Browsing by Subject "GOLD NANOPARTICLES"

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  • de Oliveira, Paulo F. M.; Quiroz, Jhon; de Oliveira, Daniela C.; Camargo, Pedro H. C. (2019)
    A mechano-colloidal approach was developed to produce Au nano-tadpoles. It comprises the generation of seeds by ball-milling from a solid mixture containing a precursor, reductant, and capping agent, followed by the dispersion of this mixture in water leading to seeded-growth to generate the target nanoparticle morphology.
  • de Oliveira, Paulo F. M.; Torresi, Roberto M.; Emmerling, Franziska; Camargo, Pedro H. C. (2020)
    Mechanochemistry is a promising alternative to solution-based protocols across the chemical sciences, enabling different types of chemistries in solvent-free and environmentally benign conditions. The use of mechanical energy to promote physical and chemical transformations has reached a high level of refinement, allowing for the design of sophisticated molecules and nanostructured materials. Among them, the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles deserves special attention due to their catalytic applications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress on the development of mechanochemical strategies for the controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. We start by covering the fundamentals of different preparation routes, namely top-down and bottom-up approaches. Next, we focus on the key examples of the mechanochemical synthesis of non-supported and supported metal nanoparticles as well as hybrid nanomaterials containing noble metals. In these examples, in addition to the principles and synthesis mechanisms, their performances in catalysis are discussed. Finally, a perspective of the field is given, where we discuss the opportunities for future work and the challenges of mechanochemical synthesis to produce well-defined noble metal nanoparticles.
  • Vergallo, Cristian; Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem; Iannotta, Dalila; Santos, Helder A.; D'Avanzo, Nicola; Dini, Luciana; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo; Di Marzio, Luisa; Christian, Celia (Springer International Publishing AG, 2021)
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Clinical responses and tolerability of conventional nano-carriers (NCs) are sometimes different from those expected in anticancer therapy. Thus, new smart drug delivery systems (DDSs) with stimuli-responsive properties and novel materials have been developed. Several clinical trials demonstrated that these DDSs have better clinical therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of many cancers than free drugs. Composition of DDSs and their surface properties increase the specific targeting of therapeutics versus cancer cells, without affecting healthy tissues, and thus limiting their toxicity versus unspecific tissues. Herein, an extensive revision of literature on NCs used as DDSs for cancer applications has been performed using the available bibliographic databases.
  • Pliatsikas, N.; Karabinaki, O.; Zarshenas, M.; Almyras, G. A.; Shtepliuk, I.; Yakimova, R.; Arvanitidis, J.; Christofilos, D.; Sarakinos, K. (2021)
    In the present work, we elucidate the interplay among energetic bombardment effects in magnetron sputtering and defect generation in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Using deposition of gold (Au) layers on single-layer graphene (SLG) as a model system, we study the effect of pressure-distance (pd) product during magnetron sputtering on the pristine SLG properties. Raman spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, shows that for pd = 8.2 Pa center dot cm, Au layer deposition causes defects in the SLG layer, which gradually diminish and eventually disappear with increasing pd to 82.5 Pa center dot cm. Stochastic and deterministic simulations of the sputtering process, the gas-phase transport, and the interaction of sputtered and plasma species with the substrate surface suggest that defects in SLG primarily emanate from ballistic damage caused by backscattered Ar atoms with energies above 100 eV. With increasing pd, and thereby gas-phase scattering, such high energy Ar species become thermalized and hence incapable of causing atomic displacements in the SLG layer. The overall results of our study suggest that control of backscattered Ar energy is a potential path toward enabling magnetron sputtering for fabrication of multifunctional metal contacts in devices founded upon 2D materials.
