Browsing by Subject "GENDER-DIFFERENCES"

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  • Funderud, Tonje; Mononen, Riikka; Radišić , Jelena; Laine, Anu (2019)
    The study aimed to investigate variations in addition and subtraction fluency by observing grade three students in Norway (n = 253, M-age = 8.38 y.) and Finland (n = 209, M-age = 9.35 y.) while controlling for their age and non-verbal reasoning. Gender differences were also examined. The focus of the study was on the performance of the low-achieving (LA) students in comparison to the typically achieving (TA) group, not neglecting differences in how early educational support was organised across the two countries. Two-minute speed tests in both addition and subtraction within the 1-20 number range were used to assess fluency. The Finnish students outperformed students in the Norwegian sample both in addition and subtraction fluency. There were more Norwegian students in the LA group (i.e. performance at or below the 25th percentile) in both addition (37.9% vs. 20.1%) and subtraction (39.1% vs. 15.8%). In comparison to the TA students, the LA students made more errors and skipped over more arithmetic tasks in an attempt to solve them. Observed differences are discussed in relation to both country characteristics concerning early mathematics education and early educational support.
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenstrom, Tom; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Purpose: To explore whether sexual harassment experiences are more common among adolescents reporting romantic and erotic interests in the same sex and both sexes, when sociodemographic and mental health confounding are controlled for, and whether the associations are similar in both sexes and in different phases of adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a nationally representative dataset of 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education. Self-reports of experiences of sexual harassment, and emotional (depression) and behavioral (delinquency) symptoms were used. Results: All associations between sexual minority status and harassment diminished clearly when mental disorder dimensions were controlled for. In the comprehensive school sample (mean age 15.4 years), sexual harassment experiences were 4-7-fold more common among boys, and 1.5-3-fold among girls, with same-sex/both-sexes interest, compared to those interested exclusively in the opposite sex. In the upper secondary education sample (mean age 17.4 years), among boys, sexual harassment was reported 3-6-fold more commonly by those not exclusively heterosexually interested. Among older girls, a slight increase in sexual harassment experiences was seen among those interested in both sexes. Conclusions: Sexual harassment experiences are associated with sexual minority status, particularly among boys. Confounding by mental disorders needs to be accounted for when studying sexual minority status and sexual harassment.
  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenström, Tom; Gluschkoff, Kia; Saarinen, Aino; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Sociability is a widely studied trait that has been linked both with individual well-and ill-being. Although early childcare has been shown to affect social competence in children, its role in the development of different aspects of adulthood sociability is poorly understood. Using a longitudinal population-based sample (N = 464), this study investigated whether childcare arrangements at ages 3 or 6 are associated with self-reported adulthood sociability at ages 20 to 35 years. A total of five aspects of sociability were measured using three well-established personality inventories (EAS, NEO-FFI, and TCI). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine the association between early care and adulthood sociability, adjusting for several sources of random variation (between-individual variance, within-individual variance between measurement times, variance between used sociability indicators, and error variance that cannot be attributed to the previously mentioned) and potential confounders (disruptive behavior in childhood, parental socio-economic status, parent-child relationship quality, maternal age, and the number of children in the family). Based on our results, in comparison to home care, family daycare and center-based daycare at age 3 and center-based daycare at age 6 were associated with higher sociability later in life. The association was strongest for aspects of sociability that emphasize the willingness to be surrounded by other people and to be attached to them. In other words, characteristics of early care may contribute uniquely to the development of these aspects of sociability with effects that persist into adult life
  • Castren, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2015)
    Background: Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods: This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score >= 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions: Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
  • Partanen, Eino; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Hugoson, Pernilla; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta; Ådén, Ulrika (2022)
    As the human auditory system is highly malleable in infancy, perinatal risk factors, such as preterm birth, may affect auditory development. In comparison to healthy full-term infants, preterm infants show abnormal auditory brain responses at term age, which may have long-term detrimental outcomes. To achieve an optimal neonatal care environment for preterm-born infants, many early interventions have been developed. Musical interventions developed for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have shown beneficial effects on vital functions and weight gain of preterm infants and might also influence basic auditory processing and thereby enhance outcomes. In the present study, we tested the effect of parental singing during kangaroo care on auditory processing of standardized audio stimuli. Preterm infants (born between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation) were randomized to singing intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 8) groups. The auditory processing was tested using two audio paradigms assessed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) at term corresponding age. To verify that the paradigms elicit responses in MEG, we studied 12 healthy full-term infants. In the singing intervention group, parents were instructed by a music therapist twice a week for 4 weeks to sing or hum during kangaroo care in an infant-directed way. The control group received standard kangaroo care. The results show that the infants in the singing intervention group show larger neural responses than those in the control group when controlling for the total amount of singing during kangaroo care. Our findings suggest that incorporating singing into kangaroo care may be beneficial for preterm infants, but the effect may not be due to exposure to singing but instead positive parenting, improved parental self-esteem and improved caregiver sensitivity.
