Browsing by Subject "GEOCHEMISTRY"

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  • Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Kietaevaeinen, Riikka; Raulio, Mari; Soro, Aino; Purkamo, Lotta; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Bomberg, Malin (2022)
    The deep terrestrial biosphere hosts vast sessile rock surface communities and biofilms, but thus far, mostly planktic communities have been studied. We enriched deep subsurface microbial communities on mica schist in microcosms containing bedrock groundwater from the depth of 500 m from Outokumpu, Finland. The biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy, revealing numerous different microbial cell morphologies and attachment strategies on the mica schist surface, e.g., bacteria with outer membrane vesicle-like structures, hair-like extracellular extensions, and long tubular cell structures expanding over hundreds of micrometers over mica schist surfaces. Bacterial communities were analyzed with amplicon sequencing showing that Pseudomonas, Desulfosporosinus, Hydrogenophaga, and Brevundimonas genera dominated communities after 8-40 months of incubation. A total of 21 metagenome assembled genomes from sessile rock surface metagenomes identified genes involved in biofilm formation, as well as a wide variety of metabolic traits indicating a high degree of environmental adaptivity to oligotrophic environment and potential for shifting between multiple energy or carbon sources. In addition, we detected ubiquitous organic carbon oxidation and capacity for arsenate and selenate reduction within our rocky MAGs. Our results agree with the previously suggested interaction between the deep subsurface microbial communities and the rock surfaces, and that this interaction could be crucial for sustaining life in the harsh anoxic and oligotrophic deep subsurface of crystalline bedrock environment.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Virtanen, Elina A.; Kostamo, Kirsi; Lappalainen, Juho; Kotilainen, Aarno T. (2019)
    Ferromanganese (FeMn) concretions are mineral precipitates found on soft sediment seafloors both in the deep sea and coastal sea areas. These mineral deposits potentially form a three-dimensional habitat for marine organisms, and contain minerals targeted by an emerging seabed mining industry. While FeMn concretions are known to occur abundantly in coastal sea areas, specific information on their spatial distribution and significance for marine ecosystems is lacking. Here, we examine the distribution of FeMn concretions in Finnish marine areas. Drawing on an extensive dataset of 140,000 sites visited by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU), we examine the occurrence of FeMn concretions from seabed mapping, and use spatial modeling techniques to estimate the potential coverage of FeMn concretions. Using seafloor characteristics and hydrographical conditions as predictor variables, we demonstrate that the extent of seafloors covered by concretions in the northern Baltic Sea is larger than anticipated, as concretions were found at similar to 7000 sites, and were projected to occur on over 11% of the Finnish sea areas. These results provide new insights into seafloor complexity in coastal sea areas, and further enable examining the ecological role and resource potential of seabed mineral concretions.
  • Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Islam, Md. Safiqul; Ahmed, Kousik; Rahman, Masudur; Datta, Dilip Kumar; Khan, M. Shah Alam (2018)
    Despite its complexity and importance in managing water resources in populous deltas, especially in tidal areas, literatures on tidal rivers and their land use linkage in connection to water quality and pollution are rare. Such information is of prior need for Integrated Water Resource Management in water scarce and climate change vulnerable regions, such as the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Using water quality indices and multivariate analysis, we present here the land use signatures of a dying tidal river due to anthropogenic perturbation. Correlation matrix, hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis, and bio-geo-chemical fingerprints were used to quantify the hydro-chemical and anthropogenic processes and identify factors influencing the ionic concentrations. The results show remarkable spatial and temporal variations (p <0.05) in water quality parameters. The lowest solute concentrations are observed at the mid reach of the stream where the agricultural and urban wastewater mix. Agricultural sites show higher concentration of DO, Na+ and K+ reflecting the effects of tidal spill-over and shrimp wastewater effluents nearby. Higher level of Salinity, EC, Cl-, HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and TSS characterize the urban sites indicating a signature of land use dominated by direct discharge of household organic waste into the waters. The spatial variation in overall water quality suggests a periodic enhancement of quality especially for irrigation and non-drinking purposes during monsoon and post-monsoon, indicating significant influence of amount of rainfall in the basin. We recommend that, given the recent trend of increasing precipitation and ground water table decrease, such dying tidal river basins may serve as excellent surface water reservoir to supplement quality water supply to the region.