  • de Oliveira, Paulo F. M.; Michalchuk, Adam A. L.; Marquardt, Julien; Feiler, Torvid; Prinz, Carsten; Torresi, Roberto M.; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Emmerling, Franziska (2020)
    Control over the bottom up synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NP) depends on many experimental factors, including the choice of stabilising and reducing agents. By selectively manipulating these species, it is possible to control NP characteristics through solution-phase synthesis strategies. It is not known, however, whether NPs produced from mechanochemical syntheses are governed by the same rules. Using the Au NPs mechanosynthesis as a model system, we investigate how a series of common reducing agents affect both the reduction kinetics and size of Au NPs. It is shown that the relative effects of reducing agents on mechanochemical NP synthesis differ significantly from their role in analogous solution-phase reactions. Hence, strategies developed for control over NP growth in solution are not directly transferrable to environmentally benign mechanochemical approaches. This work demonstrates a clear need for dedicated, systematic studies on NP mechanosynthesis.
  • Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida Ferreira, Monica; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Wound infection is a localized pathological defect in which microorganisms invade skin lesions and decelerate the healing process by triggering inflammation and preventing reepithelization via rapid colonization or biofilm formation [1]. Studies have demonstrated that microorganisms can be seen to accumulate in 6% of acute wounds and over 90% of chronic ones, denoting a therapeutic challenge due to their resistance to conventional antibiotics [2]. This demonstrates that bacterial infections in wounds can become more severe over time and increase healthcare costs when left untreated. To circumvent the above-mentioned challenge, various nanotechnological advancements are under investigation to develop economically viable, multifunctional, potent and ecofriendly therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action as new sources of antibacterial agent [3]. Cutaneous wound healing usually involves topical delivery, which makes nanotherapeutics relatively easy to formulate, generally as wound dressings. Nanomaterials employed for this purpose either exhibit intrinsic properties beneficial for wound treatment and/or can be used as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents [3]. In this editorial, we aim to provide a balanced discussion on the fundamental aspects of antimicrobial nanodots for wound repair. We focus on the potential of organic and inorganic nanodots/quantum dots (QDs), tiny zero-dimensional particles of small size (usually smaller than 50 nm), for the promotion of wound healing through inhibition of bacterial growth in the skin lesion or overcoming developed antibiotic resistance in the local infections. Current challenges and possible future research directions are also presented.
  • Qiao, Yue; Ping, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Fengyong; Yu, Yinhui; Xie, Tingting; Li, Wanli; Zhong, Danni; Zhang, Yuezhou; Yao, Ke; Almeida Santos, Helder; Zhou, Min (2019)
    Chronic nonhealing wounds have imposed serious challenges in the clinical practice, especially for the patients infected with multidrug-resistant microbes. Herein, we developed an ultrasmall copper sulfide (covellite) nanodots (CuS NDs) based dual functional nanosystem to cure multidrug-resistant bacteria-infected chronic nonhealing wound. The nanosystem could eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria and expedite wound healing simultaneously owing to the photothermal effect and remote control of copper-ion release. The antibacterial results indicated that the combination treatment of photothermal CuS NDs with photothermal effect initiated a strong antibacterial effect for drug-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, the released Cu2+ could promote fibroblast cell migration and endothelial cell angiogenesis, thus accelerating wound-healing effects. In MRSA-infected diabetic mice model, the nanosystem exhibited synergistic wound healing effect of infectious wounds in vivo and demonstrated negligible toxicity and nonspecific damage to major organs. The combination of ultrasmall CuS NDs with photothermal therapy displayed enhanced therapeutic efficacy for chronic nonhealing wound in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, which may represent a promising class of antibacterial strategy for clinical translation.
