Browsing by Subject "GENDER"

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  • Ismail, Abdirashid A. (2018)
    This article has two main goals. First, it describes the processes and practices of Somali marriages in Finland, in order to help fill the gap in the literature on Somali marriage practices. Particular attention is paid to three major aspects of the marriage process: finding a spouse, organising the marriage arrangements and the celebrations. The second goal is to contribute to the current debate on migration and arranged marriages. In doing so, particular attention is paid to the role of the family in these three aspects of marriage. This article draws from 35 individual interviews, participant observations in five marriage ceremonies, as well as five focus group discussions. I argue that, despite the deep involvement of family members in the marriage process, unlike in forced and (common) arranged marriages, Somali couples take a leading role and make major decisions, although they are expected to seek their parents' consent.
  • Lahtinen, Alexandra; Puttonen, Sampsa; Vanttola, Päivi; Viitasalo, Katriina; Sulkava, Sonja; Pervjakova, Natalia; Joensuu, Anni; Salo, Perttu; Toivola, Auli; Härmä, Mikko; Milani, Lili; Perola, Markus; Paunio, Tiina (2019)
    Short sleep duration or insomnia may lead to an increased risk of various psychiatric and cardio-metabolic conditions. Since DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, studies of differentially methylated positions (DMPs) might be valuable for understanding the mechanisms underlying insomnia. We performed a cross-sectional genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in relation to self-reported insufficient sleep in individuals from a community-based sample (79 men, aged 39.3 +/- 7.3), and in relation to shift work disorder in an occupational cohort (26 men, aged 44.9 +/- 9.0). The analysis of DNA methylation data revealed that genes corresponding to selected DMPs form a distinctive pathway: "Nervous System Development" (FDR P value <0.05). We found that 78% of the DMPs were hypomethylated in cases in both cohorts, suggesting that insufficient sleep may be associated with loss of DNA methylation. A karyoplot revealed clusters of DMPs at various chromosomal regions, including 12 DMPs on chromosome 17, previously associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome, a rare condition comprising disturbed sleep and inverse circadian rhythm. Our findings give novel insights into the DNA methylation patterns associated with sleep loss, possibly modifying processes related to neuroplasticity and neurodegeneration. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the observed associations.
  • Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria (2014)
    Objective. To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. Design. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to fi nd salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Subjects. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the fi nal analysis. Main outcome measures. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modifi cation were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Results. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identifi ed for specifi c intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Conclusions. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modifi cation approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.
  • Friberg, Kalervo (2013)
    Changes in student-affective entry characteristics were examined in an educational−vocational intervention at Finnish comprehensive school. The conceptual framework constructed from attitudes as learned dispositions (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985) was tested in a longitudinal study. A person-based survey questionnaire was designed, piloted, and validated. Spearman−Brown reliability was calculated. In the first observation, 669 (Time One Cohort), and in the second, 649 (Time Two Cohort) subjects (girls and boys) of mean ages of 14.5 and 16.0 years took the Web-based survey. The tested hypotheses were (a) variables of self-determination, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation would emerge as attitudinal domains in work−life orientation; (b) the experiences during the implementation of a work−life orientation program would decrease the effects of seventh-grade student background factors at the end of the program in the ninth grade, and (c) work−life orientation would be effective and have efficacy in changing student attitudes in relation to further education and occupations. Three factors emerged in the Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. The factors Independence, Self-Direction, and Flexibility were used as the dependents in repeated measures in a general linear model. The factor means were subjected to a paired samples t test. There was development toward stronger Independence and Flexibility in the case of both genders. The boys had gained the girls’ seventh-grade lead at the end of the program. Self-Direction did not show any changes. Empirical findings tentatively supported the program’s efficacy in changing entry characteristics.
  • Bosqui, Tania; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Buscariolli, Andre; O'reilly, Dermot; Airila, Auli; Toivanen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne (2020)
    Aims: Higher incidence of psychotic disorders in high-income countries for migrants compared with the settled majority has been well established. However, it is less clear to what extent different migrants groups have accessed and utilised mental health care. This study aimed to identify the hazard of antipsychotic medication use in the largest migrant groups in Finland, compared with a Finnish-born comparison group, using high quality datasets maintained by Statistics Finland and Social Insurance Institution Finland, and linking socio-demographic and -economic characteristics to antipsychotic prescription purchases. Methods: The study draws on a representative sample of 33% of the adult working-age population of Finland in 2005 (n = 1,059,426, 50.2% male, 2.5% migrant). The use of antipsychotic drugs was followed-up from 2005 to 2014. Results: The results show that the hazard of antipsychotic medication purchases differed between migrant groups, with a higher hazard for migrants from North Africa and the Middle East before socio-economic adjustment (men HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37; women HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.66), and a lower hazard for all migrant groups after adjustment for socio-economic characteristics compared with the Finland-born population. Conclusions: The findings suggest that attention should be paid to the lower use of medication for psychotic disorders in some migrant groups, as well as the potential role of social disadvantage for migrants from North Africa and Middle East.
