Browsing by Subject "GENERAL-POPULATION"

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  • Rapo-Pylkkö, Susanna; Haanpää, Maija; Liira, Helena (2017)
    Background: Chronic, mostly musculoskeletal pain is common among older adults. Little is known about the prognosis of chronic pain and the neuropathic pain qualities in older adults. We studied a cohort of community-dwelling older adults, clinically assessed their pain states, classified their type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic or combined) and followed them up for a year. Methods: At baseline, a geriatrician clinically examined all study patients and classified their type of pain in collaboration with a pain specialist. Pain, quality of life and mental health were measured by questionnaires (BPI, GDS-15, BAI and SF-36) and reassessed after 1 year. Results: Despite chronic pain, all patients from the baseline cohort continued to live independently at 1 year. A total of 92 of 106 (87%) patients returned the follow-up questionnaire. Nociceptive pain on its own was present in 48 patients, whereas 44 patients also had neuropathic pain. Most patients (96%) had several pain states at baseline, and 13 patients reported a new pain state at follow-up. On average, there were no significant changes in the pain intensity, pain interference, mood or quality of life in either group between baseline and follow-up. Changes in pain were observed at the individual level, and both intensity and interference of pain at the follow-up had a negative correlation with the baseline value. Conclusions: On average, chronic pain was persistent in our patients, but they were able to live independently despite their pain. At the individual level, both relief and exacerbation of pain were observed, supporting the notion that pain is not inevitable and unremitting among older adults.
  • Hjortsberg, Catharina; Bergman, Annika; Bjarnason, Anton; Heikkila, Hannele; Rielmgren, Jonas; Svensson, Ake; Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson (2011)
  • Markkula, Niina; Lindgren, Maija; Yolken, Robert H.; Suvisaari, Jaana (2020)
    Background Some prevalent infections have been associated with common mental disorders, but there are few longitudinal studies, and results are inconsistent. We aimed to assess whether serological evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) predict development of new-onset depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods In a nationally representative sample of the Finnish adult population aged 30 and over (BRIF8901, n = 8028), IgG antibodies for T. gondii, EBV, HSV-1 and CMV were measured in plasma samples. The population was followed up for 11 years and new-onset depressive and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations were analysed controlling for sex, age, educational level, region of residence and marital status, and in separate analyses also for C-reactive protein level. Results Seropositivity and serointensity of the four infectious agents were not associated with an increased risk of new-onset depressive or anxiety disorders. Seropositivity for CMV at baseline was associated with a lower risk of new-onset generalized anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22–0.86 for CMV positive persons). Conclusion The results of this large, nationally representative longitudinal study suggest that common viral infections are not significant risk factors for common mental disorders. The association of CMV with a lower risk of generalized anxiety disorder warrants further investigation.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Sivertsen, Borge; Kronholm, Erkki; Bin, Yu Sun; Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nick (2018)
    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the interaction of two key determinants of sleep health, quantity and quality, with physical, emotional, and social functioning, in the general population. Design: Nationally-representative Australian cross-sectional study. Setting: General population. Participants: 14,571 people aged 15 or older in Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) in 2013. Measurements: The associations of sleep quality (good/poor) in combination with mid-range (6-8 hours), short (8) sleep duration with functioning, determined from the SF-36, were evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic, relationships, health behaviors, obesity, pain, and mental and physical illness confounders. Results: After adjusting for gender, and age, poor sleep quality in combination with short, mid-range and long sleep was associated with worse physical, emotional and social functioning. Pain and comorbid illness explained much of these associations, while attenuation from other covariates was minor. The associations of poor sleep quality with worse functioning remained after full adjustment regardless of sleep duration, while among people with good quality sleep, only those with long sleep duration reported poorer functioning. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality has robust associations with worse functioning regardless of total duration in the general population. There appears to be a substantial number of functional short sleepers with good quality sleep. (c) 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Pollanen, Petra M.; Lempainen, Johanna; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Toppari, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Vahasalo, Paula; Ilonen, Jorma; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis In this study, we aimed to characterise rapid progressors to type 1 diabetes among children recruited from the general population, on the basis of HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods We monitored 7410 HLA-predisposed children participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study for the development of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes from birth over a median follow-up time of 16.2 years (range 0.9-21.1 years). Islet cell antibodies (ICA) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), GAD (GADA) and islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) were assessed as markers of beta cell autoimmunity. Rapid progression was defined as progression to clinical type 1 diabetes within 1.5 years of autoantibody seroconversion. We analysed the association between rapid progression and demographic and autoantibody characteristics as well as genetic markers, including 25 non-HLA SNPs predisposing to type 1 diabetes. Results Altogether, 1550 children (21%) tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody in at least two samples, and 248 (16%) of seroconverters progressed to type 1 diabetes by the end of 2015. The median time from seroconversion to diagnosis was 0.51 years in rapid progressors (n = 42, 17%) and 5.4 years in slower progressors. Rapid progression was observed both among young (<5 years) and early pubertal children (> 7 years), resulting in a double-peak distribution of seroconversion age. Compared with slower progressors, rapid progressors had a higher frequency of positivity for multiple (>= 2) autoantibodies and had higher titres of ICA, IAA and IA-2A at seroconversion, and there was a higher prevalence of the secretor genotype in the FUT2 gene among those carrying the high-risk HLA genotype. Compared with autoantibody-positive non-progressors, rapid progressors were younger, were more likely to carry the high-risk HLA genotype and a predisposing SNP in the PTPN22 gene, had higher frequency of ICA, IAA, GADA and IA-2A positivity and multipositivity, and had higher titres of all four autoantibodies at seroconversion. Conclusions/interpretation At seroconversion, individuals with rapid progression to type 1 diabetes were characterised by a younger age, higher autoantibody titres, positivity for multiple autoantibodies and higher prevalence of a FUT2 SNP. The double-peak profile for seroconversion age among the rapid progressors demonstrates for the first time that rapid progression may take place not only in young children but also in children in early puberty. Rapid progressors might benefit from careful clinical follow-up and early preventive measures.
  • Kananen, Laura; Surakka, Ida; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ripatti, Samuli; Hovatta, Iiris (2010)
  • Wang, Xin; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Anderson, Todd J.; Britton, Annie R.; Dekker, Jacqueline; Engstrom, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kurl, Sudhir; Lonn, Eva M.; Lorenz, Matthias W.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Nijpels, Giel; Okazaki, Shuhei; Polak, Joseph F.; Price, Jacqueline F.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T.; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L. (2017)
    Background The relation of a single risk factor with atherosclerosis is established. Clinically we know of risk factor clustering within individuals. Yet, studies into the magnitude of the relation of risk factor clusters with atherosclerosis are limited. Here, we assessed that relation. Methods Individual participant data from 14 cohorts, involving 59,025 individuals were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We made 15 clusters of four risk factors (current smoking, overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol). Multilevel age and sex adjusted linear regression models were applied to estimate mean differences in common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between clusters using those without any of the four risk factors as reference group. Results Compared to the reference, those with 1, 2, 3 or 4 risk factors had a significantly higher common CIMT: mean difference of 0.026 mm, 0.052 mm, 0.074 mm and 0.114 mm, respectively. These findings were the same in men and in women, and across ethnic groups. Within each risk factor cluster (1, 2, 3 risk factors), groups with elevated blood pressure had the largest CIMT and those with elevated cholesterol the lowest CIMT, a pattern similar for men and women. Conclusion Clusters of risk factors relate to increased common CIMT in a graded manner, similar in men, women and across race-ethnic groups. Some clusters seemed more atherogenic than others. Our findings support the notion that cardiovascular prevention should focus on sets of risk factors rather than individual levels alone, but may prioritize within clusters.
  • Vuorio, Alpo; Kovanen, Petri T. (2018)
    This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200-250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events. The cumulative exposure of coronary arteries to the lifelong LDL-C elevation can be estimated by calculating the LDL-C burden (LDL-C level x years), and it can also be used to demonstrate the usefulness of dietary stanol ester treatment. Thus, when compared with untreated he-FH patients, the LDL-C burden of using statin from the age of 10 is 15% less, and if he-FH patients starts to use dietary stanol from six years onwards and a combination of statin and dietary stanol from 10 years onwards, the LDL-C burden is 21% less compared to non-treated he-FH patients. We consider dietary stanol treatment of he-FH children as a part of the LDL-C-lowering treatment package as safe and cost-effective, and particularly applicable for the family-centered care of the entire he-FH families.