  • Ribeiro de Barros, Heloise; Garcia, Isabel; Kuttner, Christian; Zeballos, Nicoll; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Cordoba de Torresi, Susana Ines; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Liz-Marzan, Luis M. (2021)
    The use of light as an external stimulus to control the enzyme activity is an emerging strategy that enables accurate, remote, and noninvasive biotransformations. In this context, immobilization of enzymes on plasmonic nanoparticles offers an opportunity to create light-responsive biocatalytic materials. Nevertheless, a fundamental and mechanistic understanding of the effects of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation on enzyme regulation remains elusive. We herein investigate the plasmonic effects on biocatalysis using Au nanospheres (AuNSp) and nanostars (AuNSt) as model plasmonic nanoparticles, lipase from Candida antarctica fraction B (CALB) as a proof-of-concept enzyme, and 808 nm as near-infrared light excitation. Our data show that LSPR excitation enables an enhancement of 58% in the enzyme activity for CALB adsorbed on AuNSt, compared with the dark conditions. This work shows how photothermal heating over the LSPR excitation enhances the CALB activity through favoring product release in the last step of the enzyme mechanism. We propose that the results reported herein shed important mechanistic and kinetic insights into the field of plasmonic biocatalysis and may inspire the rational development of plasmonic nanomaterial-enzyme hybrids with tailored activities under external light irradiation.
  • Bunker, Alex; Rog, Tomasz (2020)
    In this review, we outline the growing role that molecular dynamics simulation is able to play as a design tool in drug delivery. We cover both the pharmaceutical and computational backgrounds, in a pedagogical fashion, as this review is designed to be equally accessible to pharmaceutical researchers interested in what this new computational tool is capable of and experts in molecular modeling who wish to pursue pharmaceutical applications as a context for their research. The field has become too broad for us to concisely describe all work that has been carried out; many comprehensive reviews on subtopics of this area are cited. We discuss the insight molecular dynamics modeling has provided in dissolution and solubility, however, the majority of the discussion is focused on nanomedicine: the development of nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Here we focus on three areas where molecular dynamics modeling has had a particularly strong impact: (1) behavior in the bloodstream and protective polymer corona, (2) Drug loading and controlled release, and (3) Nanoparticle interaction with both model and biological membranes. We conclude with some thoughts on the role that molecular dynamics simulation can grow to play in the development of new drug delivery systems.
  • Ye, Yang; He, Jian; Qiao, Yue; Qi, Yuchen; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A.; Zhong, Danni; Li, Wanlin; Hua, Shiyuan; Wang, Wei; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ke Yao, Ke Yao; Zhou, Min (2020)
    Rationale: Endophthalmitis, which is one of the severest complications of cataract surgeries, can seriously threaten vision and even lead to irreversible blindness owing to its complicated microenvironment, including both local bacterial infection and severe inflammation. It is urgent to develop a comprehensive treatment for both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: Herein, we developed AuAgCu2O-bromfenac sodium nanoparticles (AuAgCu2O-BS NPs), which was designed to combine anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects for integrated therapy of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The AuAgCu2O-BS NPs could eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial strain relied on their photodynamic effects and the release of metal ions (Ag+ and Cu+) by the hollow AuAgCu2O nanostructures mediated mild photothermal effects. The anti-inflammatory drug, bromfenac sodium, released from the nanoparticles were able to significantly reduce the local inflammation of the endophthalmitis and promote tissue rehabilitation. In vivo bacterial elimination and anti-inflammation were confirmed by a postcataract endophthalmitis rabbit model. Results: Excellent antibacterial ability of AuAgCu2O-BS NPs was verified both in vitro and in vivo. Ophthalmological clinical observation and pathologic histology analysis showed prominent treatment of inflammatory reaction. Importantly, the mild temperature photothermal effect not only promoted the release of metal ions and bromfenac sodium but also avoided the thermal damage of the surrounding tissues, which was more suitable for the practical application of ophthalmology due to the complex structure of the eyeball. Moreover, superior biocompatibility was approved by the preliminary toxicity investigations, including low cytotoxicity, negligible damage to major organs, and stable intraocular pressure. Conclusions: Our studies of nanosystem provide a promising synergic therapeutic strategy for postcataract endophthalmitis treatment with favorable prognosis and promise in clinical translations.
  • Gallud, Audrey; Delaval, Mathilde; Kinaret, Pia; Marwah, Veer Singh; Fortino, Vittorio; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Zubarev, Roman; Skoog, Tiina; Kere, Juha; Correia, Manuel; Loeschner, Katrin; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier; Monopoli, Marco; Handy, Richard; Moya, Sergio; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri; Greco, Dario; Fadeel, Bengt (2020)
    Despite considerable efforts, the properties that drive the cytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) remain poorly understood. Here, the authors inverstigate a panel of 31 ENMs with different core chemistries and a variety of surface modifications using conventional in vitro assays coupled with omics-based approaches. Cytotoxicity screening and multiplex-based cytokine profiling reveals a good concordance between primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the human monocyte-like cell line THP-1. Proteomics analysis following a low-dose exposure of cells suggests a nonspecific stress response to ENMs, while microarray-based profiling reveals significant changes in gene expression as a function of both surface modification and core chemistry. Pathway analysis highlights that the ENMs with cationic surfaces that are shown to elicit cytotoxicity downregulated DNA replication and cell cycle responses, while inflammatory responses are upregulated. These findings are validated using cell-based assays. Notably, certain small, PEGylated ENMs are found to be noncytotoxic yet they induce transcriptional responses reminiscent of viruses. In sum, using a multiparametric approach, it is shown that surface chemistry is a key determinant of cellular responses to ENMs. The data also reveal that cytotoxicity, determined by conventional in vitro assays, does not necessarily correlate with transcriptional effects of ENMs.
  • Bondarenko, Olesja; Saarma, Mart (2021)
    Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are small secreted proteins that support the development, maturation and survival of neurons. NTFs injected into the brain rescue and regenerate certain neuronal populations lost in neurodegenerative diseases, demonstrating the potential of NTFs to cure the diseases rather than simply alleviating the symptoms. NTFs (as the vast majority of molecules) do not pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore, are delivered directly into the brain of patients using costly and risky intracranial surgery. The delivery efficacy and poor diffusion of some NTFs inside the brain are considered the major problems behind their modest effects in clinical trials. Thus, there is a great need for NTFs to be delivered systemically thereby avoiding intracranial surgery. Nanoparticles (NPs), particles with the size dimensions of 1-100 nm, can be used to stabilize NTFs and facilitate their transport through the BBB. Several studies have shown that NTFs can be loaded into or attached onto NPs, administered systemically and transported to the brain. To improve the NP-mediated NTF delivery through the BBB, the surface of NPs can be functionalized with specific ligands such as transferrin, insulin, lactoferrin, apolipoproteins, antibodies or short peptides that will be recognized and internalized by the respective receptors on brain endothelial cells. In this review, we elaborate on the most suitable NTF delivery methods and envision "ideal" NTF for Parkinson's disease (PD) and clinical trial thereof. We shortly summarize clinical trials of four NTFs, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), that were tested in PD patients, focusing mainly on GDNF and CDNF. We summarize current possibilities of NP-mediated delivery of NTFs to the brain and discuss whether NPs have impact in improving the properties of NTFs and delivery across the BBB. Emerging delivery approaches and future directions of NTF-based nanomedicine are also discussed.
  • Kumar, Ajay; Choudhary, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashish; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Krishnan, Venkata (2022)
    Plasmonic photocatalysis has emerged as a prominent and growing field. It enables the efficient use of sunlight as an abundant and renewable energy source to drive a myriad of chemical reactions. For instance, plasmonic photocatalysis in materials comprising TiO2 and plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) enables effective charge carrier separation and the tuning of optical response to longer wavelength regions (visible and near infrared). In fact, TiO2-based materials and plasmonic effects are at the forefront of heterogeneous photocatalysis, having applications in energy conversion, production of liquid fuels, wastewater treatment, nitrogen fixation, and organic synthesis. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the fundamentals and to provide the guidelines for future work in the field of TiO2-based plasmonic photocatalysis comprising the above-mentioned applications. The concepts and state-of-the-art description of important parameters including the formation of Schottky junctions, hot electron generation and transfer, near field electromagnetic enhancement, plasmon resonance energy transfer, scattering, and photothermal heating effects have been covered in this review. Synthetic approaches and the effect of various physicochemical parameters in plasmon-mediated TiO2-based materials on performances are discussed. It is envisioned that this review may inspire and provide insights into the rational development of the next generation of TiO2-based plasmonic photocatalysts with target performances and enhanced selectivities.