  • Grundström, Jenna; Konttinen, Hanna; Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli (2021)
    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between relationship status and mental well-being in four different phases during the life course, and to identify whether relationship quality moderated these associations. We used a broader concept of relationship status (instead of marital status) and also included the positive dimension of mental health. Participants in a Finnish cohort study were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1,656), 32 (N = 1,471), 42 (N = 1,334), and 52 (N = 1,159). Measures in all study panels covered relationship status (marriage, cohabitation, dating, single and divorced/widowed), Short Beck Depression Inventory (S-BDI), self-esteem (seven items) and relationship quality (six items). Analyses were carried out using linear regression. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were associated with depressive symptoms at every age in men. For women, in turn, being single - but not being divorced/widowed - was associated with depressive symptoms. Among men, being single or being divorced/widowed were also associated with lower self-esteem at age 32, 42 and 52, but in women, only one association between lower self-esteem and being single was found at age 32. Of the age stages, the age 32 is highlighted in men, at which point all relationship statuses were risk factors compared to marriage. There were only few indications of the moderating role of the relationship quality. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were quite consistently associated with poorer mental well-being during the life course, especially among men. For dating and cohabiting the associations were more fragmented depending on age and gender; particularly among women, these relationship statuses tended not to differ from marriage in terms of mental well-being. These observations on mental well-being across five relationship statuses are important in our contemporary society, where the number of marriages is decreasing, and other forms of relationships are becoming more common.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina; Wayessa, Gutu Olana (2018)
    This article examines the politics of institutional governance of displacements and the intersecting experiences of environmental justice, drawing on case studies of flood disasters and urban displacements in Villahermosa, Mexico, and government-sponsored displacements and resettlements in rural Oromia, Ethiopia. We argue that a fuller understanding of how institutional governance produces multiple marginalisations requires political-ecological and intersectional analyses of residents' experiences of injustices that encompass interlinkages between social position, gender and political power. The analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Mexico and Ethiopia, comprising interviews, participant observation, document analysis and surveys. The study shows similarities and differences in patterns of governance, mechanisms of marginalisation and relations of authority and power concerning differentiated displacements and everyday vulnerabilities in different contexts of the global South. Our analysis enriches theoretical understanding of governance and justice, demonstrating how multiple marginalities are produced, reinforced and contested through political processes imbricated with forms of governance characterised by institutional intrusion and absence.
  • Ryynanen, Olli-Pekka; Soini, Erkki J.; Lindqvist, Ari; Kilpelainen, Maritta; Laitinen, Tarja (2013)
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased mortality and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to identify clinical characteristics which predict mortality and very poor HRQoL among the COPD population and to develop a Bayesian prediction model. Methods: The data consisted of 738 patients with COPD who had visited the Pulmonary Clinic of the Helsinki and Turku University Hospitals during 1995-2006. The data set contained 49 potential predictor variables and two outcome variables: survival (dead/alive) and HRQoL measured with a 15D instrument (very poor HRQoL <0.70 vs. typical HRQoL >= 0.70). In the first phase of model validation we randomly divided the material into a training set (n = 538), and a test set (n = 200). This procedure was repeated ten times in random fashion to obtain independently created training sets and corresponding test sets. Modeling was performed by using the training set, and each model was tested by using the corresponding test set, repeated in each training set. In the second phase the final model was created by using the total material and eighteen most predictive variables. The performance of six logistic regressions approaches were shown for comparison purposes. Results: In the final model, the following variables were associated with mortality or very poor HRQoL: age at onset, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, alcohol abuse, cancer, psychiatric disease, body mass index, Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) % of predicted, atrial fibrillation, and prolonged QT time in ECG. The prediction accuracy of the model was 77%, sensitivity 0.30, specificity 0.95, positive predictive value 0.68, negative predictive value 0.78, and area under the ROC curve 0.69. While the sensitivity of the model reminded limited, good specificity, moderate accuracy, comparable or better performance in classification and better performance in variable selection and data usage in comparison to the logistic regression approaches, and positive and negative predictive values indicate that the model has potential in predicting mortality and very poor HRQoL in COPD patients. Conclusion: We developed a Bayesian prediction model which is potentially useful in predicting mortality and very poor HRQoL in patients with COPD.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Rebato, Esther; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Ooki, Syuichi; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95%Cl 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95%CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95%Cl -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Makinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A.; Aalberg, Veikko (2012)
  • Komp-Leukkunen, Kathrin Susanne (2019)
    Life-courses describe people’s activities from the cradle to the grave. Because life-courses are typically complex, models are used to simplify their description. The most commonly used model is tripartite, representing lives in subsequent periods of education, work, and retirement. However, researchers criticize this model as limited in the activities considered, overly simplistic in the activity sequence, and blind to variation between life-courses. This article explores working age life-courses, which typically show high diversity. Multichannel sequence and cluster analyses are conducted on people’s activities from age 15 to 65. Data stem from the life-history interviews of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, capturing cohorts born before 1945. Findings show that three out of four working age life-courses are in line with the tripartite model. This share is particularly high among men, the cohort born 1935 to 1944, and in Northern and Eastern Europe. In contrast, a considerable share of women spent their working age on homemaking, especially women born before 1935, and those living in Southern Europe. Finally, a smaller number of men spent their working age on paid work, followed by a period of illness or of non-employment. The working age life-course patterns identified are used to develop alternative life-course models. However, for a parsimonious solution, the use of two models suffices. A combination of the tripartite model and the model equating middle age to homemaking captures the lives of more than nine out of ten older Europeans. The prevalence of working age life-course patterns in a population is country-specific, and the country differences align with the welfare regimes. This perspective makes working age life-courses characteristics of a society that can be used to map social inequalities at the macro-level and capture social change over time.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna (2018)
    Background We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Methods Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Results Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (> 9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Conclusion Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk.
