Browsing by Subject "GLYCOGEN-SYNTHASE KINASE-3"

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  • Tguiko, Olga; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Grace, Lalit Kumar Parameswaran; Kurg, Ants; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Lanner, Fredrik; Altmae, Signe; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    The journey of embryonic development starts at oocyte fertilization, which triggers a complex cascade of events and cellular pathways that guide early embryogenesis. Recent technological advances have greatly expanded our knowledge of cleavage-stage embryo development, which is characterized by an increased rate of whole-chromosome losses and gains, mixoploidy, and atypical cleavage morphokinetics. Embryonic aneuploidy significantly contributes to implantation failure, spontaneous miscarriage, stillbirth or congenital birth defects in both natural and assisted human reproduction. Essentially, early embryo development is strongly determined by maternal factors. Owing to considerable limitations associated with human oocyte and embryo research, the use of animal models is inevitable. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms driving the error-prone early stages of development are still poorly described. In this review, we describe known events that lead to aneuploidy in mammalian oocytes and preimplantation embryos. As the processes of oocyte and embryo development are rigorously regulated by multiple signal-transduction pathways, we explore the putative role of signaling pathways in genomic integrity maintenance. Based on the existing evidence from human and animal data, we investigate whether critical early developmental pathways, like Wnt, Hippo and MAPK, together with distinct DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways can be associated with embryo genomic instability, a question that has, so far, remained largely unexplored.
  • Kohtala, Samuel; Theilmann, Wiebke; Suomi, Tomi; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Elo, Laura L.; Rokka, Anne; Rantamaki, Tomi (2016)
    Anesthetics are widely used in medical practice and experimental research, yet the neurobiological basis governing their effects remains obscure. We have here used quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the protein phosphorylation changes produced by a 30 min isoflurane anesthesia in the adult mouse hippocampus. Altogether 318 phosphorylation alterations in total of 237 proteins between sham and isoflurane anesthesia were identified. Many of the hit proteins represent primary pharmacological targets of anesthetics. However, findings also enlighten the role of several other proteins implicated in various biological processes including neuronal excitability, brain energy homeostasis, synaptic plasticity and transmission, and microtubule function as putative (secondary) targets of anesthetics. In particular, isoflurane increases glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) phosphorylation at the inhibitory Ser(9) residue and regulates the phosphorylation of multiple proteins downstream and upstream of this promiscuous kinase that regulate diverse biological functions. Along with confirmatory Western blot data for GSK3 beta and p44/42-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase; reduced phosphorylation of the activation loop), we observed increased phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) on residues (Thr(1620,1623)) that have been shown to render its dissociation from microtubules and alterations in microtubule stability. We further demonstrate that diverse anesthetics (sevoflurane, urethane, ketamine) produce essentially similar phosphorylation changes on GSK3 beta, p44/p42-MAPK, and MAP2 as observed with isoflurane. Altogether our study demonstrates the potential of quantitative phosphoproteomics to study the mechanisms of anesthetics (and other drugs) in the mammalian brain and reveals how already a relatively brief anesthesia produces pronounced phosphorylation changes in multiple proteins in the central nervous system.
  • Leikas, Juuso V.; Kohtala, Samuel; Theilmann, Wiebke; Jalkanen, Aaro J.; Forsberg, Markus M.; Rantamaki, Tomi (2017)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK313) and neurodegenerative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease-modifying effects of novel GSK3 beta inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3 beta within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3 beta signaling in nave rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD. Deep but brief (20-min) isoflurane anesthesia exposure increased the phosphorylation of GSK3 beta at the inhibitory Ser9 residue, and induced phosphorylation of AKT(Thr308) (protein kinase B; negative regulator of GSK3 beta) in the striatum of naive rats and rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. The 6-OHDA protocol produced gradual functional deficiency within the nigrostriatal pathway, reflected as a preference for using the limb ipsilateral to the lesioned striatum at 2 weeks post 6-OHDA. Interestingly, such motor impairment was not observed in animals exposed to four consecutive isoflurane treatments (20-min anesthesia every 48 h; treatments started 7 days after 6-OHDA delivery). However, isoflurane had no effect on striatal or nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) protein levels. This brief report provides promising results regarding the therapeutic potential and neurobiological mechanisms of anesthetics in experimental models of PD and guides development of novel disease-modifying therapies.
  • Kohtala, Henrik Samuel; Theilmann, Wiebke; Rosenholm, Marko; Penna, Leena; Karabulut, Gulsum; Uusitalo, Salla; Järventausta, Kaija; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Yalcin, Ipek; Matsui, Nobuaki; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Rantamäki, Tomi (2019)
    Rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine become most evident when its psychotomimetic effects subside, but the neurobiological basis of this lag remains unclear. Laughing gas (N2O), another NMDA-R (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor) blocker, has been reported to bring antidepressant effects rapidly upon drug discontinuation. We took advantage of the exceptional pharmacokinetic properties of N2O to investigate EEG (electroencephalogram) alterations and molecular determinants of antidepressant actions during and immediately after NMDA-R blockade. Effects of the drugs on brain activity were investigated in C57BL/6 mice using quantitative EEG recordings. Western blot and qPCR were used for molecular analyses. Learned helplessness (LH) was used to assess antidepressant-like behavior. Immediate-early genes (e.g., bdnf) and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinasemarkers of neuronal excitabilitywere upregulated during N2O exposure. Notably, phosphorylation of BDNF receptor TrkB and GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3) became regulated only gradually upon N2O discontinuation, during a brain state dominated by slow EEG activity. Subanesthetic ketamine and flurothyl-induced convulsions (reminiscent of electroconvulsive therapy) also evoked slow oscillations when their acute pharmacological effects subsided. The correlation between ongoing slow EEG oscillations and TrkB-GSK3 signaling was further strengthened utilizing medetomidine, a hypnotic-sedative agent that facilitates slow oscillations directly through the activation of (2)-adrenergic autoreceptors. Medetomidine did not, however, facilitate markers of neuronal excitability or produce antidepressant-like behavioral changes in LH. Our results support a hypothesis that transient cortical excitability and the subsequent regulation of TrkB and GSK3 signaling during homeostatic emergence of slow oscillations are critical components for rapid antidepressant responses.
  • Theilmann, Wiebke; Alitalo, Okko August; Yorke, Iris; Rantamäki, Tomi Pentti Johannes (2019)
    Objectives: Deep burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia regulates signaling pathways connected with antidepressant responses in the rodent brain: activation of TrkB neurotrophin receptor and inhibition of GSK3 beta kinase (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether EEG (electroencephalogram) burst suppression correlates with these intriguing molecular alterations induced by isoflurane. Methods: Adult male mice pre-implanted with EEG recording electrodes were subjected to varying concentrations of isoflurane (1.0-2.0% ad 20 min) after which medial prefrontal cortex samples were collected for molecular analyses, and the data retrospectively correlated to EEG ( + /- burst suppression). Results: Isoflurane dose-dependently increased phosphorylation of TrkB(Y816), CREBS133 (cAMP response element binding protein), GSK3 beta(S9) and p70S6k(T412/S424). The time spent in burst suppression mode varied considerably between individual animals. Notably, a subset of animals subjected to 1.0-1.5% isoflurane showed no burst suppression. While p-GSK3 beta(S9), p-CREBS133 and p-p70S6k(T412/S424) levels were increased in the samples obtained also from these animals, p-TrkB(Y816) levels remained unaltered. Conclusions: Isoflurane dose-dependently regulates TrkB and GSK3 beta signaling and dosing associated with therapeutic outcomes in depressed patients produces most prominent effects.
  • Rantamäki, Tomi; Kohtala, Samuel (2020)
    Recent studies have strived to find an association between rapid antidepressant effects and a specific subset of pharmacological targets and molecular pathways. Here, we propose a broader hypothesis of encoding, consolidation, and renormalization in depression (ENCORE-D), which suggests that, fundamentally, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects rely on intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms evoked as a response to the acute pharmacological or physiologic effects triggered by the treatment. We review evidence that supports the notion that various treatments with a rapid onset of action, such as ketamine, electroconvulsive therapy, and sleep deprivation, share the ability to acutely excite cortical networks, which increases synaptic potentiation, alters patterns of functional connectivity, and ameliorates depressive symptoms. We proceed to examine how the initial effects are short-lived and, as such, require both consolidation during wake and maintenance throughout sleep to remain sustained. Here, we incorporate elements from the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis and theorize that the fundamental mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and sleep, particularly the homeostatic emergence of slow-wave electroencephalogram activity and the renormalization of synaptic strength, are at the center of sustained antidepressant effects. We conclude by discussing the various implications of the ENCORE-D hypothesis and offer several considerations for future experimental and clinical research. Significance Statement-Proposed molecular perspectives of rapid antidepressant effects fail to appreciate the temporal distribution of the effects of ketamine on cortical excitation and plasticity as well as the prolonged influence on depressive symptoms. The encoding, consolidation, and renormalization in depression hypothesis proposes that the lasting clinical effects can be best explained by adaptive functional and structural alterations in neural circuitries set in motion in response to the acute pharmacological effects of ketamine (i.e., changes evoked during the engagement of receptor targets such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) or other putative rapid-acting antidepressants. The present hypothesis opens a completely new avenue for conceptualizing and targeting brain mechanisms that are important for antidepressant effects wherein sleep and synaptic homeostasis are at the center stage.
  • Kohtala, S.; Alitalo, O.; Rosenholm, M.; Rozov, S.; Rantamäki, T. (2021)
    Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ketamine in rapidly alleviating depression and suicidal ideation. Intense research efforts have been undertaken to expose the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action of ketamine; however, the translation of findings into new clinical treatments has been slow. This translational gap is partially explained by a lack of understanding of the function of time and circadian timing in the complex neurobiology around ketamine. Indeed, the acute pharmacological effects of a single ketamine treatment last for only a few hours, whereas the antidepressant effects peak at around 24 hours and are sustained for the following few days. Numerous studies have investigated the acute and long-lasting neurobiological changes induced by ketamine; however, the most dramatic and fundamental change that the brain undergoes each day is rarely taken into consideration. Here, we explore the link between sleep and circadian regulation and rapid -acting antidepressant effects and summarize how diverse phenomena associated with ketamine's antidepressant actions - such as cortical excitation, synaptogenesis, and involved molecular determinants - are intimately connected with the neurobiology of wake, sleep, and circadian rhythms. We review several recently proposed hypotheses about rapid antidepressant actions, which focus on sleep or circadian regulation, and discuss their implications for ongoing research. Considering these aspects may be the last piece of the puzzle necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of rapid-acting antidepressants on the brain. (c) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Rantamaki, Tomi (2019)
    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB has been studied in the context of mood disorders and their treatments for a couple of decades. Pharmacologically diverse antidepressant drugs increase the synthesis of BDNF in the cortex (and some subcortical structures) and this effect accounts for their ability to facilitate neurotrophic processes eventually leading into heightened plasticity within the cortex. Induction of BDNF-TrkB signaling has also been associated with the mechanism of action of ketamine and more recently with some other anesthetics, even with ones not thought to possess antidepressant potential. Notably, both ketamine and conventional antidepressants activate TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling rapidly within the same time scale in the brain while electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), among the most potent inducers of BDNF, has not been unequivocally shown to produce such acute effects on TrkB. The ability of antidepressants to regulate TrkB signaling is developmentally regulated and requires an intact central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss some of these peculiarities associated with the effects of ketamine and classical antidepressants and BDNF on TrkB signaling.