  • Dodd, Matthew S.; Papineau, Dominic; Pirajno, Franco; Wan, Yusheng; Karhu, Juha A. (2019)
    The cycling of iron and organic matter (OM) is thought to have been a major biogeochemical cycle in the early ferruginous oceans which contributed to the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF). However, BIF are deficient in OM, which is postulated to be the result of near-complete oxidation of OM during iron reduction. We test this idea by documenting the prevalence of OM in clays within BIF and clays in shales associated with BIF. We find in shales >80% of OM occurs in clays, but
  • Kylander, Malin E.; Plikk, Anna; Rydberg, Johan; Löwemark, Ludvig; Salonen, J. Sakari; Fernandez-Fernandez, Maria; Helmens, Karin (2018)
    Biological proxies from the Sokli Eemian (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) paleolake sequence from northeast Finland have previously shown that, unlike many postglacial records from boreal sites, the lake becomes increasingly eutrophic over time. Here, principal components (PC) were extracted from a high resolution multi-element XRF core scanning dataset to describe minerogenic input from the wider catchment (PC1), the input of S, Fe, Mn, and Ca-rich detrital material from the surrounding Sokli Carbonatite Massif (PC2), and chemical weathering (PC3). Minerogenic inputs to the lake were elevated early in the record and during two abrupt cooling events when soils and vegetation in the catchment were poor. Chemical weathering in the catchment generally increased over time, coinciding with higher air temperatures, catchment productivity, and the presence of acidic conifer species. Abiotic edaphic processes play a key role in lake ontogeny at this site stemming from the base cation- and nutrient-rich bedrock, which supports lake alkalinity and productivity. The climate history at this site, and its integrated effects on the lake system, appear to override development processes and alters its long-term trajectory.
  • Yli-Halla, Markku; Virtanen, Seija; Regina, Kristiina; Österholm, Peter; Ehnvall, Betty; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana (2020)
    Besides causing acidification, acid sulfate (AS) soils contain large nitrogen (N) stocks and are a potential source of N loading to waters and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We quantified the stocks and flows of N, including crop yields, N leaching, and N2O emissions, in a cultivated AS soil in western Finland. We also investigated whether controlled drainage (CD) and sub-irrigation (CDI) to keep the sulfidic horizons inundated can alleviate N losses. Total N stock at 0-100 cm (19.5 Mg ha(-1)) was smaller than at 100-200 cm (26.6 Mg ha(-1)), and the mineral N stock was largest below 170 cm. Annual N leaching (31-91 kg N ha(-1)) plus N in harvested grain (74-122 kg N ha(-1)) was 148% (range 118-189%) of N applied in fertilizers (90-125 kg N ha(-1)) in 2011-2017, suggesting substantial N supply from soil reserves. Annual emissions of N2O measured during 2 years were 8-28 kg N ha(-1). The most probable reasons for high N2O emission rates in AS soils are concomitant large mineral N pools with fluctuating redox conditions and low pH in the oxidized subsoil, all favoring formation of N2O in nitrification and denitrification. Although the groundwater level was higher in CD and CDI than in conventional drainage, N load and crop offtake did not differ between the drainage methods, but there were differences in emissions. Nitrogen flows to the atmosphere and drainage water were clearly larger than those in non-AS mineral soils indicating that AS soils are potential hotspots of environmental impacts.
  • Wasiljeff, Joonas; Salminen, Johanna; Stenman, Jarkko; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Kaakinen, Anu (2022)
    The aridification of Central Asia since the Eocene has widespread evidence, but climate-controlled environmental reorganizations during the Oligocene remain ambiguous. We employed environmental magnetic, mineralogical and geochemical methods on a latest Eocene to late Oligocene terrestrial sequence in Inner Mongolia, China, to examine how global climatic trends and regional factors influenced the evolution of moisture and weathering in the region. Highlighting the climatic influence, our weathering and rainfall proxy data document the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling during the early Oligocene semi-arid phase, which culminated in the Early Oligocene Aridification Event at 31 Ma. Moreover, for the first time in the terrestrial eastern Central Asian setting, we provide geochemical and geophysical evidence for a second major Oligocene aridification event nearly synchronous to the mid-Oligocene Glacial Maximum at around 28 Ma. These aridification events were interrupted by periods of increased rainfall and weathering and can be associated with the terminations of glacial events seen in marine oxygen isotope records.