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Halko, Marja-Liisa; Sääksvuori, Lauri (2017)
    This paper investigates whether physiological measures related to chronic and acute stress predict individual differences in willingness to compete. We measure individuals' autonomic nervous system activity in a resting state as well as under non-competitive and competitive incentive schemes using heart rate variability (HRV) measurement. We find that both baseline HRV and competition-induced changes in HRV predict willingness to compete. Notably, we find that women with low baseline HRV, a marker associated with chronic stress exposure, are more likely to choose piece rate incentives over competitive incentives than women with high baseline HRV. We observe that men with large acute HRV response to forced competition are more likely to choose tournament pay over piece rate pay than men with small acute HRV response to competition. Our results suggest that HRV can predict individual differences in willingness to compete, but HRV does not close the gender gap in willingness to compete at the aggregate level.
  • Olaleye, Sunday; Sanusi, I.T.; Fanning, Stephen; Salo, Jari (2020)
  • Monden, Christiaan W. S.; Metsa-Simola, Niina; Saarioja, Saska; Martikainen, Pekka (2015)
    Background: There is an average negative mental health effect for individuals who experience divorce. Little is known whether the pattern of such divorce effects varies within couples. We study whether the husband and wife experience similar harmful effects of divorce, whether they experience opposite effects, or whether divorce effects are purely individual. Methods: We use Finnish registry data to compare changes over a period of 5 years in antidepressant use of husbands and wives from 4,558 divorcing couples to 108,637 continuously married pairs aged 40-64, all of whom were healthy at baseline. Results: In the period three years before and after divorce antidepressant use increases substantially. However, the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication during this process of divorce by one partner appears to be independent of medication uptake in the other partner. In contrast, among continuously married couples there is a clear pattern of convergence: If one partner starts to use antidepressants this increases the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication in the other partner. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that divorce effects on antidepressant use are individual and show no pattern of either convergence or divergence at the level of the couple. The increased incidence of antidepressant use associated with divorce occurs in individuals independent of what happens to their ex-partner.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Torvik, Fartein Ask; Flato, Martin; McAdams, Tom A.; Colman, Ian; Silventoinen, Karri; Stoltenberg, Camilla (2021)
    Purpose: On average, boys have lower academic achievement than girls. We investigated whether the timing of puberty is associated with academic achievement, and whether later puberty among boys contributes to the sex difference in academic achievement. Method: Examination scores at age 16 were studied among 13,477 British twins participating in the population-based Twins Early Development Study. A pubertal development scale, a height based proxy of growth spurt, and age at menarche were used as indicators of puberty. Associations between puberty, sex, and academic achievement were estimated in phenotypic mediation models and biometric twin models. Results: Earlier puberty was associated with higher academic achievement both in boys and girls. The exception was early age at menarche in girls, which associated with lower academic achievement. More than half of the sex differences in academic achievement could be linked to sex differences in pubertal development, but part of this association appeared to be rooted in prepubertal differences. The biometric twin modelling indicated that the association between puberty and academic achievement was due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic influences on pubertal development accounted for 7%-8% of the phenotypic variation in academic achievement. Conclusions: Pubertal maturation relates to the examination scores of boys and of girls. This can give genes related to pubertal maturation an influence on outcomes in education and beyond. Sex differences in pubertal maturation can explain parts of the sex difference in academic achievement. Grading students when they are immature may not accurately measure their academic potential. (c) 2021 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).