Browsing by Subject "GESTURE"

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  • Tuomenoksa, Asta; Pajo, Kati; Klippi, Anu (2016)
    This study applies conversation analysis to compare everyday conversation samples between a person with aphasia (PWA) and a familiar communication partner (CP) before and after intensive language-action therapy (ILAT). Our analysis concentrated on collaborative repair sequences with the assumption that impairment-focused therapy would translate into a change in the nature of trouble sources, which engender collaborative repair action typical of aphasic conversation. The most frequent repair initiation technique used by the CP was candidate understandings. The function of candidate understandings changed from addressing specific trouble sources pre-ILAT to concluding longer stretches of the PWA's talk post-ILAT. Alongside with these findings, we documented a clinically significant increase in the Western Aphasia Battery's aphasia quotient post-ILAT. Our results suggest that instead of mere frequency count of conversational behaviours, examining the type and function of repair actions might provide insight into therapy-related changes in conversation following impairment-focused therapy.
  • Rautakoski, Pirkko; Ursin, Piia af; Carter, Alice S.; Kaljonen, Anne; Nylund, Annette; Pihlaja, Päivi (2021)
    Introduction Studies have shown that many children with early language difficulties also have delays in social-emotional competencies as well as social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is unclear if these conditions are causally related, if they share a common underlying etiology, or if there are bidirectional effects. Studies investigating these associations have mostly involved children who are already using words to communicate, but it is important to know whether delays in preverbal communication and language development have any effects on these associations. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between preverbal communication and early verbal skills in infancy and subsequent social-emotional competencies and ensuing social-emotional and behavioral problems in early toddlerhood. The role of background factors known to influence early language development was also examined. Methods The sample consisted of 395 children (51.6% boys) from the Finnish Steps Study cohort. Language was assessed at age 13 months (+ 1 month) with the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants (CDI-I), and the social-emotional domain was assessed at age < 17 months with the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Results Infants with lower preverbal gestural communication and receptive language skills had a higher risk of delays in social-emotional competencies in toddlerhood than children with better communication skills, but not of elevated social-emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions The results indicate that lower early communication skills can predict delays in the development of social-emotional competencies, which has been found to be a risk factor for later development of social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is important to monitor early communication skills to provide guidance to parents in supporting early pragmatic communication and language development in infancy, if needed.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti (2019)
    It has been shown recently that when participants are required to pronounce a vowel at the same time with the hand movement, the vocal and manual responses are facilitated when a front vowel is produced with forward-directed hand movements and a back vowel is produced with backward-directed hand movements. This finding suggests a coupling between spatial programing of articulatory tongue movements and hand movements. The present study revealed that the same effect can be also observed in relation to directional leg movements. The study suggests that the effect operates within the common directional processes of movement planning including at least tongue, hand and leg movements, and these processes might contribute sound-to-meaning mappings to the semantic concepts of 'forward' and 'backward'.
  • Tiainen, Mikko; Lukavsky, Jiri; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Šimko, Juraj; Felisberti, Fatima; Vainio, Lari (2017)
    We have recently shown in Finnish speakers that articulation of certain vowels and consonants has a systematic influence on simultaneous grasp actions as well as on forward and backward hand movements. Here we studied whether these effects generalize to another language, namely Czech. We reasoned that if the results generalized to another language environment, it would suggest that the effects arise through other processes than language-dependent semantic associations. Rather, the effects would be likely to arise through language-independent interactions between processes that plan articulatory gestures and hand movements. Participants were presented with visual stimuli specifying articulations to be uttered (e.g., A or I), and they were required to produce a manual response concurrently with the articulation. In Experiment 1 they responded with a precision or a power grip, whereas in Experiment 2 they responded with a forward or a backward hand movement. The grip congruency effect was fully replicated: the consonant [k] and the vowel [alpha] were associated with power grip responses, while the consonant [t] and the vowel [i] were associated with precision grip responses. The forward/backward congruency effect was replicated with vowels [alpha], [o], which were associated with backward movement and with [ i], which was associated with forward movement, but not with consonants [k] and [ t]. These findings suggest that the congruency effects mostly reflect interaction between processes that plan articulatory gestures and hand movements with an exception that the forward/backward congruency effect might only work with vowel articulation.
  • Lemmetyinen, Sanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Klippi, Anu (2020)
    Background: Left hemisphere stroke often causes a severe communication disorder that is usually attributed to aphasia. While aphasia refers to linguistic problems, communication is also accomplished by voluntarily articulate and gestural movements, which may be compromised due to apraxia. Along with aphasia, apraxia is a common disorder in left hemisphere stroke, which in severe cases can limit the use of verbal and nonverbal communication methods. The discussion about apraxia from a communicative perspective is still scarce, although the disorder is regularly experienced among left hemisphere stroke patients with aphasia. The rehabilitation of the disorder in severe apraxia-aphasia is challenging and recovery is slow. Aims: The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the research on long-term recovery from apraxia and to discuss the meaning of these findings in observing the recovery of communication abilities in a person with a severe apraxia-aphasia. The search was not restricted to any specific type of apraxia, as this review assumes that communication may be influenced by apraxia in its different manifestations. The review is based on a systematic literature search, which includes English-language studies retrieved from the databases of Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Main Contribution: Seven long-term follow-up studies of apraxia were found; one case study of apraxia of speech (AOS), four group studies of ideomotor apraxia (IMA), one case study of IMA (and aphasia), and one group study of limb apraxia. Conclusions: The reviewed group studies of patients with left hemisphere stroke indicate that apraxia is a persistent disorder, but the steepest recovery occurs within the first few months post-stroke. Imitation skills and actions involving real-tool use in activities of daily functions show the best recovery. Real-tool use also continues to improve longer, while recovery of gesturing after verbal command may not show clear signs of recovery in the chronic stage post-stroke. There is some evidence that the pace of recovery from oral apraxia and limb apraxia is comparable, and recovery from apraxia and aphasia would not correlate. Some of the studies used only imitation to assess changes in gesturing, which cannot be regarded as an ecologically valid measure to compare gesturing in natural communicative situations or even gesturing after verbal command. Finally, no follow-up studies were found that would have discussed apraxia from a communicative perspective. Overall, the field is lacking research on long-term follow-up of patients with apraxic-aphasic disorder.
  • Ćwiek, Aleksandra; Fuchs, Susanne; Draxler, Christoph; Asu, Eva Liina; Dediu, Dan; Hiovain, Katri; Kawahara, Shigeto; Koutalidis, Sofia; Krifka, Manfred; Lippus, Pärtel; Lupyan, Gary; Oh, Grace E.; Paul, Jing; Petrone, Caterina; Ridouane, Rachid; Reiter, Sabine; Schümchen, Nathalie; Szalontai, Ádám; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Zeller, Jochen; Winter, Bodo; Perlman, Marcus (2021)
    Linguistic communication requires speakers to mutually agree on the meanings of words, but how does such a system first get off the ground? One solution is to rely on iconic gestures: visual signs whose form directly resembles or otherwise cues their meaning without any previously established correspondence. However, it is debated whether vocalizations could have played a similar role. We report the first extensive cross-cultural study investigating whether people from diverse linguistic backgrounds can understand novel vocalizations for a range of meanings. In two comprehension experiments, we tested whether vocalizations produced by English speakers could be understood by listeners from 28 languages from 12 language families. Listeners from each language were more accurate than chance at guessing the intended referent of the vocalizations for each of the meanings tested. Our findings challenge the often-cited idea that vocalizations have limited potential for iconic representation, demonstrating that in the absence of words people can use vocalizations to communicate a variety of meanings.