  • Teuber, Ziwen; Tang, Xin; Sielemann, Lena; Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke (2022)
    The important role of parenting is widely acknowledged, but as most studies have understood and examined it as a stable attribute (e.g., parenting style), the stability of and changes in parenting are less well understood. Using longitudinal person-oriented approaches (i.e., latent profile analyses and latent transition analyses), this study aimed to examine the stability of and changes in autonomy-related parenting profiles and their effects on adolescents' academic and psychological development. Four autonomy-related dimensions (i.e., autonomy support, warmth, psychological control, conditional regard) were chosen to identify parenting profiles on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Using five-year longitudinal data from 789 German secondary school students (50.06% female, M-age at T1 = 10.82 years, age span = 10-17), four autonomy-related parenting profiles were found: Supportive (similar to 17%), Controlling (similar to 31%), Unsupportive-Uncontrolling (similar to 17%), and Limited Supportive (similar to 35%). The results suggest that the Supportive profile contributes to adolescents' positive academic and psychological development, whereas the Controlling profile, which thwarts autonomy development, exacerbates the development of psychopathology, and impairs academic achievement. More importantly, the Limited Supportive profile is as maladaptive as the Unsupportive-Uncontrolling profile. Regarding parenting profiles' stability and changes, the results showed that about half of each profile stayed in the same group. Overall, it could be observed that parents became more supportive and less controlling over time. However, the findings also indicate that parenting profiles are less stable than expected and can still change during early-to-mid adolescence.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Palmu, Samuel; Kuneinen, Susanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Korhonen, Päivi E. (2021)
    Background and aims: Current guidelines on prediabetes and diabetes (T2D) recommend to regularly perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on subjects at risk of T2D. However, it is not known why women tend to have relatively higher 2-h post-load plasma (2hPG) glucose concentrations during OGTT than men. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there are sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2hPG concentrations in relation to body size in apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that sex differences in glucose tolerance are physiological and related to different body surface area (BSA) in men and women. Methods and results: A 2-h 75 g OGTT was performed on 2010 subjects aged 45-70 years. Their BSA was calculated using the Mosteller formula. Men and women were separately divided into five BSA levels. Within the normal 2hPG range, women had higher mean 2hPG concentrations during the OGTT than men in all BSA levels estimated by sex-standardized BSA (p for linearity < 0.001). BSA adjusted for age, waist circumference, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking, showed an inverse association with 2hPG concentration in both sexes. Mean FPG concentrations were higher in men than in women. Conclusions: Body size has a negative inverse association with 2hPG concentration in an OGTT even within a physiological plasma glucose range. This may cause underestimation of glucose disorders in individuals with larger BSA and overestimation in individuals with smaller BSA when using an OGTT. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Rissanen, Anne; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto (2019)
    BackgroundLittle is known about adolescents' perceptions about their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the course of routine adolescent psychiatric treatment. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to investigate HRQoL and changes in it among youths receiving adolescent psychiatric outpatient treatment.MethodsThe study comprised 158 girls and 82 boys aged 12-14years from 10 psychiatric outpatient clinics in one Finnish hospital district. Same-aged population controls (210 girls and 162 boys) were randomly collected from comprehensive schools. HRQoL was measured using the 16D instrument. The questionnaire was self-administered when the adolescents entered the polyclinics (=baseline), after a treatment period of 6months, and after 12months.ResultsThe mean age of respondents was 13.8years (SD 0.63). At baseline, the mean HRQoL score of both female and male outpatients was significantly lower than that of population controls (p