  • NHLBI TOPMED Lipids Working Grp (2018)
    Large-scale deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now feasible and offers potential advantages for locus discovery. We perform WGS in 16,324 participants from four ancestries at mean depth >29X and analyze genotypes with four quantitative traits-plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Common variant association yields known loci except for few variants previously poorly imputed. Rare coding variant association yields known Mendelian dyslipidemia genes but rare non-coding variant association detects no signals. A high 2M-SNP LDL-C polygenic score (top 5th percentile) confers similar effect size to a monogenic mutation(similar to 30 mg/dl higher for each); however, among those with severe hypercholesterolemia, 23% have a high polygenic score and only 2% carry a monogenic mutation. At these sample sizes and for these phenotypes, the incremental value of WGS for discovery is limited but WGS permits simultaneous assessment of monogenic and polygenic models to severe hypercholesterolemia.
  • Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Waaramaa, Tteija; Alku, Paavo; Geneid, Ahmed (2017)
    Objective. This study aimed to assess teachers' voice symptoms and noise in schools in Upper Egypt and to study possible differences between teachers in public and private schools. Study Design. A cross-sectional analysis via questionnaire was carried out, Methods. Four schools were chosen randomly to represent primary and preparatory schools as well as public and private ones, In these schools, a total of 140 teachers participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire on vocal and throat symptoms and their effects on working and social activities, as well as levels and effects of experienced noise. Results. Of all teachers, 47.9% reported moderate or severe dysphonia within the last 6 months, and 21.4% reported daily dysphonia. All teachers reported frequent feelings of being in noise, with 82.2% feeling it sometimes or always during the working day, resulting in a need to raise their voice. Teachers in public schools experienced more noise from nearby classes. Conclusion. The working conditions and vocal health of teachers in Upper Egypt, especially in public schools, are alarming.
  • Knip, Mikael; Luopajarvi, Kristiina; Harkonen, Taina (2017)
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. The incidence of T1D has increased manifold in most developed countries after World War II in parallel with a series of other immune-mediated diseases. T1D results from gene-environmental interactions. The appearance of disease-associated autoantibodies into the peripheral circulation is the first detectable sign of the initiation of the disease process leading to clinical T1D. The first autoantibodies may appear already before the age of 6 months and the seroconversion rate peaks during the second year of life. This implies that exogenous factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D must be operative in early life, some of them most likely already during pregnancy. Here, we discuss putative endogenous factors that may contribute to the development of T1D during fetal and early postnatal life. Many environmental factors operative in early life have been implicated in the pathogenesis of T1D, but relatively few have been firmly confirmed.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Eranti, Antti; Knekt, Paul; Lehto, Mika; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Aro, Aapo L.; Rissanen, Harri; Heliövaara, Markku; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Huikuri, Heikki; Putaala, Jukka (2017)
    Introduction: Certain electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are associated with ischemic stroke (IS), especially cardioembolic subtype. Besides atrial fibrillation, markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or atrial pathology also reflect elevated risk. We studied the association of ECG markers with IS in young adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study including 567 consecutive IS patients aged 15-49 years (inclusion period: 1994-2007) and one or two age-and sex-matched control subjects enrolled during 1978-1980 (n = 1033), and investigated also the stroke aetiologic subgroups. We studied ECGs of all participants for markers of atrial abnormality, i.e. P-terminal force (PTF) on lead V1, interatrial blocks (IAB; P-wave duration >= 110ms), and LVH. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used. Results: IAB (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.13) and PTF combined with LVH (HR: 6.83, 95% CI: 1.65-28.31), were independently associated with IS. LVH, abnormal P-wave (HR: 6.87, 95% CI: 1.97-135.29), PTF, IAB, and combinations of these P-wave abnormalities with LVH - were associated with cardioembolic subtype. Abnormal P-wave and IAB were associated with cryptogenic stroke subtype. In unadjusted analysis, LVH was associated with small-vessel disease subtype. Conclusion: P-wave abnormalities on ECG were associated with cardioembolic but also with a cryptogenic subtype of IS.
