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  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Tervahartiala, Taina; Pajukanta, Riitta; Silbereisen, Angelika; Bostanci, Nagihan; Sorsa, Timo (2020)
    Background This cross-sectional study aims to investigate if a point-of-care (PoC) test of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) predicts levels of inflammation amplifier triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and its putative ligand the neutrophil peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) in saliva. Methods Forty-seven adolescents, aged 15 to 17 years, were tested with aMMP-8 PoC test, which was followed by a full-mouth clinical examination of the assessment of periodontal, mucosal, and oral health. TREM-1 and PGLYRP1 levels were analyzed by ELISA. The immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) specific for aMMP-8 was used as the reference method. Results Fourteen saliva samples out of a total of 47 showed positivity for aMMP-8 PoC test. Both the TREM-1 and the aMMP-8 (IFMA) levels were significantly elevated among the aMMP-8 PoC test positives compared with the PoC test negatives (P <0.05). Moreover, aMMP-8 levels assessed by IFMA showed a strong positive correlation with TREM-1 levels in saliva (r = 0.777, P <0.001). The number of sites with a probing depth of >= 4 mm was significantly lower among the adolescents that had a negative aMMP-8 PoC test result, and TREM-1 levels <75 pg/mL (P <0.05). In contrast, adolescents with a positive aMMP-8 PoC test result (i.e., elevated aMMP-8 levels) together with elevated TREM-1 levels had a significantly higher number of periodontal pockets with >= 4 mm (P <0.001). Conclusion The present study validated usability of aMMP-8 PoC test for predicting "proinflammatory" salivary profile and periodontal health status in adolescents.
  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Sorsa, Timo; van der Schoor, Gerrit-Jan; Tervahartiala, Taina; van der Schoor, Peter; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Heikkinen, Anna Maria (2019)
    This cross-sectional study compares the effectiveness of an active MMP-8 (aMMP-8) point-of-care (PoC)/chairside mouthrinse test to the conventional bleeding on probing (BOP) (cutoff 20%) test in detecting subclinical periodontitis/pre-periodontitis in Finnish adolescents. The study was carried out at the Kotka Health Center, Finland. A total of 47 adolescents (30 boys/17 girls) aged 15-17 were first tested with the aMMP-8 PoC test, followed by a full-mouth evaluation of clinical parameters of oral health including periodontal, oral mucosal, and caries assessment. A periodontist performed these clinical examinations. The aMMP-8 PoC test result had much stronger association with subclinical periodontitis than the BOP 20% test (2.8-5.3 times stronger in terms of odds ratio). The aMMP-8 PoC test had >= 2 times higher sensitivity than the BOP 20% test with, generally, the same specificity. Further, the aMMP-8 PoC test had generally better accuracy and lower false negative percentages. The aMMP-8 PoC test seemed to be more effective than the conventional BOP test in detecting subclinical periodontitis/pre-periodontitis in adolescents reducing the risk of their undertreatment. However, the sample size may be a limiting factor, and more studies are needed to confirm our results for both adolescents and adults.
  • Sorsa, Timo; Alassiri, Saeed; Grigoriadis, Andreas; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Sakellari, Dimitra (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of incorporating active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) as a biomarker into the new periodontitis classification system (stage/grade) presented in 2018. This study included 150 Greek adults aged 25-78, of whom 74 were men and 76 women. Participants were tested with an aMMP-8 point-of-care mouthrinse test, after which a full-mouth clinical examination was performed to assess their periodontal and oral health. The aMMP-8 levels in mouthrinse were significantly lower among healthy patients compared with patients in more severe periodontitis stages and grades (Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn-Bonferroni test for pairwise post-hoc comparisons; p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). Furthermore, aMMP-8 levels were less correlated with plaque levels than bleeding on probing (BOP) (Spearman's rho = 0.269, p <0.001; Spearman's rho = 0.586, p <0.001); respectively). Thus, aMMP-8 was more robust to the confounding effects of oral hygiene than traditional periodontal parameter bleeding on probing. The aMMP-8 point-of-care mouthrinse test can be utilized as an adjunctive and preventive diagnostic tool to identify periodontal disease, classified by stage and grade, and ongoing periodontal breakdown chairside in clinical practice in only 5 min. Overall, integrating aMMP-8 into the new periodontitis classification system seems beneficial.
  • Hernández, Marcela; Baeza, Mauricio; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Contreras, Johanna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Chaparro, Alejandra; Sorsa, Timo; Hernández-Ríos, Patricia (2021)
    Periodontitis is a host-mediated bacterial disease that affects the tooth attachment apparatus. Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), a validated biomarker, could aid in clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of active (a) MMP-8 immunotest versus total (t) MMP-8 ELISA for quantitative real-time diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis severity at the site level. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from 30 healthy, 42 mild, and 59 severe periodontitis sites from thirty-one volunteers. MMP-8 concentrations were determined by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA package. Both active and total MMP-8-based methods discriminated among sites according to periodontal diagnosis and severity, with a positive correlation between the two tests (p < 0.001). (a) MMP-8 models showed the best performance in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate between healthy and periodontitis sites (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89), while (t) MMP-8 demonstrated a high diagnostic precision in the detection of mild from severe periodontitis sites (AUC ≥ 0.80). The use of (a) MMP-8 and (t) MMP-8 could represent a useful adjunctive tool for periodontitis diagnosis and severity. These results support the applicability of new point-of-care methods in the monitoring of high-risk periodontal patients.
  • Golub, Lorne M.; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Sorsa, Timo; Preshaw, Philip M. (2020)
    Dental implants are widely utilized for the replacement of missing teeth and are increasingly being placed in patients with systemic diseases, as well as in those who are medically healthy. Furthermore, it is recognized that peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are highly prevalent, affecting large numbers of patients with implants, and it is pertinent to consider whether there may be any systemic impact of these conditions, given that there are known links between periodontitis and a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this article, we propose that the potential systemic complications of peri-implant diseases should be investigated in future clinical research, together with studies to identify whether systemically-administered host modulation therapies (HMTs) may be of benefit in the treatment of peri-implant diseases. These "HMTs" may prove a useful adjunct to routinely employed debridement and disinfection protocols, as well as potentially being of benefit in reducing risks of systemic complications. We also consider the use of chair-side diagnostic tests for active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) in the detection of peri-implant disease given the ability of such tests to detect active tissue breakdown associated with peri-implantitis and periodontitis before conventional clinical and radiographic measurements indicate pathologic changes. These novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are relevant to consider as they may improve the management of peri-implant disease (beyond local debridement procedures), especially in those patients in whom systemic inflammation might be of concern.
  • Nikinmaa, Sakari; Moilanen, Niina; Sorsa, Timo; Rantala, Juha; Alapulli, Heikki; Kotiranta, Anja; Auvinen, Petri; Kankuri, Esko; Meurman, Jukka H.; Pätilä, Tommi (2021)
    Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and first efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted antimicrobial photodynamictherapy (aPDT) as activated using LED light to the dental plaque. Methods: Fifteen healthy adults were assigned to this four-day randomized study. After rinsing with ICG, 100 J/cm(2) of 810 nm LED light was applied to the aPDT-treatment area. Plaque area and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were measured, and plaque bacteriomes before and after the study were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: aPDT administration was preformed successfully and plaque-specifically with the combination of ICG and the applicator. Total plaque area and endpoint MMP-8 levels were reduced on the aPDT-treatment side. aPDT reduced Streptococcus, Acinetobacteria, Capnocytophaga, and Rothia bacteria species in plaques. Conclusion: ICG-assisted aPDT reduces plaque forming bacteria and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-proteolytic effects.
  • Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernandez-Rios; Sorsa, Timo; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernandez (2017)
    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the protease web' is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling moleculessuch as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among othersregulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation.