  • Järvinen, Ville; Halkoaho, Tapio; Konnunaho, Jukka; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Rämö, O. Tapani (2020)
    About 20 mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the northern Fennoscandian shield were emplaced during a widespread magmatic event at 2.5-2.4 Ga. The intrusions host orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE and Cr-V-Ti-Fe deposits. We update the magmatic stratigraphy of the 2.44-Ga Näränkävaara mafic-ultramafic body, northeastern Finland, on the basis of new drill core and outcrop observations. The Näränkävaara body consists of an extensive basal dunite (1700 m thick), and a layered series comprising a peridotitic-pyroxenitic ultramafic zone (600 m thick) and a gabbronoritic-dioritic mafic zone (700 m thick). Two reversals are found in the layered series. The composition of the layered series parental magma was approximated using a previously unidentified marginal series gabbronorite. The parental magma was siliceous high-Mg basalt with high MgO, Ni, and Cr, but also high SiO2 and Zr, which suggests primary magma contamination by felsic crust. Cu/Pd ratio below that of primitive mantle implies PGE-fertility. The structural position of the marginal series indicates that the thick basal dunite represents an older wallrock for the layered intrusion. A subeconomic reef-type PGE-enriched zone is found in the border zone between the ultramafic and mafic zones and has an average thickness of 25 m with 150-250 ppb of Pt + Pd + Au. Offset-type metal distribution and high sulfide tenor (50-300 ppm Pd) and R-factor (105) suggest reef formation by sulfide saturation induced by fractional crystallization. The reef-forming process was probably interrupted by influx of magma related to the first reversal. Metal ratios suggest that this replenishing magma was PGE-depleted before emplacement.
  • Veikkolainen, Toni Henri Kristian; Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio; Näslund, Jens-Ove (2019)
    In northern Europe, radiogenic heat production of surface rocks has been extensively studied in Finland and Norway alike. This paper presents a heat production analysis of Sweden, based on a rock outcrop data compilation obtained from the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). The study area comprises Precambrian Shield, Caledonian and platform cover areas. Altogether 39933 samples with uranium, thorium and potassium concentration (C-U, C-Th and C-K) and density () data were available. Heat production (HP) was calculated using raw point data, binning on a regular grid, and averaging by bedrock units in the geological map. Methods based on raw point data and grid-based binning resulted in HP values of 2.5 +/- 4.1 and 2.5 +/- 5.6 Wm(-3), respectively, while averaging by lithology produced a lower value of 2.4 +/- 1.7 Wm(-3). Limiting the lithology-based averaging to Precambrian bedrockareas resulted in heat production of 2.4 +/- 1.6 Wm(-3). Due to the small geographic extent of area covered by sediments, this is similar to the Precambrian-only value. Regardless of the calculation method, heat production in Sweden is considerably higher than the corresponding value for Finland. The Swedish platform cover had apparently the lowestheat production (1.0 +/- 1.8 Wm(-3)) of all units but the presence of Precambrian rocks below the sediments means that this value strongly misleads if used to represent the entire upper crust. Svecokarelian (Svecofennian) and Sveconorwegian rocks, which comprised 94.0 per cent of all individual observations, had heat production values of 2.6 +/- 1.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mu Wm(-3), respectively. Although the Swedish data still have large spatial gaps when compared to Finnish data, most bedrock units in Sweden are covered. It is obvious that the higher heat flow of Sweden compared to that of Finland is caused by near-surface (i.e. upper crustal) heat production, and crustal differentiation in Sweden is also larger.