  • Terho, Henri K.; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Kenttä, Tuomas V.; Junttila, Juhani M.; Aro, Aapo L.; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A.; Knekt, Paul; Huikuri, Heikki V. (2018)
    Background: Abnormal 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and proposing its ability for enhanced risk prediction, majority of the studies have been carried out with elderly populations with prior cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to denote the association of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and various abnormal ECG morphologies using middle-aged population without a known cardiac disease. Methods: In total, 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 42 +/- 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease were included in this study. Risk for SCD was assessed after 10 and 30-years of follow-up. Results: Abnormal ECG was present in 16.3% (N = 1548) of subjects. The incidence of SCD was distinctly higher among those with any ECG abnormality in 10 and 30-year follow-ups (1.7/1000 years vs. 0.6/1000 years, P <0.001; 3.4;1000 years vs. 1.9/1000 years, P <0.001). At 10-year point, competing risk multivariate regression model showed HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.0-2.6, P = 0.05) for SCD in subjects with abnormal ECG. QRS duration 110 ms, QRST-angle > 100', left ventricular hypertrophy, and T-wave inversions were the most significant independent ECG risk markers for 10-year SCD prediction with up to 3-fold risk for SCD. Those with ECG abnormalities had a 1.3-fold risk (95% CI 1.07-1.57, P - 0.007) for SCD in 30-year follow-up, whereas QRST-angle > 100 degrees, LVH, ER 0.1 mV and 0.2 mV were the strongest individual predictors. Subjects with multiple ECG abnormalities had up to 6.6-fold risk for SCD (P <0.001). Conclusion: Several ECG abnormalities are associated with the occurrence of early and late SCD events in the middle-age subjects without known history of cardiac disease. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Lampi, Jussi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Pasanen, Markku; Voutilainen, Raimo; Pekkanen, Juha; Sainio, Markku (2018)
    The purpose was to study the prevalence of environmental intolerance (EI) and its different manifestations, including behavioral changes and disability. Fertile-aged women (n = 680) of the Kuopio Birth Cohort Study were asked about annoyance to 12 environmental factors, symptoms and behavioral changes. We asked how much the intolerance had disrupted their work, household responsibilities or social life. We chose intolerance attributed to chemicals, indoor molds, and electromagnetic fields to represent typical intolerance entities. Of the respondents, 46% reported annoyance to chemicals, molds, or electromagnetic fields. Thirty-three percent reported symptoms relating to at least one of these three EIs, 18% reported symptoms that included central nervous system symptoms, and 15% reported behavioral changes. Indicating disability, 8.4% reported their experience relating to any of the three EIs as at least "somewhat difficult", 2.2% "very difficult" or "extremely difficult", and 0.9% "extremely difficult". Of the latter 2.2%, all attributed their intolerance to indoor molds, and two thirds also to chemicals. As the number of difficulties increased, the number of organ systems, behavioral changes and overlaps of the three EIs also grew. EI is a heterogeneous phenomenon and its prevalence depends on its definition. The manifestations of EI form a continuum, ranging from annoyance to severe disability.
  • Irfan, Furqan B.; Bhutta, Zain Ali; Castren, Maaret; Straney, Lahn; Djarv, Therese; Tariq, Tooba; Thomas, Stephen Hodges; Alinier, Guillaume; Al Shaikh, Loua; Owen, Robert Campbell; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Singh, Rajvir; Cameron, Peter Alistair (2016)
    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) studies from the Middle East and Asian region are limited. This study describes the epidemiology, emergency health services, and outcomes of OHCA in Qatar. Methods: This was a prospective nationwide population-based observational study on OHCA patients in Qatar according to Utstein style guidelines, from June 2012 to May 2013. Data was collected from various sources; the national emergency medical service, 4 emergency departments, and 8 public hospitals. Results: The annual crude incidence of presumed cardiac OHCA attended by EMS was 23.5 per 100,000. The age sex standardized incidence was 87.8 per 100,000 population. Of the 447 OHCA patients included in the final analysis, most were male (n = 360, 80.5%) with median age of 51 years (IQR = 39-66). Frequently observed nationalities were Qatari (n = 89, 19.9%), Indian (n = 74, 16.6%) and Nepalese (n = 52, 11.6%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was carried out in 92 (20.6%) OHCA patients. Survival rate was 8.1% (n = 36) and multivariable logistic regression indicated that initial shockable rhythm (OR 13.4, 95% CI 5.4-33.3, p = 0.001) was associated with higher odds of survival while male gender (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.1-0.8, p = 0.01) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p = 0.02) were associated with lower odds of survival. Conclusions: Standardized incidence and survival rates were comparable to Western countries. Although expatriates comprise more than 80% of the population, Qataris contributed 20% of the total cardiac arrests observed. There are significant opportunities to improve outcomes, including community-based CPR and defibrillation training. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Baryshnikov, Ilya; Aaltonen, Kari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Koivisto, Maaria; Heikkinen, Martti; Joffe, Grigori; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Background: Psychosis-like experiences (PEs) are common in patients with non-psychotic disorders. Several factors predict reporting of PEs in mood disorders, including mood-associated cognitive biases, anxiety and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Childhood traumatic experiences (CEs), often reported by patients with BPD, are an important risk factor for mental disorders. We hypothesized that features of BPD may mediate the relationship between CEs and PEs. In this study, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PEs, CEs and features of BPD in patients with mood disorders. Methods: As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42) and Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Results: Total scores of MSI correlated strongly with scores of the CAPE-42 dimension "frequency of positive symptoms" (rho = 0.56; p Conclusions: Self-reported cognitive-perceptual symptoms of BPD fully mediate, while affective, behavioural and interpersonal symptoms only partially mediate the relationships between CEs and PEs. Recognition of co-morbid features of BPD in patients with mood disorders reporting PEs is essential. (c) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Toukola, Tomi; Junttila, M. Juhani; Holmström, Lauri T. A.; Haukilahti, M. Anette; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Terho, Henri; Kenttä, Tuomas V.; Aro, Aapo L.; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Pakanen, Lasse; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V. (2018)
    Introduction: Little is known about the association between electrocardiographic abnormalities and exercise-related sudden cardiac death.Therefore, our aim was to identify possible electrocardiographic findings related to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death. Methods and results: The FinGesture study includes 3,989 consecutive sudden cardiac deaths in northern Finland between 1998 and 2012, out of whom a total of 647 subjects had a previously recorded electrocardiography acquired from the archives of Oulu University Hospital. In 276 of these cases the death was witnessed, and the activity at the time of death was either rest or physical exercise (PEj; in 40 {14%} cases sudden cardiac death was exercise-related and in 236 (86%) cases death took place at rest. Fragmented QRS complex in at least two consecutive leads within anterior leads (V1-V3) was more common in the exercise-group compared to rest-group (17 of 40, 43% vs. 51 of 236,22%, P = 0.005). Pathologic Q wave in anterior leads was more common in the PE group (9 of 40,23% vs. 26 of 236,11%; P = 0.044). Median QRS duration was prolonged in the exercise-group compared to the rest-group (100 milliseconds vs. 94 milliseconds, P = 0.047), QTc interval, the prevalence of inverted T-waves, or other electrocardiographic abnormalities did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: As a conclusion, fragmented QRS complex in the anterior leads is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death during PE.
  • CTR-TBI Participants Investigators; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Brunborg, Cathrine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Background Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported subjective symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aims were to assess frequency of fatigue over the first 6 months after TBI, and examine whether fatigue changes could be predicted by demographic characteristics, injury severity and comorbidities. Methods Patients with acute TBI admitted to 65 trauma centers were enrolled in the study Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI). Subjective fatigue was measured by single item on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), administered at baseline, three and 6 months postinjury. Patients were categorized by clinical care pathway: admitted to an emergency room (ER), a ward (ADM) or an intensive care unit (ICU). Injury severity, preinjury somatic- and psychiatric conditions, depressive and sleep problems were registered at baseline. For prediction of fatigue changes, descriptive statistics and mixed effect logistic regression analysis are reported. Results Fatigue was experienced by 47% of patients at baseline, 48% at 3 months and 46% at 6 months. Patients admitted to ICU had a higher probability of experiencing fatigue than those in ER and ADM strata. Females and individuals with lower age, higher education, more severe intracranial injury, preinjury somatic and psychiatric conditions, sleep disturbance and feeling depressed postinjury had a higher probability of fatigue. Conclusion A high and stable frequency of fatigue was found during the first 6 months after TBI. Specific socio-demographic factors, comorbidities and injury severity characteristics were predictors of fatigue in this study.
  • Edgren, Robert; Castren, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2017)
    The expansion of online gambling opportunities calls for better comprehension of online gambling, including relevant gender specific correlates. This study compared online and land-based gamblers among males and females separately, utilizing a nationally representative Finnish survey sample of 18-74 year olds. Online gamblers were younger than land-based gamblers and had full-time working status more often than land-based gamblers, with partial indication of land-based gamblers' monthly income being lower. Online gambling was associated with participation in computer or video gaming more strongly than with land-based gambling. Results show that the strongest predictors of online gambling common to both genders were younger age, computer gaming and gambling on multiple gambling types. Risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were not associated to gambling mode when controlling for other factors. Results indicate that particularly for females online gambling may be related to higher relative expenditure and at-risk and problem gambling, providing implications for tailored interventions. The continued study of subgroups of gamblers is necessary to comprehensively understand the altering gambling milieu. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.