  • Hernandez, Marcela; Baeza, Mauricio; Contreras, Johanna; Sorsa, Timo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Valdes, Macarena; Chaparro, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rios, Patricia (2020)
    Biomarkers represent promising aids in periodontitis, host-mediate diseases of the tooth-supporting tissues. We assessed the diagnostic potential of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5 (TRAP-5), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) to discriminate between healthy patients', mild and severe periodontitis sites. Thirty-one otherwise healthy volunteers with and without periodontal disease were enrolled at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile. Periodontal parameters were examined and gingival crevicular fluid was sampled from mild periodontitis sites (M; n = 42), severe periodontitis sites (S; n = 59), and healthy volunteer sites (H; n = 30). TRAP-5 and OPG were determined by commercial multiplex assay and MMP-8 by the immunofluorometric (IFMA) method. STATA software was used. All biomarkers showed a good discrimination performance. MMP-8 had the overall best performance in regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, with high discrimination of healthy from periodontitis sites (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.901). OPG showed a very high diagnostic precision (AUC >= 0.95) to identify severe periodontitis sites (S versus H + M), while TRAP-5 identified both healthy and severe sites. As conclusions, MMP-8, TRAP-5, and OPG present a high precision potential in the identification of periodontal disease destruction, with MMP-8 as the most accurate diagnostic biomarker.
  • Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Könönen, Eija; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gürsoy, Mervi; Pitkänen, Jari; Torvi, Paula; Suominen, Anna-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Aim To investigate the molecular forms of salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 in relation to periodontitis. Materials and Methods Molecular forms, degree of activation and fragmentation of neutrophilic and mesenchymal-type MMP-8 isoforms were analysed from salivary samples of 81 subjects with generalized periodontitis, 63 subjects with localized periodontitis and 79 subjects without pocket teeth, by using western-immunoblots with computer quantitation. In addition, human recombinant proMMP-8 was in vitro activated by Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 1 mM, oxidant) or amino phenyl mercuric acetate (APMA, 1 mM). Results In saliva of periodontitis-affected individuals, MMP-8 is found in multiple forms, that is, complexes, active and pro-forms of neutrophilic and mesenchymal-type MMP-8, and especially 20-27 kDa fragments. The quantity of these fragments was elevated in both localized and generalized forms of periodontitis. Moreover, the tested activators (Td-CTLP, NaOCl and APMA) activated inactive proMMP-8, resulting in fragments of 20-27 kDa, in vitro, and salivary concentrations of T. denticola correlated significantly with salivary levels of fragmented MMP-8. Conclusion The present results indicate that during the development and progression of periodontitis, MMP-8 appears as activated and fragmented, and treponemal proteases most likely play role in this cascade.
  • Lundmark, Anna; Johannsen, Gunnar; Eriksson, Kaja; Kats, Anna; Jansson, Leif; Tervahartiala, Taina; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Akerman, Sigvard; Klinge, Bjorn; Sorsa, Timo; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay (2017)
    Aim: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by irreversible destruction of tooth-supporting tissue including alveolar bone. We recently reported mucin 4 ( MUC4) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) as highly associated with periodontitis in gingival tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to further investigate the levels of MUC4 and MMP7 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva and GCF samples were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. The levels of MUC4, MMP7, and total protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA or Bradford assay. Results: MUC4 levels were significantly lower in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients relative to healthy controls. MMP7 levels were significantly higher in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that MUC4 was significantly associated with periodontitis after adjusting for age and smoking habits and, moreover, that the combination of MUC4 and MMP7 accurately discriminated periodontitis from healthy controls. Conclusions: MUC4 and MMP7 may be utilized as possible novel biomarkers for periodontitis.
  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Umeizudike, Kehinde A.; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo (2019)
    This study investigated the diagnostic utility of mouthrinse and saliva in aMMP-8 measurements to analyze patients' risk for active periodontal tissue destruction and progression of periodontal disease among 47 adolescents. Results show that measurements from mouthrinse produce better discrimination and should be used instead of saliva measurements. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Alvarez, Carla; Monasterio, Gustavo; Cavalla, Franco; Cordova, Luis A.; Hernandez, Marcela; Heymann, Dominique; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Sorsa, Timo; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M.; Vernal, Rolando; Kantarci, Alpdogan (2019)
    The maxillofacial skeleton is highly dynamic and requires a constant equilibrium between the bone resorption and bone formation. The field of osteoimmunology explores the interactions between bone metabolism and the immune response, providing a context to study the complex cellular and molecular networks involved in oro-maxillofacial osteolytic diseases. In this review, we present a framework for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying the immuno-pathobiology in etiologically-diverse diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial region and share bone destruction as their common clinical outcome. These otherwise different pathologies share similar inflammatory pathways mediated by central cellular players, such as macrophages, T and B cells, that promote the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, ineffective or insufficient bone apposition by osteoblasts, and the continuous production of osteoclastogenic signals by immune and local stromal cells. We also present the potential translational applications of this knowledge based on the biological mechanisms involved in the inflammation-induced bone destruction. Such applications can be the development of immune-based therapies that promote bone healing/regeneration, the identification of host-derived inflammatory/collagenolytic biomarkers as diagnostics tools, the assessment of links between oral and systemic diseases; and the characterization of genetic polymorphisms in immune or bone-related genes that will help diagnosis of susceptible individuals.
