Browsing by Subject "GENERAL-RELATIVITY"

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  • Rasanen, Syksy (2014)
  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    If the FRW metric is a good approximation on large scales, then the distance and the expansion rate, as well different notions of distance, satisfy certain consistency conditions. We fit the JLA SNIa distance data to determine the expected amplitude of the violation of these conditions if accelerated expansion is due to backreaction. Adding cosmic clock and BAO expansion rate data, we also model-independently determine the current observational limits on such violation. We find that the predicted maximum backreaction amplitude vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1 (95% C.I.) is of the same order as the current observational constraints vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1, the precise numbers depending on the adopted fitting method (polynomials or splines) and stellar population evolution model. We also find that constraints on the value of Ho determined from expansion rate data are sensitive to the stellar evolution model. We forecast constraints from projected LSST+Euclid-like SNIa plus Euclid galaxy differential age data. We find improvement by factor of 6 for the backreaction case and 3 for the model-independent case, probing an interesting region of possible signatures.
  • Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Oksanen, Markku; Bufalo, Rodrigo (2017)
    We study the quantization of two versions of unimodular gravity, namely fully diffeomorphism-invariant unimodular gravity and unimodular gravity with fixed metric determinant, utilizing standard path integral approach. We derive the BRST symmetry of effective actions corresponding to several relevant gauge conditions. We observe that for some gauge conditions, the restricted gauge structure may complicate the formulation and effective actions, in particular, if the chosen gauge conditions involve the canonical momentum conjugate to the induced metric on the spatial hypersurface. The BRST symmetry is extended further to the finite field-dependent BRST transformation, in order to establish the mapping between different gauge conditions in each of the two versions of unimodular gravity.
  • Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy (2015)
    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of LemaitreTolman-Bondi holes in Lambda CDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r(b) = 50 h(-1) Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB. We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit vertical bar Delta D-A/(D) over bar (A)vertical bar less than or similar to 10(-4). We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1 sigma, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Nurmi, Sami; Rasanen, Syksy; Tomberg, Eemeli (2021)
    We study Higgs inflation in the Palatini formulation with the renormalisation group improved potential in the case when loop corrections generate a feature similar to an inflection point. Assuming that there is a threshold correction for the Higgs quartic coupling lambda and the top Yukawa coupling y(t), we scan the three-dimensional parameter space formed by the two jumps and the non-minimal coupling xi .The spectral index n(s) can take any value in the observationally allowed range. The lower limit for the running is alpha (s)> -3.5 x 10(-3), and alpha (s) can be as large as the observational upper limit. Running of the running is small. The tensor-to-scalar ratio is 2.2x10(-17)< r < 2 x 10(-5). We find that slow-roll can be violated near the feature, and a possible period of ultra-slow-roll contributes to the widening of the range of CMB predictions. Nevertheless, for the simplest tree-level action, the Palatini formulation remains distinguishable from the metric formulation even when quantum corrections are taken into account, because of the small tensor-to-scalar ratio.
  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    We evaluate the effect of structure formation on the average expansion rate with a statistical treatment where density peaks and troughs are modelled as homogeneous ellipsoids. This extends earlier work that used spherical regions. We find that the shear and the presence of filamentary and planar structures have only a small impact on the results. The expansion rate times the age of the universe Ht increases from 2/3 to 0.83 at late times, in order of magnitude agreement with observations, although the change is slower and takes longer than in the real universe. We discuss shortcomings that have to be addressed for this and similar statistical models in the literature to develop into realistic quantitative treatment of backreaction.
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Enqvist, Kari; Räsänen, Syksy; Tomberg, Eemeli (2018)
    We study inflation with the non-minimally coupled Standard Model Higgs in the case when quantum corrections generate a hilltop in the potential. We consider both the metric and the Palatini formulation of general relativity. We investigate hilltop inflation in different parts of the Higgs potential and calculate predictions for CMB observables. We run the renormalization group equations up from the electroweak scale and down from the hilltop, adding a jump in-between to account for unknown corrections in the intermediate regime. Within our approximation, no viable hilltop inflation is possible for small field values, where the non-minimal coupling has no role, nor for intermediate field values. For large field values, hilltop inflation works. We find the spectral index to be n(s)
  • Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Pyry (2017)
    We compare Higgs inflation in the metric and Palatini formulations of general relativity, with loop corrections treated in a simple approximation. We consider Higgs inflation on the plateau, at a critical point, at a hilltop and in a false vacuum. In the last case there are only minor differences. Otherwise we find that in the Palatini formulation the tensor-to-scalar ratio is consistently suppressed, spanning the range 1 x 10-(13) <r <7 x 10(-5), compared to the metric case result 2 x 10(-5) <r <0.2. Even when the values of n(s) and r overlap, the running and running of the running are different in the two formulations. Therefore, if Higgs is the inflaton, inflationary observables can be used to distinguish between different gravitational degrees of freedom, in this case to determine whether the connection is an independent variable. Non-detection of r in foreseeable future observations would not rule out Higgs inflation, only its metric variant. We conclude that in order to fix the theory of Higgs inflation, not only the particle physics UV completion but also the gravitational degrees of freedom have to be explicated.