  • Jarvinen, Ville; Halkoaho, Tapio; Konnunaho, Jukka; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Ramo, O. Tapani (2021)
    Several mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions were emplaced in the Fennoscandian Shield during wide-spread mantle-sourced magmatism at 2.5-2.4 Ga. The Narankavaara intrusion (surface area 5 x 30 km(2)), northeastern Finland, contains a 1.5-2 km thick basal dunite (not dated), and a 1.5 km thick layered series (2436 +/- 5 Ma). A newly discovered marginal series between the basal dunite and the layered series indicates that the basal dunite is older, and highlights the need for further study on their relationship. Along its southern basement contact, the basal dunite contains a 200-300 m thick zone of olivine ortho- and mesocumulates, but the bulk of it is composed of olivine adcumulates and lesser olivine-orthopyroxene heteradcumulates. Based on whole-rock geochemistry, the basal dunite is divided into a low-Fe zone (average FeOt 10.2 wt% and Ni 2250 ppm) and a high-Fe zone (average FeOt 12.5 wt% and Ni 1700 ppm). Both zones have high MgO (32-47 wt%) and varying Cr (830-5160 ppm) and Al2O3/TiO2 (16-26). Textural and geochemical layering is similar along the 30 km strike of the basal dunite. A LREE-enriched high-MgO basaltic parental magma composition (13-18 wt% MgO) is inferred for the basal dunite from olivine-melt mixing trends in orthocumulates. The dunite exhibits at least two geochemical reversals as well as abundant low-porosity adcumulates, poikilitic chromite, and bimodal olivine, suggesting formation in a high-volume open magmatic system. Significant similarity in major and trace element compositions with the Narankavaara layered series and the Burakovsky intrusion and Vetreny belt extrusives in Russian Karelia suggests that the basal dunite belongs to the Fennoscandian 2.5-2.4 Ga mafic layered intrusions. An Archean komatiitic origin for the dunite body cannot be completely ruled out, however. Distinct Ni-depletion in olivine is found in the basal dunite from the low-Fe zone to the high-Fe zone (3200 versus 2200 ppm). This depletion does not correlate with Fo contents, which suggests that it is not related to olivine fractionation. The basal dunite may thus have potential for Ni-(Cu-Co-PGE) sulfide mineralization.
  • Lorenzon, Marta; Iacovou, Maria (2019)
    Excavations conducted in the context of the Palaepaphos Urban Landscape Project (PULP) have revealed a defensive monument of the Cypro-Classical period (fifth and fourth centuries BCE), which had been preserved under an anthropogenic mound (tumulus) of the 3rd century BCE. Besides stone-work, the construction of the monumental rampart made extensive use of mudbricks. In 2016–2017, PULP introduced a pilot study based on analytical techniques (pXRF, SEM-EDS, granulometric and petrographic analysis) to address issues relating to the manufacture and construction of the earthen architecture of the rampart. The paper presents a description of the geoarchaeological analyses and their results, which have highlighted specific manufacturing practices in relation to the construction of the monument. Given that the rampart constituted a major investment of the royal authorities of ancient Paphos, the results provide new information on the production of earthen building materials and also on environmental choices with respect to raw material selection in the context of a public project carried out by a central authority circa the mid first millennium BCE.
  • Unger Moreno, Katharina A.; Thal, Janis; Bach, Wolfgang; Beier, Christoph; Haase, Karsten M. (2021)
    The formation of isolated seamounts distant from active plate boundaries and mantle plumes remains unsolved. The solitary intraplate volcano Vesteris Seamount is located in the Central Greenland Basin and rises ∼3,000 m above the seafloor with a total eruptive volume of ∼800 km3. Here, we present a new high-resolution bathymetry of Vesteris Seamount and a detailed raster terrain analysis, distinguishing cones, irregular volcanic ridges, volcanic debris fans, U-shaped channels and lava flows. The slope angles, ruggedness index and slope direction were combined with backscatter images to aid geologic interpretation. The new data show that the entire structure is a northeast to southwest elongated stellar-shaped seamount with an elongated, narrow summit surrounded by irregular volcanic ridges, separated by volcanic debris fans. Whole-rock geochemical data of 78 lava samples form tight liquid lines of descent with MgO concentrations ranging from 12.6 to 0.1 wt%, implying that all lavas evolved from a similar parental magma composition. Video footage from Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives shows abundant pyroclastic and hyaloclastite deposits on the summit and on the upper flanks, whereas lavas are restricted to flank cones. The seamount likely formed above a weak zone of the lithosphere possibly related to initial rifting parallel to the nearby Mohns Ridge, but the local stress field increasingly affected the structure of the volcano as it grew larger. Thus, we conclude that the evolution of Vesteris Seamount reflects the transition from deep, regional lithospheric stresses in the older structures to shallower, local stresses within the younger volcanic structures similar to other oceanic intraplate volcanoes. Our study shows how the combination of bathymetric, visual and geochemical data can be used to decipher the geological evolution of oceanic intraplate volcanoes.