Browsing by Subject "GPR"

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  • Kohout, Tomas; Bucko, Michal; Rasmus, Kai; Leppäranta, Matti; Matero, Ilkka (2014)
    Non-invasive geophysical prospecting and a thermodynamic model were used to examine the structure, depth and lateral extent of the frozen core of a palsa near Lake Peerajärvi, in northwest Finland. A simple thermodynamic model verified that the current climatic conditions in the study area allow sustainable palsa development. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the palsa under both winter and summer conditions revealed its internal structure and the size of its frozen core. GPR imaging in summer detected the upper peat/core boundary, and imaging in winter detected a deep reflector that probably represents the lower core boundary. This indicates that only a combined summer and winter GPR survey completely reveals the lateral and vertical extent of the frozen core of the palsa. The core underlies the active layer at a depth of ~0.6 m and extends to about 4 m depth. Its lateral extent is ~15 m x ~30 m. The presence of the frozen core could also be traced as minima in surface temperature and ground conductivity measurements. These field methods and thermodynamic models can be utilized in studies of climate impact on Arctic wetlands.
  • Joronen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Weak zones in bedrock might have an impact on the environment, safety and costs of rock construction projects. It is possible to locate them already in the pre-investigation stage with geophysical measurements. This study utilizes ground penetrating radar (GPR) data, seismic refraction data and the data from geological mapping aggregated during the first stage of the West Metro project, more specifically from two of its station areas (Keilaniemi and Otaniemi). The GPR and seismic refraction surveys are cost-effective ways to investigate the ground and the bedrock. Both methods are based on detecting waves – seismic and electromagnetic, respectively – on the surface after they have been transmitted and have travelled through the ground. In this study the West Metro geophysical data was re-examined with new methods to improve the analysis, specifically, the detection of the weak zones. Tomographic velocity models were produced from the seismic data. The processing of the GPR data was done so that especially the bedrock structures would be interpretable. It was noticed in the early stage of this study that the available refraction data was not necessarily suitable for seismic tomography. Despite this, processing of the data with new methods did produce new, improved results. From all the weak zones that were mapped in this study, eight were located close to the reviewed geophysical survey lines. From those eight, 75 % were detected with geophysical methods. Also, other possible structures of the bedrock were discovered with geophysical methods but were not detected during the geological mapping. Anomalies were detected in both the seismic tomography and the GPR results. These anomalies could be interpreted as weak zones. However, without reference data, the interpretation of the source of the GPR reflections and the seismic velocity deviations can not be confirmed. The most important conclusion of this study is that by using geophysical measurements it is possible to detect weak zones, and that such measurements should be used more in rock construction projects for bedrock assessments. The exact purpose for the use of geophysical methods should be taken into account already when planning the geophysical surveys to ensure best possible data for the purpose.
  • McKevitt, Bláthnaid (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Phosphate is reported to be subject to “high supply risk” by the EU Commission (European Commission 2017). At present, the Siilinjärvi mine in Finland is the only mine in the EU producing phosphate. Optimising the productivity of the Siilinjärvi mine is crucial to address the demand for phosphate within the EU. The current production prognosis of the mine is to the end of 2035. To improve the prognosis of the mine, an exploration program is being undertaken to investigate the extent of the deposit and possible locations for new pits. The main area of interest is the area south of the current Särkijärvi pit. Exploration drilling is limited in this area due to obstacles created by infrastructure of the mine, including the factory area and gypsum pile. To address this, 3D passive source seismic, 2D active-source reflection seismic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and magnetic surveys were conducted at the Siilinjärvi mine site as part of the H2020 Smart Exploration project. This study focuses on two of the acquired active-source seismic reflection profiles, SM2 and SM3. The aim of the study is to determine the depth and lateral extent southern continuation of the deposit in the area south of the Särkijärvi pit, next to the gypsum pile, and create a 3D model of the Siilinjärvi deposit based on the obtained results. In addition, obtaining information on waste rocks and zones of weakness, such as shear and fracture zones, is also of interest as this information is critical for mine planning. The main focus for seismic data processing was to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Strong amplitude S-waves and unclear first-breaks were limitations found in the data. As a consequence, in addition to bandpass filtering, seismic line SM2 required a combination of attenuation and muting to supress the impact of S- waves. Seismic line SM3 had a lower data quality in comparison to that of SM2. The suppression of S- waves had a negative impact on the near-surface reflections along SM3 and therefore was not carried out. The GPR and magnetic data were processed using standard workflows. The active-source seismic survey was successful in determining the depth and the lateral extent of the southern continuation of the Siilinjärvi deposit. A 3D model of the deposit was created based on the obtained seismic images. This model expands on the previous model and indicates that the carbonatite- glimmerite deposit expands towards the W, beneath the gypsum pile. This information can be used as a guide for future drilling in the area. In addition, information was obtained on zones of weakness and the waste-rock dike network. Sub-horizontal to gently dipping reflections observed in the seismic data were interpreted as diabase dikes. On a smaller scale, GPR measurements detected shallower near-surface features which are also interpreted to possibly be dikes. For some features, a correlation could be made between the various geophysical measurements. The carbonatite-glimmerite deposit was found to be associated with elevated magnetic total field (nT) values.
  • Nurmilaukas, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The condition of Tahmelanlähde spring in city of Tampere has been under discussion for over two decades. Between 1906–1966, the spring was being used for municipal water supply and the water quality was good. The quality of discharging groundwater has since heavily deteriorated, bearing now high concentrations of iron, manganese, nitrogen, phosphorus and very low oxygen. The cause of this deterioration has remained unclear. The aims of this study were to increase the hydrogeological knowledge of Tahmela-Pispala area in order to get a better understanding of the regional groundwater flow patterns and sources of the groundwater discharging at the artesian spring area, to assess the cause for the spring deterioration and to give suggestions to a possible rehabilitation plan. Tahmelanlähde spring is located on a clay or silt soil under artesian circumstances, down the southern slope of Pispalanharju interlobate esker formation. The esker forms a longitudinal neck between Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi, rising up to 160 meters above sea level. The water level of Lake Näsijärvi is approx. 95 m a.s.l. and the water level of Lake Pyhäjärvi approx. 77 m a.s.l. Considering the distance of only a few hundred meters between these two lakes, the difference of 18 meters in the lake water levels is quite unusual in Finland’s geological context, especially because the lakes are separated by a major esker formation. For the assessment of the hydrogeological features in the study area we had two field campaigns including ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, thermal infrared survey using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-TIR), measuring of water tables as well as water sampling from springs, surface water bodies, groundwater observation wells and groundwater discharging into the Lake Pyhäjärvi. 23 water samples were analyzed for main ion composition, stable isotopic (δ18O / δD) composition, pH, EC and trace elements such as iron and manganese. 14 samples were additionally analyzed for CODMn, N, P, O and microbial indicators. Some previous studies have suggested infiltration of Lake Näsijärvi water into the esker. Our results reveal that most of the groundwater in the Pispalanharju area contain a variable amount of surface water component. The samples east from the spring present good-quality groundwater and show nonexistent surface water impact. This and the complex sedimentology revealed by the GPR survey indicate that the regional groundwater flow patterns are not simple and there are at least two water components with different origins discharging at Tahmelanlähde spring. The results imply that the primary cause for the spring deterioration could be a major shift in the groundwater – surface water interaction in the northern esker area, probably driven by urbanization and the heavy construction during the last few decades. The study was a collaboration between the City of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Center for Economic Development, Transport and Environment (ELY Center) and University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography.