Browsing by Subject "GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE TEST"

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  • Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling; Zhang, Yuqing; Yap, Qai Ven; Yu, Guoqi; Soh, Shu E.; Loy, See Ling; Lau, Hui Xing; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Yap, Fabian Kok Peng; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Zhang, Jun; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2021)
    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse health outcomes for mothers and offspring. Prevalence of GDM differs by country/region due to ethnicity, lifestyle and diagnostic criteria. We compared GDM rates and risk factors in two Asian cohorts using the 1999 WHO and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Methods The Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) and the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort are prospective birth cohorts. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and medical history were collected from interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants underwent a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation. Logistic regressions were performed. Results Using the 1999 WHO criteria, the prevalence of GDM was higher in GUSTO (20.8%) compared to SBC (16.6%) (p = 0.046). Family history of hypertension and alcohol consumption were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC than in GUSTO cohort while obesity was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO. Using the IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of GDM was 14.3% in SBC versus 12.0% in GUSTO. A history of GDM was associated with higher odds of GDM in GUSTO than in SBC, while being overweight, alcohol consumption and family history of diabetes were associated with higher odds of GDM in SBC. Conclusions We observed several differential risk factors of GDM among ethnic Chinese women living in Shanghai and Singapore. These findings might be due to heterogeneity of GDM reflected in diagnostic criteria as well as in unmeasured genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors.
  • Kettunen, Jarno L. T.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija (2020)
    The last decade has revealed hundreds of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes, many especially with insulin secretion. However, the evidence for their single or combined effect on beta-cell function relies mostly on genetic association of the variants or genetic risk scores with simple traits, and few have been functionally fully characterized even in cell or animal models. Translating the measured traits into human physiology is not straightforward: none of the various indices for beta-cell function or insulin sensitivity recapitulates the dynamic interplay between glucose sensing, endogenous glucose production, insulin production and secretion, insulin clearance, insulin resistance-to name just a few factors. Because insulin sensitivity is a major determinant of physiological need of insulin, insulin secretion should be evaluated in parallel with insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, multiple physiological or pathogenic processes can either mask or unmask subtle defects in beta-cell function. Even in monogenic diabetes, a clearly pathogenic genetic variant can result in different phenotypic characteristics-or no phenotype at all. In this review, we evaluate the methods available for studying beta-cell function in humans, critically examine the evidence linking some identified variants to a specific beta-cell phenotype, and highlight areas requiring further study. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.