Browsing by Subject "GEOMAGNETIC-FIELD"

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  • Piispa, Elisa J.; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mitchell, Roger H. (2018)
    We present new paleomagnetic and geochemical data from a suite of the similar to 1144-Ma ultramafic lamprophyre dikes that outcrop in the Canadian Shield northeast of Lake Superior (Ontario, Canada). Nineteen of 22 sampled dikes yielded consistent characteristic remanent magnetization directions of normal (n = 5) and reversed (n = 14) polarity. The primary origin of characteristic remanent magnetization is bolstered by positive baked contact tests and a reversal test. The group mean direction (D = 306.4 degrees, I = 72.1 degrees, alpha(95) = 5.5 degrees, N = 19) obtained from the lamprophyre dikes is statistically indistinguishable from the group mean direction (D = 297.4 degrees, I = 65.5 degrees, alpha(95) = 8.3 degrees, N = 8) previously reported for the nearly coeval similar to 1142-Ma Abitibi dikes. The geochemistry of the lamprophyre dikes suggests strong affinity with magmas derived from ocean island basalt-type mantle sources, consistent with the mantle plume hypothesis for the formation of the similar to 1.1-Ga North American Midcontinent Rift. The similarity in age, trend, paleomagnetism, and geochemistry indicates that the lamprophyre and Abitibi dike suites represent the earliest magmatic event associated with the commencement of rifting. The combined mean direction (D = 303.1 degrees, I = 70.2 degrees, alpha(95) = 4.5 degrees, N = 27) corresponds to a paleomagnetic pole at P-lat = 55.8 degrees N, P-long = 220.0 degrees E (A(95) = 7.3 degrees). The new pole merits the highest classification on the Q-scale of paleomagnetic reliability and represents a key pole defining the North American apparent polar wander path during the late Mesoproterozoic. Combined with high-quality data from the similar to 1108-Ma Coldwell Complex, our data indicate an equatorward motion of Laurentia at 3.8 +/- 1.4 cm/year, comparable with the present-day velocities of continental plates, before switching to extremely rapid motion between similar to 1108 and similar to 1099 Ma. Plain Language Summary Similar to a magnetic tape, rocks can retain the direction of ancient Earth's magnetic field. Scientists use this record (known as paleomagnetism) to reconstruct past positions of continents and to decipher the geological history of our planet. We investigated paleomagnetism and chemical composition of the similar to 1.14 Ga-old intrusive rocks called lamprophyres exposed in Northwestern Ontario (Canada). We found that the paleomagnetic field directions recorded in lamprophyres are indistinguishable from those recorded by another similar age suite of basaltic intrusions called the Abitibi dikes, from the same area. The combined data from these rocks allowed us to constrain the position of an ancient supercontinent called Laurentia at similar to 1.14 billions of years ago more accurately than it was possible before. Our results convincingly show that, during that time, Laurentia moved with a velocity comparable to present-day plate velocities, before switching to an extremely rapid motion approximately 35 millions of years later. The lamprophyre and Abitibi rocks also share similar chemical signatures, close to those observed for ocean island basalts (e.g., Hawaii). These observations support the hypothesis that a failed ocean opening attempt called the North American Midcontinent Rift was instigated by the arrival of a hot mantle material upwelling to the Earth surface.
  • Bispo-Santos, Franklin; D’Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Salminen, Johanna M.; Reis, Nelson J.; Silva, Julia Massucato (2020)
    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the paleomagnetic data of the Amazonian Craton, with important geodynamic and paleogeographic implications for the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent (a.k.a., Nuna, Hudsoland). Despite recent increase of paleomagnetic data for several other cratons in Columbia, its longevity and the geodynamic processes that resulted in its formation are not well known. A paleomagnetic study was performed on rocks from the similar to 1535 Ma AMG (Anorthosite-Mangerite-Rapakivi Granite) Mucajai Complex located in the Roraima State (Brazil), in the northern portion of the Amazonian Craton, the Guiana Shield. Thermal and AF treatments revealed northwestern/southeastern directions with upward/downward inclinations for samples from twelve sites. This characteristic remanent magnetization is mainly carried by Ti-poor magnetite and in a lesser amount by hematite. Site mean directions were combined with previous results obtained for three other sites from the Mucajai Complex, producing the dual polarity mean direction: Dm = 132.2 degrees; Im = 35.4 degrees (N = 15; alpha(95) = 12.7 degrees; k = 10.0) and a paleomagnetic pole located at 0.1 degrees E, 38.2 degrees S (A(95) = 12.6 degrees; K = 10.2). The Mucajai pole favours the SAMBA (South AMerica-BAltica) link in a configuration formed by Amazonia and Baltica in Columbia. Also, there is geological and paleomagnetic evidence that the juxtaposition of Baltica and Laurentia at 1.76-1.26 Ga forms the core of Columbia. The present paleomagnetic data predict a long life 1.78-1.43 Ga SAMBA connection forming part of the core of the supercontinent. (c) 2019 International Association for Gondwana Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.