  • Koivuhovi, Satu; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Kalalahti, Mira; Niemivirta, Markku (2019)
    This study examined changes in pupils' agency beliefs and control expectancy from grade four to grade six, and whether they were associated with studying in a class with a special emphasis on a subject as compared to studying in a class without emphasis. After controlling for the effects of mother's education, prior school achievement, and gender, we found that the average pattern of change varied for different action-control beliefs, and that class membership did not moderate these changes. Mother's education, pupils' prior school achievement, and gender all predicted class membership, but their effects on action-control beliefs varied depending on the type of belief. Implications for educational policy will be discussed.
  • Metsa-Simola, Niina S.; Remes, Hanna M.; Hiltunen, Elina M.; Martikainen, Pekka T. (2022)
    Background Symptoms of depression and anxiety are elevated among parents of children with cancer. However, knowledge of parents' psychotropic medication use following child's cancer diagnosis is scarce. Methods We use longitudinal Finnish register data on 3266 mothers and 2687 fathers whose child (aged 0-19) was diagnosed with cancer during 2000-2016. We record mothers' and fathers' psychotropic medication use (at least one annual purchase of anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, or antidepressants) 5 years before and after the child's diagnosis and assess within-individual changes in medication use by time since diagnosis, cancer type, child's age, presence of siblings, and parent's living arrangements and education using linear probability models with the individual fixed-effects estimator. The fixed-effects models compare each parent's annual probability of psychotropic medication use after diagnosis to their annual probability of medication use during the 5-year period before the diagnosis. Results Psychotropic medication use was more common among mothers than fathers already before the child's diagnosis, 11.2% versus 7.3%. Immediately after diagnosis, psychotropic medication use increased by 6.0 (95% CI 4.8-7.2) percentage points among mothers and by 3.2 (CI 2.1-4.2) percentage points among fathers. Among fathers, medication use returned to pre-diagnosis level by the second year, except among those whose child was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Among mothers of children with a central nervous system cancer, medication use remained persistently elevated during the 5-year follow-up. For mothers with other under-aged children or whose diagnosed child was younger than 10 years, the return to pre-diagnosis level was also slow. Conclusions Having a child with cancer clearly increases parents' psychotropic medication use. The increase is smaller and more short-lived among fathers, but among mothers its duration depends on both cancer type and family characteristics. Our results suggest that an increased care burden poses particular strain to the long-term mental well-being of mothers.
  • van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; Thorogood, Rose; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C. (2021)
    Collaboration and diversity are increasingly promoted in science. Yet how collaborations influence academic career progression, and whether this differs by gender, remains largely unknown. Here, we use co-authorship ego networks to quantify collaboration behaviour and career progression of a cohort of contributors to biennial International Society of Behavioral Ecology meetings (1992, 1994, 1996). Among this cohort, women were slower and less likely to become a principal investigator (PI; approximated by having at least three last-author publications) and published fewer papers over fewer years (i.e. had shorter academic careers) than men. After adjusting for publication number, women also had fewer collaborators (lower adjusted network size) and published fewer times with each co-author (lower adjusted tie strength), albeit more often with the same group of collaborators (higher adjusted clustering coefficient). Authors with stronger networks were more likely to become a PI, and those with less clustered networks did so more quickly. Women, however, showed a stronger positive relationship with adjusted network size (increased career length) and adjusted tie strength (increased likelihood to become a PI). Finally, early-career network characteristics correlated with career length. Our results suggest that large and varied collaboration networks are positively correlated with career progression, especially for women.
  • Forsblom, E.; Kakriainen, A.; Ruotsalainen, E.; Järvinen, A. (2018)
    Background Sex-related treatment inequalities are suggested to explain outcome differences between men and women in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We compared patient characteristics, clinical management, infectious specialist consultation (ISC) and outcome in men and women with SAB. Methods Multicenter retrospective study of methicillin-sensitive (MS-) SAB patients categorized according to sex and ISC consultation provided within 7 days of diagnosis. Results Altogether 617 SAB patients were included in the analysis: 62% males and 38% females. Male sex was associated less often to nosocomial bacteremia (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.96, p = 0.029) and more often to alcoholism (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.31-3.87, p = 0.003). No sex-related differences were seen in basic or immunologic laboratory tests, illness severity, intensive care unit treatment or thromboembolic events. ISC was provided to most patients (94%) irrespective of sex. No differences were seen in clinical management of men or women: Transthoracic or -esophageal echocardiography (61% vs. 65%), deep infection (77% vs. 72%), infection removal (30% vs. 27%) and anti-staphylococcal antibiotics as first-line treatment (54% vs. 51%). However, male sex was connected to more frequent adjunctive rifampicin treatment (52% vs. 41%, p = 0.025). No difference in 28- or 90-day mortality (13% vs. 13% and 18% vs. 20%) or SAB relapse (0% vs. 1%) was observed between men and women. Propensity-score adjusted Cox proportional analysis gave no connection of sex to mortality within 90 days. Conclusion Patient characteristics, clinical management, ISC guidance, bacteremia relapse, and outcome did not differ in men and women with MS-SAB.
  • Lithovius, Raija; Toppila, Iiro; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Makinen, Ville-Petteri; FinnDiane Study Grp (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis Previously, we proposed that data-driven metabolic subtypes predict mortality in type 1 diabetes. Here, we analysed new clinical endpoints and revisited the subtypes after 7 years of additional follow-up. Methods Finnish individuals with type 1 diabetes (2059 men and 1924 women, insulin treatment before 35 years of age) were recruited by the national multicentre FinnDiane Study Group. The participants were assigned one of six metabolic subtypes according to a previously published self-organising map from 2008. Subtype-specific all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates in the FinnDiane cohort were compared with registry data from the entire Finnish population. The rates of incident diabetic kidney disease and cardiovascular endpoints were estimated based on hospital records. Results The advanced kidney disease subtype was associated with the highest incidence of kidney disease progression (67.5% per decade, p <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (26.4% per decade, p <0.001) and all-cause mortality (41.5% per decade, p <0.001). Across all subtypes, mortality rates were lower in women compared with men, but standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were higher in women. SMRs were indistinguishable between the original study period (19942007) and the new period (2008-2014). The metabolic syndrome subtype predicted cardiovascular deaths (SMR 11.0 for men, SMR 23.4 for women, p <0.001), and women with the high HDL-cholesterol subtype were also at high cardiovascular risk (SMR 16.3, p <0.001). Men with the low-cholesterol or good glycaemic control subtype showed no excess mortality. Conclusions/interpretation Data-driven multivariable metabolic subtypes predicted the divergence of complication burden across multiple clinical endpoints simultaneously. In particular, men with the metabolic syndrome and women with high HDL-cholesterol should be recognised as important subgroups in interventional studies and public health guidelines on type 1 diabetes.
  • CTR-TBI Participants; Mikolic, Ana; van Klaveren, David; Oude Groeniger, Joost; Polinder, Suzanne; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability, but little is known about sex and gender differences after TBI. We aimed to analyze the association between sex/gender, and the broad range of care pathways, treatment characteristics, and outcomes following mild and moderate/severe TBI. We performed mixed-effects regression analyses in the prospective multi-center Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, stratified for injury severity and age, and adjusted for baseline characteristics. Outcomes were various care pathway and treatment variables, and 6-month measures of functional outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), post-concussion symptoms (PCS), and mental health symptoms. The study included 2862 adults (36% women) with mild (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15), and 1333 adults (26% women) with moderate/severe TBI (GCS score 3-12). Women were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratios [OR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8) following mTBI. Following moderate/severe TBI, women had a shorter median hospital stay (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Following mTBI, women had poorer outcomes; lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE; OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), lower generic and disease-specific HRQoL, and more severe PCS, depression, and anxiety. Among them, women under age 45 and above age 65 years showed worse 6-month outcomes compared with men of the same age. Following moderate/severe TBI, there was no difference in GOSE (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), but women reported more severe PCS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Men and women differ in care pathways and outcomes following TBI. Women generally report worse 6-month outcomes, but the size of differences depend on TBI severity and age. Future studies should examine factors that explain these differences.
  • SUPER Researchers Listed Acknowle; Ahti, Johan; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana; Suokas, Kimmo; Holm, Minna; Wegelius, Asko; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Hakkinen, Katja; Kampman, Olli; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Paunio, Tiina; Tiihonen, Jari; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Isometsä, Erkki (2022)
    Background: Psychotic disorders differ in their impact on psychosocial functioning. However, few studies have directly compared psychosocial functioning and its determinants between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder (SAD), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder with psychotic features (psychotic MDD). Objective: We compared rates of independent living, employment, marriage, and having children between these diagnostic groups in a large national sample of participants with psychotic disorders in Finland. Methods: A cross-sectional substudy of participants (N = 9148) aged 18 to 65 years in the Finnish SUPER study, recruited nationwide from health-and social care settings and with advertisements. Psychosis diagnoses, age of onset, and hospitalizations were collected from healthcare registers. Participants were interviewed for psychosocial functioning. Associations of age of onset, hospitalizations, gender, and education with psychosocial functioning were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Of participants, 13.8% were employed or studying, 72.0% living independently and 32.5% had children. Overall, BD was associated with best, SAD and psychotic MDD with intermediate, and schizophrenia with worst level of psychosocial functioning. Greatest differences were found in independent living (OR 4.06 for BD vs. schizophrenia). In multivariate models, gender and number of hospitalizations predicted employment, marriage, and independent living in all diagnostic categories, and age of onset in some diagnostic categories. Conclusions: Level of functioning and psychosocial outcomes differed markedly between psychotic disorders, particularly in independent living. Outcomes were worst for schizophrenia and best for BD. Across all psychotic disorders, female gender and lifetime number of hospitalizations had strong independent associations with marriage, employment, and independent living.
  • Penttilä, Tero; Lehto, Mika; Niiranen, Jussi; Mehtälä, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Lassila, Riitta; Raatikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Females with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been suggested to carry a higher risk for thromboembolic events than males. We compared the residual risk of stroke, bleeding events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Data from several nationwide registries and laboratory databases were linked with the civil registration number of the patients. A total of 54568 patients with data on the quality of warfarin treatment (time in therapeutic range) 60days prior to the events were included (TTR60). Gender differences in the endpoints were reported for the whole population, pre-specified age groups, and different TTR60 groups. During the 3.21.6years follow-up, there were no differences in the adjusted risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911.03, P=0.304] between the genders. Cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.780.88, P <0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.750.83, P <0.001) were lower in women when compared with men. There were no differences in the risk of stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the genders in the TTR60 categories except for those with TTR60 <50%. Bleeding events were less frequent in females (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.490.56, P <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of stroke between female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and risk of bleeding events were lower in females. Hence, female gender was not a risk marker for adverse outcomes in AF patients with proper warfarin therapy.