  • Fernandes, Arthur B.; Pavliuk, Mariia; Paun, Cristina; Carvalho, Alexandrina C.; Nomura, Cassiana S.; Lewin, Erik; Lindblad, Rebecka; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Sa, Jacinto; Bastos, Erick L. (2020)
    Metal nanoparticles have been widely exploited in catalysis, but their full impact on the environment and human health is still under debate. Here we describe the one-step fabrication of recoverable and reusable polymer microbead-supported metal and metal oxide nanocatalysts for application in batch reactions and flow systems. Au, Ag, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared directly at the surface of commercial benzylamine-coated spherical polymer beads in water by using low-energy microwave radiation for 5 min. The functionalization of microbead surface with betalamic acid, an antioxidant from plant origin, before irradiation changes the morphology and catalytic properties of the grafted nanoparticles. No leaching of the active phase was observed during the application of these effective and ready-to-use nanocatalysts on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. The supported nanocatalysts were recovered by filtration and/or magnetic separation and reused up to three times without significant drop in catalytic performance. These results can stimulate the controlled and facile synthesis of recoverable microbead-supported magnetic and nonmagnetic nanocatalysts that can be applied under myriad reaction conditions and reused multiple times.
  • Lajunen, Tatu; Nurmi, Riikka; Wilbie, Danny; Ruoslahti, Teemu; Johansson, Niklas G.; Korhonen, Ossi; Rog, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto (2018)
    Light triggered drug delivery systems offer attractive possibilities for sophisticated therapy, providing both temporal and spatial control of drug release. We have developed light triggered liposomes with clinically approved indocyanine green (ICG) as the light sensitizing compound. Amphiphilic ICG can be localized in different compartments of the liposomes, but the effect of its presence, on both triggered release and long term stability, has not been studied. In this work, we report that ICG localization has a significant effect on the properties of the liposomes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating of the liposomes leads to binding and stabilization of the ICG molecules on the surface of the lipid bilayer. This formulation showed both good storage stability in buffer solution (at +4-37 degrees C) and adequate stability in serum and vitreous (at +37 degrees C). The combination of ICG within the lipid bilayer and PEG coating lead to poor stability at elevated temperatures of +22 degrees C and +37 degrees C. The mechanisms of the increased instability due to ICG insertion in the lipid bilayer was elucidated with molecular dynamics simulations. Significant PEG insertion into the bilayer was induced in the presence of ICG in the lipid bilayer. Finally, feasibility of freeze-drying as a long term storage method for the ICG liposomes was demonstrated. Overall, this is the first detailed study on the interactions of lipid bilayer, light sensitizer (ICG) and PEG coating on the liposome stability. The localization of the light triggering agent significantly alters the structure of the liposomes and it is important to consider these aspects in triggered drug delivery system design.
  • Maleki, Reza; Khedri, Mohammad; Rezvantalab, Sima; Afsharchi, Fatemeh; Musaie, Kiyan; Shafiee, Sepehr; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali (2021)
    Cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded beta-amyloid (A beta) proteins is the main culprit suspected to be behind the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, A beta interactions with the novel two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as therapeutic options for avoiding beta-amyloid aggregation have been investigated. The results from multi-scale atomistic simulations suggest that amine-functionalized COFs with a large surface area (more than 1000 m(2)/gr) have the potential to prevent A beta aggregation. Gibb's free energy analysis confirmed that COFs could prevent protofibril self-assembly in addition to inhibiting beta-amyloid aggregation. Additionally, it was observed that the amine functional group and high contact area could improve the inhibitory effect of COFs on A beta aggregation and enhance the diffusivity of COFs through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In addition, microsecond coarse-grained (CG) simulations with three hundred amyloids reveal that the presence of COFs creates instability in the structure of amyloids and consequently prevents the fibrillation. These results suggest promising applications of engineered COFs in the treatment of AD and provide a new perspective on future experimental research.