  • Hernandez-Rios, Patricia; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Vernal, Rolando; Hernandez, Marcela (2017)
    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders. Apical periodontitis (AP) usually results in the formation of an osteolytic apical lesion (AL) caused by the immune response to endodontic infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by phagocytic cells in response to bacterial challenge represent an important host defense mechanism, but disturbed redox balance results in tissue injury. This mini review focuses on the role of oxidative stress in the local and associated systemic events in chronic apical periodontitis. During endodontic infection, ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on phagocytes' surface triggers activation, phagocytosis, synthesis of ROS, activation of humoral and cellular responses, and production of inflammatory mediators, such as, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The increment in ROS perturbs the normal redox balance and shifts cells into a state of oxidative stress. ROS induce molecular damage and disturbed redox signaling, that result in the loss of bone homeostasis, increased pro-inflammatory mediators, and MMP overexpression and activation, leading to apical tissue breakdown. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been strongly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, where a chronic inflammatory process develops in the arterial wall. Chronic AP is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially atherogenesis. The potential mechanisms linking these diseases are also discussed.
  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Umeizudike, Kehinde A.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Heikkilä, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Grigoriadis, Andreas; Sakellari, Dimitra; Sorsa, Timo (2020)
    Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactorial infectious and inflammatory disease associated with several chronic systemic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease and so on. These same systemic diseases have been associated with severe COVID-19 infections. Several recent studies have suggested hypotheses for the potential association between periodontal disease and severe COVID-19. Periodontal disease is also one of the most prevalent diseases globally. All this supports the importance of good oral health, also in the COVID-19 era. Thus, new strategies and approaches to identify patients at risk of periodontal disease could be beneficial to enhance secondary prevention, especially if targeted to COVID-19 risk groups. Diagnostic biomarkers for periodontal disease have been researched extensively. Potential biomarkers in oral fluid with currently available rapid non-invasive point-of-care technology, such as aMMP-8, could help to extend screening and identification of patients at risk for periodontal disease also to situations and places where professional dental expertise and equipment are limited or unavailable. i.e., nursing and care homes, and rural and distant places. The oral fluid point-of-care technologies could also be useful in the hands of medical professionals (diabetes, CVD, etc.) to identify patients at risk for undiagnosed periodontal disease and to refer them to a dentist for examination and evaluation. Finally, if there is a causality between periodontal disease and severe COVID-19 infections, these point-of-care oral fluid biomarker technologies could possibly also help in the assessment of the risk of deterioration and complications.
  • Grigoriadis, Andreas; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Sakellari, Dimitra (2021)
    Objective: The aim of the study was to propose an efficient chairside clinical strategy for the identification of undiagnosed hyperglycaemia in periodontal clinics. Material and methods: Alpha chairside system was used for assessment of glycated hemoglobin 1c (HbA1c) and active Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 levels (aMMP-8) were analyzed by immunotest in patients (n = 150) who fulfilled the criteria for screening of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Full-mouth periodontal parameters were assessed and various data such as Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking and education were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients out of 150 tested were found with unknown hyperglycaemia (20.7%). Regarding sex, education, parent with diabetes, normal BMI, smoking, age >= 45 years and prior testing for diabetes, no differences were observed between subjects displaying HbA1c <5.7 and >= 5.7% (Pearson's Chi-square test, p > .05). Subgroups differed regarding BMI (kg/m(2)), tooth count, percentages of 4 and 5 mm pockets (Mann-Whitney and z-test, p <.05). The diagnostic performance for HbA1c >= 5.7 was tested by Receiving Operator Characteristic curves and Areas Under the Curve (AUC) for the following: age >= 45 years and BMI (AUC 0.651, p = .010), the above and aMMP-8 (AUC 0.660, p = .006), age >= 45 years, BMI and Stage of Periodontitis (AUC 0.711, p <.001) and age >= 45 years, BMI, aMMP-8 and stage of periodontitis (AUC 0.713, p <.001). Conclusions: Findings of the study suggest that the combination of stage of periodontitis, increasing age, BMI and aMMP-8, without chairside HbA1c assessment appears to be a viable screening strategy for referring dental patients for testing for prediabetes/diabetes.