  • Annala, Jaakko; Rasanen, Syksy (2021)
    We study inflation with the most general non-degenerate gravitational action that depends on the symmetric part of the Ricci tensor coupled to a scalar field in the Palatini formulation of gravity. We use field redefinitions to shift the effect of the Ricci terms from gravity to the scalar field, and apply the result to slow-roll inflation. As examples, we consider actions quadratic and cubic in the Ricci tensor. In the quadratic case the results are similar to the case R + alpha R-2 that has been studied earlier: the tensor-to-scalar ratio r can be suppressed by an arbitrary amount, while the scalar spectrum is unaffected. In the cubic case, r can be suppressed by at most a factor of 2/9, and the change in the scalar spectral index n(s) can be large.
  • Buchert, T.; Carfora, M.; Ellis, G. F. R.; Kolb, E. W.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Ostrowski, J. J.; Räsänen, S.; Roukema, B. F.; Andersson, L.; Coley, A. A.; Wiltshire, D. L. (2015)
    No. In a number of papers, Green and Wald argue that the standard FLRW model approximates our Universe extremely well on all scales, except close to strong-field astrophysical objects. In particular, they argue that the effect of inhomogeneities on average properties of the Universe (backreaction) is irrelevant. We show that this latter claim is not valid. Specifically, we demonstrate, referring to their recent review paper, that (i) their two-dimensional example used to illustrate the fitting problem differs from the actual problem in important respects, and it assumes what is to be proven; (ii) the proof of the trace-free property of backreaction is unphysical and the theorem about it fails to be a mathematically general statement; (iii) the scheme that underlies the trace-free theorem does not involve averaging and therefore does not capture crucial non-local effects; (iv) their arguments are to a large extent coordinate-dependent, and (v) many of their criticisms of backreaction frameworks do not apply to the published definitions of these frameworks. It is therefore incorrect to infer that Green and Wald have proven a general result that addresses the essential physical questions of backreaction in cosmology.
  • Nättilä, J.; Pihajoki, P. (2018)
    A theoretical framework for emission originating from rapidly rotating oblate compact objects is described in detail. Using a Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, we show that special relativistic rotational effects such as aberration of angles, Doppler boosting, and time dilatation naturally emerge from the general relativistic treatment of rotating compact objects. We use the Butterworth-Ipser metric expanded up to the second order in rotation and hence include effects of light bending, frame-dragging, and quadrupole deviations on our geodesic calculations. We also give detailed descriptions of the numerical algorithms used and provide an open-source implementation of the numerical framework called BENDER. As an application, we study spectral line profiles (i.e., smearing kernels) from rapidly rotating oblate neutron stars. We find that in this metric description, the second-order quadrupole effects are not strong enough to produce narrow observable features in the spectral energy distribution for almost any physically realistic parameter combination, and hence, actually detecting them is unlikely. The full width at tenth-maximum and full width at half-maximum of the rotation smearing kernels are also reported for all viewing angles. These can then be used to quantitatively estimate the effects of rotational smearing on the observed spectra. We also calculate accurate pulse profiles and observer skymaps of emission from hot spots on rapidly rotating accreting millisecond pulsars. These allow us to quantify the strength of the pulse fractions one expects to observe from typical fast-spinning millisecond pulsars.
  • Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Koivisto, Tomi (2020)
    The geometrical formulation of gravity is not unique and can be set up in a variety of spacetimes. Even though the gravitational sector enjoys this freedom of different geometrical interpretations, consistent matter couplings have to be assured for a steady foundation of gravity. In generalised geometries, further ambiguities arise in the matter couplings unless the minimal coupling principle (MCP) is adopted that is compatible with the principles of relativity, universality and inertia. In this work, MCP is applied to all standard model gauge fields and matter fields in a completely general (linear) affine geometry. This is also discussed from an effective field theory perspective. It is found that the presence of torsion generically leads to theoretical problems. However, symmetric teleparallelism, wherein the affine geometry is integrable and torsion-free, is consistent with MCP. The generalised Bianchi identity is derived and shown to determine the dynamics of the connection in a unified fashion. Also, the parallel transport with respect to a teleparallel connection is shown to be free of second clock effects.
  • Seoane, Pau Amaro; Sedda, Manuel Arca; Babak, Stanislav; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Berti, Emanuele; Bertone, Gianfranco; Blas, Diego; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Bonetti, Matteo; Breivik, Katelyn; Brito, Richard; Caldwell, Robert; Capelo, Pedro R.; Caprini, Chiara; Cardoso, Vitor; Carson, Zack; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Chua, Alvin J. K.; Dvorkin, Irina; Haiman, Zoltan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Isi, Maximiliano; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Mangiagli, Alberto; Marcoccia, Paolo; Maselli, Andrea; Nardini, Germano; Pani, Paolo; Peloso, Marco; Pieroni, Mauro; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sesana, Alberto; Tamanini, Nicola; Toubiana, Alexandre; Valiante, Rosa; Vretinaris, Stamatis; Weir, David J.; Yagi, Kent; Zimmerman, Aaron (2022)
    The science objectives of the LISA mission have been defined under the implicit assumption of a 4-years continuous data stream. Based on the performance of LISA Pathfinder, it is now expected that LISA will have a duty cycle of approximate to 0.75, which would reduce the effective span of usable data to 3 years. This paper reports the results of a study by the LISA Science Group, which was charged with assessing the additional science return of increasing the mission lifetime. We explore various observational scenarios to assess the impact of mission duration on the main science objectives of the mission. We find that the science investigations most affected by mission duration concern the search for seed black holes at cosmic dawn, as well as the study of stellar-origin black holes and of their formation channels via multi-band and multi-messenger observations. We conclude that an extension to 6 years of mission operations is recommended.
  • Dey, Lankeswar; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Valtonen, Mauri; Zola, Stanislaw; Susobhanan, Abhimanyu; Hudec, Rene; Pihajoki, Pauli; Pursimo, Tapio; Berdyugin, Andrei; Piirola, Vilppu; Ciprini, Stefano; Nilsson, Kari; Jermak, Helen; Kidger, Mark; Komossa, Stefanie (2019)
    The bright blazar OJ 287 is the best-known candidate for hosting a nanohertz gravitational wave (GW) emitting supermassive binary black hole (SMBBH) in the present observable universe. The binary black hole (BBH) central engine model, proposed by Lehto and Valtonen in 1996, was influenced by the two distinct periodicities inferred from the optical light curve of OJ 287. The current improved model employs an accurate general relativistic description to track the trajectory of the secondary black hole (BH) which is crucial to predict the inherent impact flares of OJ 287. The successful observations of three predicted impact flares open up the possibility of using this BBH system to test general relativity in a hitherto unexplored strong field regime. Additionally, we briefly describe an ongoing effort to interpret observations of OJ 287 in a Bayesian framework.
  • Långvik, Miklos; Speziale, Simone (2016)
    The twisted geometries of spin network states are described by simple twistors, isomorphic to null twistors with a timelike direction singled out. The isomorphism depends on the Immirzi parameter gamma and reduces to the identity for gamma = infinity. Using this twistorial representation, we study the action of the conformal group SU(2,2) on the classical phase space of loop quantum gravity, described by twisted geometry. The generators of translations and conformal boosts do not preserve the geometric structure, whereas the dilatation generator does. It corresponds to a one-parameter family of embeddings of T*SL(2, C) in twistor space, and its action preserves the intrinsic geometry while changing the extrinsic one-that is the boosts among polyhedra. We discuss the implication of this action from a dynamical point of view and compare it with a discretization of the dilatation generator of the continuum phase space, given by the Lie derivative of the group character. At leading order in the continuum limit, the latter reproduces the same transformation of the extrinsic geometry, while also rescaling the areas and volumes and preserving the angles associated with the intrinsic geometry. Away from the continuum limit, its action has an interesting nonlinear structure but is in general incompatible with the closure constraint needed for the geometric interpretation. As a side result, we compute the precise relation between the extrinsic geometry used in twisted geometries and the one defined in the gauge-invariant parametrization by Dittrich and Ryan and show that the secondary simplicity constraints they posited coincide with those dynamically derived in the toy model of [Classical Quantum Gravity 32, 195015 (2015)].