Browsing by Subject "GLANDS"

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  • Koskenpato, K.; Ainola, M.; Przybyla, B.; Kouri, V-P; Virkki, L.; Koskenpato, J.; Ristimaki, A.; Konttinen, Y. T. (2016)
    Objectives: Healthy human labial salivary glands produce epidermal growth factor (EGF). In Sjogren's syndrome (SS), EGF staining is diminished. SS is also associated with chronic autoimmune corpus gastritis. We therefore hypothesized that EGF secretion would be diminished in SS and that this could affect gastric target cells.Methods: Salivary EGF secretion in SS was compared to that in healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). EGF receptor (EGFR) immunoreactive cells in the gastric corpus of healthy human subjects were analysed using immunostaining.Results: Salivary secretion of EGF was diminished in SS patients (232.4, range 52.6-618.4, vs. 756.6, range 105.3-1631.6 pg/min, p=0.002). Proton-pump positive parietal cells were mostly EGFR immunoreactive whereas very few pepsinogen I (PGI)-positive cells were EGFR positive.Conclusions: As EGF is relatively acid resistant, salivary gland-derived EGF might participate in an exo/endocrine mode of parietal cell maintenance in the gastric corpus. Deficiency of salivary gland-derived EGF in SS patients may cause impairment of gastric parietal cells resulting in exposure of immunogenic cryptic antigens and loss of immunological self-tolerance.
  • Bleck, Dennis; Ma, Li; Erdene-Bymbadoo, Lkham; Brinks, Ralph; Schneider, Matthias; Tian, Li; Pongratz, Georg (2019)
    In recent years, the role of sympathetic nervous fibers in chronic inflammation has become increasingly evident. At the onset of inflammation, sympathetic activity is increased in the affected tissue. However, sympathetic fibers are largely absent from chronically inflamed tissue. Apparently, there is a very dynamic relationship between sympathetic innervation and the immune system in areas of inflammation, and hence a rapid and easy method for quantification of nerve fiber density of target organs is of great value to answer potential research questions. Currently, nervous fiber densities are either determined by tedious manual counting, which is not suitable for high throughput approaches, or by expensive automated processes relying on specialized software and high-end microscopy equipment. Usually, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is used as the marker for sympathetic fibers. In order to overcome the current quantification bottleneck with a cost-efficient alternative, an automated process was established and compared to the classic manual approach of counting TH-positive sympathetic fibers. Since TH is not exclusively expressed on sympathetic fibers, but also in a number of catecholamine-producing cells, a prerequisite for automated determination of fiber densities is to reliably distinct between cells and fibers. Therefore, an additional staining using peripherin exclusively expressed in nervous fibers as a secondary marker was established. Using this novel approach, we studied the spleens from a syndecan-3 knockout (SDC3KO) mouse line, and demonstrated equal results on SNS fiber density for both manual and automated counts (Manual counts: wildtype: 22.57 +/- 11.72 fibers per mm2; ko: 31.95 +/- 18.85 fibers per mm2; p = 0.05; Automated counts: wildtype: 31.6 +/- 18.98 fibers per mm2; ko: 45.49 +/- 19.65 fibers per mm2; p = 0.02). In conclusion, this new and simple method can be used as a high-throughput approach to reliably and quickly estimate SNS nerve fiber density in target tissues.