  • Jäsberg, Heli; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Söderling, Eva; Haukioja, Anna (2018)
    Objective: To study the effect of orally administered Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the salivary levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in healthy adults. Furthermore, the correlations between MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and plaque and gingival indices, salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, and stimulated saliva secretion rate were analysed. Design: The salivary samples originated from a randomized controlled trial where healthy student volunteers consumed probiotic or placebo lozenges twice a day for four weeks. The saliva samples were collected and clinical parameters measured at the baseline and at the end of the original study. For this study, the salivary levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were analysed with immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the probiotic group (n = 29), salivary MMP-9 levels increased (p <0.01) and TIMP-1 levels decreased (p <0.01) significantly during the intervention. Furthermore, MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio differed significantly from the baseline level (p <0.01). These changes were not observed in the control group (n = 31). In the whole data, salivary MMP-9 and gingival index correlated (r = 0.260, p <0.05 at baseline and r = 0.354, p <0.01 at the end of the study). Intergroup differences or correlations with other clinical parameters were not found. Probiotic consumption did not affect the saliva flow rate. Conclusions: Increased MMP-9 and decreased TIMP-1 levels in saliva may indicate that probiotics have immunomodulatory effects in the oral cavity. Furthermore, increased salivary MMP-9 levels may be an indication of the defensive potential of matrix metalloproteinases.
  • Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gustafsson, Anders; Norhammar, Anna; Kjellstrom, Barbro; Klinge, Bjorn; Ryden, Lars; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; PAROKRANK Steering Grp (2015)
    Background and Objective Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -8, -9 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory mediators. The potential associations between MMP-8, -9, MPO and their abilities to reflect cardiovascular risk remains to be evaluated in saliva. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels and associations of salivary MMP-8, -9, MPO and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in myocardial infarction (MI) patients and controls with or without periodontitis. Materials and Methods 200 patients with a first MI admitted to coronary care units in Sweden from May 2010 to December 2011 and 200 controls matched for age, gender, residential area and without previous MI were included. Dental examination and saliva sample collection was performed 6-10 weeks after the MI in patients and at baseline in controls. The biomarkers MMP -8, -9, MPO and TIMP-1 were analyzed by time-resolved immunofluorescence assay (IFMA), Western blot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results After compensation for gingivitis, gingival pockets and smoking, the mean salivary levels of MMP-8 (543 vs 440 ng/mL, p = 0.003) and MPO (1899 vs 1637 ng/mL, p = 0.02) were higher in non-MI subjects compared to MI patients. MMP-8, -9 and MPO correlated positively with clinical signs of gingival/periodontal inflammation while TIMP-1 correlated mainly negatively with these signs. The levels of latent and active forms of MMP-8 did not differ between the MI and non-MI groups. Additionally, MMP-8, MPO levels and MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were significantly higher in men compared to women with MI. Conclusions This study shows that salivary levels of the analyzed biomarkers are associated with periodontal status. However, these biomarkers could not differentiate between patients with or without a MI. These findings illustrate the importance to consider the influence of oral conditions when analyzing levels of inflammatory salivary biomarkers.
  • Meurman, Jukka H.; Söder, Birgitta (2022)
    The Stockholm Studies are a series of investigations started in 1985 and still ongoing. Out of 105,798 inhabitants, aged 30 and 40 years and living in the greater Stockholm area in Sweden, 3273 subjects were randomly selected. Of them, 1676 were clinically examined focusing on oral health. The subjects were then followed up using national population and health registers in order to study associations between oral health parameters and systemic health outcomes and finally death. The 35 years of observation provides unique possibilities to analyze, for example, how periodontitis links to a number of systemic health issues. The results have consequently provided numerous new associations and confirmed earlier observations on how poor oral health is associated with heart diseases and cancer.