Browsing by Subject "GENE DUPLICATION"

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  • Rinne, Maiju; Tanoli, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri (2019)
    We conduct a cartography of rhodopsin-like non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the Ensembl database. The most recent genomic data (releases 90-92, 90 vertebrate genomes) are analyzed through the online interface and receptors mapped on phylogenetic guide trees that were constructed based on a set of similar to 14.000 amino acid sequences. This snapshot of genomic data suggest vertebrate genomes to harbour 142 clades of GPCRs without human orthologues. Among those, 69 have not to our knowledge been mentioned or studied previously in the literature, of which 28 are distant from existing receptors and likely new orphans. These newly identified receptors are candidates for more focused evolutionary studies such as chromosomal mapping as well for in-depth pharmacological characterization. Interestingly, we also show that 37 of the 72 human orphan (or recently deorphanized) receptors included in this study cluster into nineteen closely related groups, which implies that there are less ligands to be identified than previously anticipated. Altogether, this work has significant implications when discussing nomenclature issues for GPCRs.
  • Klein, Antonia; Schultner, Eva; Lowak, Helena; Schrader, Lukas; Heinze, Juergen; Holman, Luke; Oettler, Jan (2016)
    The major transition to eusociality required the evolution of a switch to canalize development into either a reproductive or a helper, the nature of which is currently unknown. Following predictions from the 'theory of facilitated variation', we identify sex differentiation pathways as promising candidates because of their pre-adaptation to regulating development of complex phenotypes. We show that conserved core genes, including the juvenile hormone-sensitive master sex differentiation gene doublesex (dsx) and a kruppel homolog 2 (kr-h2) with putative regulatory function, exhibit both sex and morph-specific expression across life stages in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. We hypothesize that genes in the sex differentiation cascade evolved perception of alternative input signals for caste differentiation (i.e. environmental or genetic cues), and that their inherent switch-like and epistatic behavior facilitated signal transfer to downstream targets, thus allowing them to control differential development into morphological castes.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central elements in the regulatory network that controls plant heat stress response. They are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in heat stress signaling and responses to a variety of other stresses. We identified 41 members of the HSF gene family in moso bamboo, which were distributed non-uniformly across its 19 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo HSF genes could be divided into three major subfamilies; HSFs from the same subfamily shared relatively conserved gene structures and sequences and encoded similar amino acids. All HSF genes contained HSF signature domains. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that about 80% of the HSF proteins were located in the nucleus, consistent with the results of GO enrichment analysis. A large number of stress response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the HSF upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that the HSFs in the moso bamboo genome had greater collinearity with those of rice and maize than with those of Arabidopsis and pepper. Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo HSF gene family. Transcriptome data indicated that the expression of a number of PeHsfs differed in response to exogenous gibberellin (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A number of HSF genes were highly expressed in the panicles and in young shoots, suggesting that they may have functions in reproductive growth and the early development of rapidly-growing shoots. This study provides fundamental information on members of the bamboo HSF gene family and lays a foundation for further study of their biological functions in the regulation of plant responses to adversity.