep biosphere in bedrock. Chemoheterotrophy, fermentation and nitrogen cycling are potentially significant metabolisms in these ultradeep environments. To conclude, this study provides information on microbial ecology of low biomass, carbon-depleted and energy-deprived deep subsurface environment. This information is useful in the prospect of finding life in other planetary bodies.
  • Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Boeren, Sjef; Bui, Thi P. N.; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M. (2020)
    Thed- andl-forms of lactate are important fermentation metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria but are found to negatively affect mucosal barrier function and human health. Both enantiomers of lactate can be converted with acetate into the presumed beneficial butyrate by a phylogenetically related group of anaerobes, includingAnaerobutyricumandAnaerostipesspp. This is a low energy yielding process with a partially unknown pathway inAnaerobutyricumandAnaerostipesspp. and hence, we sought to address this via a comparative genomics, proteomics and physiology approach. We compared growth ofAnaerobutyricum soehngeniion lactate with that on sucrose and sorbitol. Comparative proteomics revealed complete pathway of butyrate formation from sucrose, sorbitol and lactate. Notably, a gene cluster,lctABCDEFwas abundantly expressed when grown on lactate. This gene cluster encodes a lactate dehydrogenase (lctD), electron transport proteins A and B (lctCB), nickel-dependent racemase (lctE), lactate permease (lctF) and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (lctG). Investigation of available genomes of intestinal bacteria revealed this new gene cluster to be highly conserved in onlyAnaerobutyricumandAnaerostipesspp. Present study demonstrates thatA. soehngeniiand several relatedAnaerobutyricumandAnaerostipesspp. are highly adapted for a lifestyle involving lactate plus acetate utilization in the human intestinal tract.